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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.43 2011/03/02 07:17:38 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift"/>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13 </author>
14
15 <abstract>
16 Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17 environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18 install it and what the various configuration options are.
19 </abstract>
20
21 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 <license/>
24
25 <version>6</version>
26 <date>2011-03-02</date>
27
28 <chapter>
29 <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30 <section>
31 <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36 Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37 by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38 do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39 environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44 interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45 <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46 a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47 </p>
48
49 <p>
50 As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53 commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54 and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55 </p>
56
57 <p>
58 The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59 user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60 the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62 The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63 </p>
64
65 </body>
66 </section>
67 <section>
68 <title>The X.org Project</title>
69 <body>
70
71 <p>
72 The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74 system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75 </p>
76
77 <p>
78 Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79 you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80 are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81 one.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </section>
86 </chapter>
87
88 <chapter>
89 <title>Installing Xorg</title>
90 <section>
91 <body>
92
93 <p>
94 Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95 we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96 prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97 are built and installed.
98 </p>
99
100 </body>
101 </section>
102 <section>
103 <title>Input driver support</title>
104 <body>
105
106 <p>
107 By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108 activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109 configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110 Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
111 </p>
112
113 <pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
114 Device Drivers ---&gt;
115 Input device support ---&gt;
116 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117 </pre>
118
119 </body>
120 </section>
121 <section>
122 <title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123 <body>
124
125 <p>
126 Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127 an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128 built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129 other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130 <b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131 </p>
132
133 <p>
134 First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135 Xorg video driver you're using.
136 </p>
137
138 <pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139 Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Graphics support ---&gt;
141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143
144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145 Console display driver support ---&gt;
146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147 </pre>
148
149 <p>
150 Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151 Intel, nVidia, and ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152 your card below.
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 For Intel cards:
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="Intel settings">
160 Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166 i915 driver
167 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168 </pre>
169
170 <p>
171 For nVidia cards:
172 </p>
173
174 <pre caption="nVidia settings">
175 <comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176 Device Drivers ---&gt;
177 Graphics support ---&gt;
178 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179
180 <comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181 Device Drivers ---&gt;
182 Staging drivers ---&gt;
183 [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185 </pre>
186
187 <p>
188 For newer ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189 up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c>. Once you have installed
190 <c>radeon-ucode</c>, configure your kernel as shown:
191 </p>
192
193 <pre caption="ATI settings">
194 <comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
195 Device Drivers ---&gt;
196 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
197 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
198 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
199 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
200 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
201 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
202 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
203 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
204 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
205 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
206 <comment># Radeon HD 6200/6300 aka. Ontario/Zacate:</comment>
207 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External
208 firmware blobs
209 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
210 (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
211 radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
212 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin radeon/TURKS_me.bin
213 radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
214 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
215
216 <comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
217 Device Drivers ---&gt;
218 Graphics support ---&gt;
219 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
220 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
221 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
222 </pre>
223
224 <note>
225 Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
226 package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
227 and ATI Radeon modesetting.
228 </note>
229
230 <p>
231 Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
232 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
233 </p>
234
235 </body>
236 </section>
237 <section>
238 <title>make.conf configuration</title>
239 <body>
240
241 <p>
242 Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
243 in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
244 </p>
245
246 <p>
247 The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
248 that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
249 The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
250 for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
251 drivers.
252 </p>
253
254 <note>
255 You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and ATI, <c>nvidia</c> and
256 <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
257 beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
258 link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
259 link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
260 drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
261 </note>
262
263 <p>
264 The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
265 integrated graphics chipsets.
266 </p>
267
268 <note>
269 <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
270 space.
271 </note>
272
273 <p>
274 The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
275 drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
276 <c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
277 devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
278 <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
279 </p>
280
281 <p>
282 Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
283 the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
284 </p>
285
286 <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
287 <comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
288 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
289 <comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
290 VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
291 <comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
292 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
293 </pre>
294
295 <p>
296 If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
297 xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
298 your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
299 touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
300 </p>
301
302 <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
303 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
304
305 These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
306
307 Calculating dependencies... done!
308 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
309 -acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
310 -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
311 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
312 (-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
313 -nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
314 -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
315 -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
316 0 kB
317 </pre>
318
319 <p>
320 After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
321 </p>
322
323 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
324 # <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
325 </pre>
326
327 <note>
328 You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
329 lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
330 <c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
331 packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
332 many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
333 </note>
334
335 <p>
336 When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
337 environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
338 by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
339 </p>
340
341 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
342 # <i>env-update</i>
343 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
344 </pre>
345
346 <p>
347 Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
348 automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
349 environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
350 just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
351 link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
352 </p>
353
354 <pre caption="Starting HAL">
355 # <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
356 # <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
357 </pre>
358
359 </body>
360 </section>
361 </chapter>
362
363 <chapter>
364 <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
365 <section id="using_hal">
366 <title>Using HAL</title>
367 <body>
368
369 <p>
370 The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
371 Xorg's configuration files.
372 </p>
373
374 <p>
375 You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
376 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
377 </p>
378
379 <p>
380 If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
381 keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
382 configuration files.
383 </p>
384
385 <p>
386 By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
387 devices such as keyboards and mice.
388 </p>
389
390 <p>
391 HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
392 files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
393 that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
394 <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
395 </p>
396
397 <impo>
398 Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
399 you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
400 location.
