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Fix bug #379391 - Update xorg-config to include firmware information on latest radeon stuff. Thanks to chithanh@g.o for reporting/content

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.45 2011/03/23 09:03:51 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift"/>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13 </author>
14
15 <abstract>
16 Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17 environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18 install it and what the various configuration options are.
19 </abstract>
20
21 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 <license/>
24
25 <version>8</version>
26 <date>2011-08-23</date>
27
28 <chapter>
29 <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30 <section>
31 <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36 Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37 by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38 do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39 environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44 interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45 <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46 a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47 </p>
48
49 <p>
50 As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53 commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54 and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55 </p>
56
57 <p>
58 The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59 user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60 the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62 The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63 </p>
64
65 </body>
66 </section>
67 <section>
68 <title>The X.org Project</title>
69 <body>
70
71 <p>
72 The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74 system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75 </p>
76
77 <p>
78 Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79 you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80 are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81 one.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </section>
86 </chapter>
87
88 <chapter>
89 <title>Installing Xorg</title>
90 <section>
91 <body>
92
93 <p>
94 Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95 we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96 prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97 are built and installed.
98 </p>
99
100 </body>
101 </section>
102 <section>
103 <title>Input driver support</title>
104 <body>
105
106 <p>
107 By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108 activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109 configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110 Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
111 </p>
112
113 <pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
114 Device Drivers ---&gt;
115 Input device support ---&gt;
116 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117 </pre>
118
119 </body>
120 </section>
121 <section>
122 <title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123 <body>
124
125 <p>
126 Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127 an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128 built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129 other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130 <b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131 </p>
132
133 <p>
134 First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135 Xorg video driver you're using.
136 </p>
137
138 <pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139 Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Graphics support ---&gt;
141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143
144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145 Console display driver support ---&gt;
146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147 </pre>
148
149 <p>
150 Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151 Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152 your card below.
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 For Intel cards:
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="Intel settings">
160 Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166 i915 driver
167 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168 </pre>
169
170 <p>
171 For nVidia cards:
172 </p>
173
174 <pre caption="nVidia settings">
175 <comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176 Device Drivers ---&gt;
177 Graphics support ---&gt;
178 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179
180 <comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181 Device Drivers ---&gt;
182 Staging drivers ---&gt;
183 [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185 </pre>
186
187 <p>
188 For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189 up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c> or
190 <c>linux-firmware</c>. Once you have installed one of these packages,
191 configure your kernel as shown:
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
195 <comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
196 Device Drivers ---&gt;
197 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
198 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
199 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
200 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
201 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
202 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
203 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
204 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
205 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
206 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
207 <comment># Radeon HD 6000 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
208 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin SUMO2_me.bin SUMO2_pfp.bin
209 SUMO_me.bin SUMO_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
210 <comment># Radeon HD 6200/6300 aka. Ontario/Zacate:</comment>
211 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External
212 firmware blobs
213 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
214 (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
215 radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
216 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin CAYMAN_mc.bin
217 CAYMAN_me.bin CAYMAN_pfp.bin CAYMAN_rlc.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin
218 radeon/TURKS_me.bin radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
219 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
220
221 <comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
222 Device Drivers ---&gt;
223 Graphics support ---&gt;
224 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
225 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
226 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
227 </pre>
228
229 <note>
230 Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
231 package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
232 and ATI Radeon modesetting.
233 </note>
234
235 <p>
236 Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
237 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
238 </p>
239
240 </body>
241 </section>
242 <section>
243 <title>make.conf configuration</title>
244 <body>
245
246 <p>
247 Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
248 in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
249 </p>
250
251 <p>
252 The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
253 that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
254 The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
255 for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
256 drivers.
257 </p>
258
259 <note>
260 You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
261 and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
262 beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
263 link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
264 link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
265 drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
266 </note>
267
268 <p>
269 The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
270 integrated graphics chipsets.
271 </p>
272
273 <note>
274 <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
275 space.
276 </note>
277
278 <p>
279 The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
280 drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
281 <c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
282 devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
283 <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
284 </p>
285
286 <p>
287 Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
288 the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
289 </p>
290
291 <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
292 <comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
293 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
294 <comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
295 VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
296 <comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
297 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
298 </pre>
299
300 <p>
301 If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
302 xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
303 your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
304 touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
305 </p>
306
307 <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
308 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
309
310 These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
311
312 Calculating dependencies... done!
313 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
314 -acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
315 -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
316 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
317 (-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
318 -nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
319 -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
320 -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
321 0 kB
322 </pre>
323
324 <p>
325 After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
326 </p>
327
328 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
329 <comment>(Make sure udev is in your USE flags)</comment>
330 # <i>echo "x11-base/xorg-server udev" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
331 <comment>(Install Xorg)</comment>
332 # <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 <note>
336 You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
337 lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
338 <c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
339 packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
340 many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
341 </note>
342
343 <p>
344 When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
345 environment variables before you continue:
346 </p>
347
348 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
349 # <i>env-update</i>
350 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
351 </pre>
352
353 </body>
354 </section>
355 </chapter>
356
357 <chapter>
358 <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
359 <section>
360 <body>
361
362 <p>
363 The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
364 Xorg's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as
365 displays, keyboards, and mice.
366 </p>
367
368 <p>
369 You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without editing
370 any configuration files. If Xorg won't start, or there's some other problem,
371 then you'll need to manually configure Xorg as shown in the next section.
372 </p>
373
374 </body>
375 </section>
376 <section>
377 <title>The xorg.conf.d directory</title>
378 <body>
379
380 <note>
381 Configuring files in <path>xorg.conf.d</path> should be seen as a "last resort"
382 option. It really desirable to run without any special configuration if
383 possible. If you still can't get a working configuration, then read on.
