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Sun Aug 29 03:39:55 2010 UTC (3 years, 7 months ago) by nightmorph
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rewrite X guide for KMS, open-source drivers, and whatnot. inspired by bug 328001.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.39 2010/05/23 21:31:50 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift"/>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13 </author>
14
15 <abstract>
16 Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17 environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18 install it and what the various configuration options are.
19 </abstract>
20
21 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 <license/>
24
25 <version>2</version>
26 <date>2010-08-28</date>
27
28 <chapter>
29 <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30 <section>
31 <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36 Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37 by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38 do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39 environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44 interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45 <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46 a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47 </p>
48
49 <p>
50 As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53 commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54 and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55 </p>
56
57 <p>
58 The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59 user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60 the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62 The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63 </p>
64
65 </body>
66 </section>
67 <section>
68 <title>The X.org Project</title>
69 <body>
70
71 <p>
72 The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74 system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75 </p>
76
77 <p>
78 Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79 you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80 are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81 one.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </section>
86 </chapter>
87
88 <chapter>
89 <title>Installing Xorg</title>
90 <section>
91 <body>
92
93 <p>
94 Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95 we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96 prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97 are built and installed.
98 </p>
99
100 </body>
101 </section>
102 <section>
103 <title>Input driver support</title>
104 <body>
105
106 <p>
107 By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108 activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109 configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110 Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
111 </p>
112
113 <pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
114 Device Drivers ---&gt;
115 Input device support ---&gt;
116 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117 </pre>
118
119 </body>
120 </section>
121 <section>
122 <title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123 <body>
124
125 <p>
126 Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127 an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128 built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129 other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130 <b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131 </p>
132
133 <p>
134 First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135 Xorg video driver you're using.
136 </p>
137
138 <pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139 Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Graphics support ---&gt;
141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143
144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145 Console display driver support ---&gt;
146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147 </pre>
148
149 <p>
150 Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151 Intel, nVidia, and ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152 your card below.
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 For Intel cards:
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="Intel settings">
160 Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166 i915 driver
167 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168 </pre>
169
170 <p>
171 For nVidia cards:
172 </p>
173
174 <pre caption="nVidia settings">
175 <comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176 Device Drivers ---&gt;
177 Graphics support ---&gt;
178 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179
180 <comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181 Device Drivers ---&gt;
182 Staging drivers ---&gt;
183 [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185 </pre>
186
187 <p>
188 For newer ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189 up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c>. Once you have installed
190 <c>radeon-ucode</c>, configure your kernel as shown:
191 </p>
192
193 <pre caption="ATI settings">
194 <comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
195 Device Drivers ---&gt;
196 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
197 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
198 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
199 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
200 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
201 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
202 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
203 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
204 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
205 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
206 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
207
208 <comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
209 Device Drivers ---&gt;
210 Graphics support ---&gt;
211 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
212 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
213 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
214 </pre>
215
216 <note>
217 Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
218 package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
219 and ATI Radeon modesetting.
220 </note>
221
222 <p>
223 Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
224 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
225 </p>
226
227 </body>
228 </section>
229 <section>
230 <title>make.conf configuration</title>
231 <body>
232
233 <p>
234 Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
235 in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
236 </p>
237
238 <p>
239 The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
240 that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
241 The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
242 for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
243 drivers.
244 </p>
245
246 <note>
247 You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and ATI, <c>nvidia</c> and
248 <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
249 beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
250 link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
251 link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
252 drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
253 </note>
254
255 <p>
256 The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
257 integrated graphics chipsets.
258 </p>
259
260 <note>
261 <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
262 space.
263 </note>
264
265 <p>
266 The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
267 drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
268 <c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
269 devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
270 <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
271 </p>
272
273 <p>
274 Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
275 the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
276 </p>
277
278 <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
279 <comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
280 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
281 <comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
282 VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
283 <comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
284 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
285 </pre>
286
287 <p>
288 If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
289 xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
290 your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
291 touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
292 </p>
293
294 <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
295 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
296
297 These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
298
299 Calculating dependencies... done!
300 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.8 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
301 -acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
302 -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
303 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
304 (-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
305 -nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -radeonhd -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage
306 -siliconmotion -sis -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb)
307 (-sunleo) (-suntcx) -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox
308 -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)" 0 kB
309 </pre>
310
311 <p>
312 After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
313 </p>
314
315 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
316 # <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
317 </pre>
318
319 <note>
320 You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
321 lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
322 <c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
323 packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
324 many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
325 </note>
326
327 <p>
328 When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
329 environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
330 by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
331 </p>
332
333 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
334 # <i>env-update</i>
335 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
336 </pre>
337
338 <p>
339 Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
340 automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
341 environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
342 just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
343 link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
344 </p>
345
346 <pre caption="Starting HAL">
347 # <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
348 # <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
349 </pre>
350
351 </body>
352 </section>
353 </chapter>
354
355 <chapter>
356 <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
357 <section id="using_hal">
358 <title>Using HAL</title>
359 <body>
360
361 <p>
362 The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
363 Xorg's configuration files.
364 </p>
365
366 <p>
367 You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
368 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
369 </p>
370
371 <p>
372 If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
373 keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
374 configuration files.
375 </p>
376
377 <p>
378 By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
379 devices such as keyboards and mice.
380 </p>
381
382 <p>
383 HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
384 files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
385 that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
386 <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
387 </p>
388
389 <impo>
390 Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
391 you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
392 location.