401 </impo>
402
403 <p>
404 For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
405 the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
406 </p>
407
408 <pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
409 # <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
410 # <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
411 </pre>
412
413 <p>
414 There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
415 may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
416 management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
417 <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
418 </p>
419
420 <impo>
421 Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
422 need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
423 </impo>
424
425 <p>
426 You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
427 liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
428 functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
429 </p>
430
431 <p>
432 One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
433 Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
434 etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
435 </p>
436
437 <p>
438 Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
439 can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
440 <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
441 line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
442 </p>
443
444 <pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
445 <comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
446 # <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
447 <comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
448 &lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
449 <comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
450 &lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
451 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
452 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
453 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
454 string="Linux"&gt;
455 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
456 &lt;/match&gt;
457 &lt;/match&gt;
458 </pre>
459
460 <p>
461 Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
462 changes.
463 </p>
464
465 <p>
466 There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
467 useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
468 tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
469 key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
470 way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
471 </p>
472
473 <p>
474 Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
475 If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
476 manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
477 </p>
478
479 </body>
480 </section>
481 <section>
482 <title>The xorg.conf file</title>
483 <body>
484
485 <note>
486 Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It
487 really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your
488 configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working
489 configuration, then read on.
490 </note>
491
492 <p>
493 The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides
494 in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as
495 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own
496 configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more
497 documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
498 </p>
499
500 <pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
501 $ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
502 </pre>
503
504 </body>
505 </section>
506 <section>
507 <title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
508 <body>
509
510 <p>
511 Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
512 will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
513 running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
514 resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
515 working) Xorg configuration file.
516 </p>
517
518 <pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
519 # <i>Xorg -configure</i>
520 </pre>
521
522 <p>
523 Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
524 probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
525 manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
526 will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
527 for you to test. So let's test. :)
528 </p>
529
530 <pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
531 # <i>X -retro -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
532 </pre>
533
534 <p>
535 If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
536 your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
537 to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
538 You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
539 </p>
540
541 </body>
542 </section>
543 <section>
544 <title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
545 <body>
546
547 <p>
548 Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
549 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
550 <c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
551 </p>
552
553 <pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
554 # <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
555 </pre>
556
557 </body>
558 </section>
559 <section id="using_startx">
560 <title>Using startx</title>
561 <body>
562
563 <p>
564 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
565 that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X server and some
566 graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
567 using the following logic:
568 </p>
569
570 <ul>
571 <li>
572 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
573 execute the commands listed there.
574 </li>
575 <li>
576 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
577 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
578 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
579 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
580 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
581 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
582 and set the default X session to <uri
583 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
584 after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
585 </li>
586 </ul>
587
588 <pre caption="Starting X">
589 $ <i>startx</i>
590 </pre>
591
592 <p>
593 You can kill the X session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This
594 will, however, make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always
595 want.
596 </p>
597
598 <p>
599 If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
600 Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
601 <c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
602 </p>
603
604 <p>
605 Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few xterm
606 windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working correctly.
607 Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm xterm</c> as
608 root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once you've setup a
609 proper desktop environment.
610 </p>
611
612 </body>
613 </section>
614 </chapter>
615
616 <chapter>
617 <title>Tweaking X settings</title>
618 <section>
619 <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
620 <body>
621
622 <p>
623 If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
624 sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
625 the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server
626 will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If
627 this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in
628 the second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
629 </p>
630
631 <p>
632 What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
633 <c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
634 For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
635 section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
636 look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
637 </p>
638
639 <warn>
640 Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
641 without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
642 incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
643 worst.
644 </warn>
645
646 <p>
647 Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
648 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our
649 X server starts at 1440x900 by default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are
650 examples and will most likely differ from the settings on your system. However,
651 the <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
652 monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
653 need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
654 argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
655 <c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
656 </p>
657
658 <pre caption="Changing the Monitor section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
659 Section "Device"
660 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
661 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
662 EndSection
663 Section "Monitor"
664 Identifier "DVI screen"
665 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
666 EndSection
667 </pre>
668
669 <p>
670 Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
671 </p>
672
673 </body>
674 </section>
675 <section>
676 <title>Multiple monitors</title>
677 <body>
678
679 <p>
680 You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>. All
681 you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
682 position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
683 shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
684 right-hand screen:
685 </p>
686
687 <pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors in xorg.conf">
688 Section "Device"
689 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
690 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
691 Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
692 EndSection
693
694 Section "Monitor"
695 Identifier "DVI screen"
696 EndSection
697
698 Section "Monitor"
699 Identifier "VGA screen"
700 Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
701 EndSection
702 </pre>
703
704 </body>
705 </section>
706 <section>
707 <title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
708 <body>
709
710 <p>
711 To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
712 <path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
713 <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
714 </p>
715
716 <pre caption="Using an existing config file">
717 # <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2 > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
718 </pre>
719
720 <p>
721 Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the
722 Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain
723 (<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>).
724 </p>
725
726 <p>
727 When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure
728 that HAL picks up your configuration file changes.
729 </p>
730
731 </body>
732 </section>
733 <section>
734 <title>Finishing up</title>
735 <body>
736
737 <p>
738 Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
739 (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
740 useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or
741 Xfce, but that's not part of this guide.
742 </p>
743
744 </body>
745 </section>
746 </chapter>
747
748 <chapter>
749 <title>Resources</title>
750 <section>
751 <title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
752 <body>
753
754 <p>
755 First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
756 complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
757 to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration
758 files!
759 </p>
760
761 <p>
762 Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
763 to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
764 <path>xorg.conf</path>.
765 </p>
766
767 <p>
768 You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
769 on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
770 </p>
771
772 <p>
773 There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
774 list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
775 for more.
776 </p>
777
778 </body>
779 </section>
780 <section>
781 <title>Other resources</title>
782 <body>
783
784 <p>
785 More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
786 environments and applications can be found in the <uri
787 link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
788 section of our documentation.
789 </p>
790
791 <p>
792 If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.8 from an earlier version, then be
793 sure to read the <uri
794 link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.8-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
795 guide</uri>.
796 </p>
797
798 </body>
799 </section>
800 </chapter>
801 </guide>

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