384 </note>
385
386 <p>
387 The configuration files of Xorg are stored in
388 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. Each file is given a unique name and ends in
389 <path>.conf</path>. If the filenames start with a number, then Xorg will read
390 the files in numeric order. <path>10-evdev.conf</path> will be read before
391 <path>20-synaptics.conf</path>, and so on. You don't <e>have</e> to give them
392 numbers, but it may help you organize them.
393 </p>
394
395 <note>
396 Xorg provides example configurations in
397 <path>/usr/share/doc/xorg-server-${version}/xorg.conf.example.bz2</path>. You
398 can use these to create your own configuration files in
399 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. The examples are heavily commented, but if
400 you are in need of more documentation regarding the syntax, read <c>man
401 xorg.conf</c>. Other examples can be found in the <uri
402 link="#resources">Resources</uri> chapter at the end of this guide.
403 </note>
404
405 </body>
406 </section>
407 <section id="using_startx">
408 <title>Using startx</title>
409 <body>
410
411 <p>
412 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
413 that executes an <e>X session</e>; that is, it starts the X server and some
414 graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
415 using the following logic:
416 </p>
417
418 <ul>
419 <li>
420 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
421 execute the commands listed there.
422 </li>
423 <li>
424 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
425 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
426 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
427 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
428 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
429 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
430 and set the default X session to <uri
431 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
432 after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
433 </li>
434 </ul>
435
436 <pre caption="Starting X">
437 $ <i>startx</i>
438 </pre>
439
440 <p>
441 If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
442 Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
443 <c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
444 </p>
445
446 <p>
447 Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few
448 <c>xterm</c> windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working
449 correctly. Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm
450 xterm</c> as root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once
451 you've setup a proper desktop environment.
452 </p>
453
454 </body>
455 </section>
456 </chapter>
457
458 <chapter>
459 <title>Tweaking X settings</title>
460 <section>
461 <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
462 <body>
463
464 <p>
465 If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
466 sections in your <path>xorg.conf.d</path> configuration. First of all, you have
467 the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions that your X server will
468 run at. This section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the case,
469 Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the second
470 section, <e>Monitor</e>.
471 </p>
472
473 <p>
474 Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
475 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</path> we add the
476 <c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our X server starts at 1440x900 by default.
477 The <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
478 monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
479 need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
480 argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
481 <c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
482 </p>
483
484 <pre caption="Changing the Monitor section">
485 # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
486
487 Section "Device"
488 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
489 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
490 EndSection
491 Section "Monitor"
492 Identifier "DVI screen"
493 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
494 EndSection
495 </pre>
496
497 <p>
498 Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
499 </p>
500
501 </body>
502 </section>
503 <section>
504 <title>Multiple monitors</title>
505 <body>
506
507 <p>
508 You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>.
509 All you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
510 position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
511 shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
512 right-hand screen:
513 </p>
514
515 <pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors">
516 # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
517
518 Section "Device"
519 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
520 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
521 Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
522 EndSection
523 Section "Monitor"
524 Identifier "DVI screen"
525 EndSection
526 Section "Monitor"
527 Identifier "VGA screen"
528 Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
529 EndSection
530 </pre>
531
532 </body>
533 </section>
534 <section>
535 <title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
536 <body>
537
538 <p>
539 To setup X to use an international keyboard, you just have to create the
540 appropriate config file in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. This example
541 features a Czech keyboard layout:
542 </p>
543
544 <pre caption="Using an international keyboard">
545 # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf</i>
546
547 Section "InputClass"
548 Identifier "keyboard-all"
549 Driver "evdev"
550 Option "XkbLayout" "us,cz"
551 Option "XkbModel" "logitech_g15"
552 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
553 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp:switch,grp_led:scroll,compose:rwin,terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
554 Option "XkbVariant" ",qwerty"
555 MatchIsKeyboard "on"
556 EndSection
557 </pre>
558
559 <p>
560 The "terminate" command (<c>terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp</c>) lets you kill the X
561 session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This will, however,
562 make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. It can be
563 useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when you're
564 configuring and tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your
565 desktop with this key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you
566 end them this way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
567 </p>
568
569 </body>
570 </section>
571 <section>
572 <title>Finishing up</title>
573 <body>
574
575 <p>
576 Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
577 (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
578 useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or Xfce, but
579 that's not part of this guide. Information on installing these desktop
580 environments can be found in our <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo
581 Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>.
582 </p>
583
584 </body>
585 </section>
586 </chapter>
587
588 <chapter id="resources">
589 <title>Resources</title>
590 <section>
591 <title>Creating and editing config files</title>
592 <body>
593
594 <p>
595 First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
596 complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
597 to have them open on a terminal when you edit your configuration files!
598 </p>
599
600 <p>
601 There are also many online resources on editing config files in
602 <path>/etc/X11/</path>. We only list few of them here; be sure to <uri
603 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> for more.
604 </p>
605
606 </body>
607 </section>
608 <section>
609 <title>Other resources</title>
610 <body>
611
612 <p>
613 More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
614 environments and applications can be found in the <uri
615 link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
616 section of our documentation.
617 </p>
618
619 <p>
620 If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.9 from an earlier version, then be
621 sure to read the <uri
622 link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.9-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
623 guide</uri>.
624 </p>
625
626 <p>
627 X.org provides many <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQs</uri> on their
628 website, in addition to their other documentation.
629 </p>
630
631 </body>
632 </section>
633 </chapter>
634 </guide>

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