393 </impo>
394
395 <p>
396 For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
397 the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
398 </p>
399
400 <pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
401 # <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
402 # <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
403 </pre>
404
405 <p>
406 There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
407 may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
408 management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
409 <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
410 </p>
411
412 <impo>
413 Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
414 need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
415 </impo>
416
417 <p>
418 You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
419 liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
420 functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
421 </p>
422
423 <p>
424 One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
425 Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
426 etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
427 </p>
428
429 <p>
430 Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
431 can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
432 <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
433 line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
434 </p>
435
436 <pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
437 <comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
438 # <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
439 <comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
440 &lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
441 <comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
442 &lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
443 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
444 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
445 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
446 string="Linux"&gt;
447 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
448 &lt;/match&gt;
449 &lt;/match&gt;
450 </pre>
451
452 <p>
453 Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
454 changes.
455 </p>
456
457 <p>
458 There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
459 useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
460 tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
461 key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
462 way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
463 </p>
464
465 <p>
466 Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
467 If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
468 manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
469 </p>
470
471 </body>
472 </section>
473 <section>
474 <title>The xorg.conf file</title>
475 <body>
476
477 <note>
478 Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It
479 really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your
480 configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working
481 configuration, then read on.
482 </note>
483
484 <p>
485 The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides
486 in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as
487 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own
488 configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more
489 documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
490 </p>
491
492 <pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
493 $ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
494 </pre>
495
496 </body>
497 </section>
498 <section>
499 <title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
500 <body>
501
502 <p>
503 Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
504 will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
505 running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
506 resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
507 working) Xorg configuration file.
508 </p>
509
510 <pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
511 # <i>Xorg -configure</i>
512 </pre>
513
514 <p>
515 Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
516 probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
517 manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
518 will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
519 for you to test. So let's test. :)
520 </p>
521
522 <pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
523 # <i>X -retro -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
524 </pre>
525
526 <p>
527 If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
528 your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
529 to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
530 You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
531 </p>
532
533 </body>
534 </section>
535 <section>
536 <title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
537 <body>
538
539 <p>
540 Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
541 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
542 <c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
543 </p>
544
545 <pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
546 # <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
547 </pre>
548
549 </body>
550 </section>
551 <section id="using_startx">
552 <title>Using startx</title>
553 <body>
554
555 <p>
556 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
557 that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X server and some
558 graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
559 using the following logic:
560 </p>
561
562 <ul>
563 <li>
564 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
565 execute the commands listed there.
566 </li>
567 <li>
568 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
569 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
570 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
571 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
572 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
573 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
574 and set the default X session to <uri
575 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>.
576 </li>
577 </ul>
578
579 <pre caption="Starting X">
580 $ <i>startx</i>
581 </pre>
582
583 <p>
584 You can kill the X session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This
585 will, however, make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always
586 want.
587 </p>
588
589 <p>
590 If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
591 Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
592 <c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
593 </p>
594
595 <p>
596 Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few xterm
597 windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working correctly.
598 Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm xterm</c> as
599 root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once you've setup a
600 proper desktop environment.
601 </p>
602
603 </body>
604 </section>
605 </chapter>
606
607 <chapter>
608 <title>Tweaking X settings</title>
609 <section>
610 <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
611 <body>
612
613 <p>
614 If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
615 sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
616 the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server
617 will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If
618 this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in
619 the second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
620 </p>
621
622 <p>
623 What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
624 <c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
625 For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
626 section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
627 look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
628 </p>
629
630 <warn>
631 Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
632 without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
633 incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
634 worst.
635 </warn>
636
637 <p>
638 Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
639 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our
640 X server starts at 1440x900 by default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are
641 examples and will most likely differ from the settings on your system. However,
642 the <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
643 monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
644 need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
645 argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
646 <c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
647 </p>
648
649 <pre caption="Changing the Monitor section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
650 Section "Device"
651 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
652 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
653 EndSection
654 Section "Monitor"
655 Identifier "DVI screen"
656 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
657 EndSection
658 </pre>
659
660 <p>
661 Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
662 </p>
663
664 </body>
665 </section>
666 <section>
667 <title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
668 <body>
669
670 <p>
671 To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
672 <path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
673 <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
674 </p>
675
676 <pre caption="Using an existing config file">
677 # <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2 > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
678 </pre>
679
680 <p>
681 Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the
682 Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain
683 (<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>).
684 </p>
685
686 <p>
687 When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure
688 that HAL picks up your configuration file changes.
689 </p>
690
691 </body>
692 </section>
693 <section>
694 <title>Finishing up</title>
695 <body>
696
697 <p>
698 Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
699 (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
700 useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or
701 Xfce, but that's not part of this guide.
702 </p>
703
704 </body>
705 </section>
706 </chapter>
707
708 <chapter>
709 <title>Resources</title>
710 <section>
711 <title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
712 <body>
713
714 <p>
715 First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
716 complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
717 to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration
718 files!
719 </p>
720
721 <p>
722 Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
723 to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
724 <path>xorg.conf</path>.
725 </p>
726
727 <p>
728 You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
729 on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
730 </p>
731
732 <p>
733 There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
734 list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
735 for more.
736 </p>
737
738 </body>
739 </section>
740 <section>
741 <title>Other resources</title>
742 <body>
743
744 <p>
745 More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
746 environments and applications can be found in the <uri
747 link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
748 section of our documentation.
749 </p>
750
751 <p>
752 If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.8 from an earlier version, then be
753 sure to read the <uri
754 link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.8-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
755 guide</uri>.
756 </p>
757
758 </body>
759 </section>
760 </chapter>
761 </guide>

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