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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.22 2007/06/09 12:40:12 jkt Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.26 2008/05/23 19:40:35 swift Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
13</author> 10</author>
14 11
15<abstract> 12<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 13Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 14environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 15install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 16</abstract>
20 17
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 18<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 19<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 20<license/>
24 21
25<version>1.16</version> 22<version>1.17</version>
26<date>2007-06-09</date> 23<date>2007-06-20</date>
27 24
28<chapter> 25<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 26<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 27<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 28<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
33 30
34<p> 31<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 32The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 33Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 34by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 35do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 36environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 37</p>
41 38
42<p> 39<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 40This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 50commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 51and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 52</p>
56 53
57<p> 54<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 55The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 56user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 57the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 58compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 59The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 60</p>
64 61
65</body> 62</body>
66</section> 63</section>
69<body> 66<body>
70 67
71<p> 68<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 69The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11 70maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 71system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 72</p>
76 73
77<p> 74<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 75Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 76you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 77are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 78one.
82</p> 79</p>
83 80
84</body> 81</body>
85</section> 82</section>
86</chapter> 83</chapter>
90<section> 87<section>
91<title>Using emerge</title> 88<title>Using emerge</title>
92<body> 89<body>
93 90
94<p> 91<p>
95Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 92Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
96need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 93need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
97though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 94though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
98</p> 95</p>
99 96
100<p> 97<p>
101Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the 98Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the
142which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information. 139which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
143</p> 140</p>
144 141
145<note> 142<note>
146If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv 143If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
147xorg-x11</c>, check all the options available and choose those which 144xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
148apply to your system. In different versions of Xorg and on different 145your system. The example is for the amd64 architecture and
149architectures displaying these variables can be done with <c>emerge -pv 146<c>xorg-server-1.2</c>.
150xorg-server</c> command rather than the one above. The example is for x86
151architecture and xorg-x11-7.0.
152</note> 147</note>
153 148
154<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available"> 149<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
155# <i>emerge -pv xorg-x11</i> 150# <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
156 151
157These are the packages that would be merged, in order: 152These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
158 153
159Calculating dependencies... done! 154Calculating dependencies... done!
160[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-x11-7.0-r1 USE="-3dfx" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard 155[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.2.0-r3 USE="dri nptl xorg (-3dfx) -debug
156-dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -xprint" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse -acecad
161mouse -acecad -aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300 157-aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300 -elographics -evdev
162-elographics -evdev -fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -magictouch 158-fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -microtouch -mutouch -palmax
163-microtouch -mutouch -palmax -penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957 159-penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957 -ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom"
164-ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus 160VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus -cyrix -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
165-cyrix -dummy -fbdev -fglrx -glint -i128 -i740 -i810 -imstt -mach64 -mga 161-glint -i128 (-i740) -i810 (-impact) (-imstt) -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
166-neomagic -nsc -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion 162(-nsc) -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
163-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
167-sis -sisusb -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0 164-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0 kB
168kB
169</pre> 165</pre>
170 166
171<p> 167<p>
172After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package. 168After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
173</p> 169</p>
218<section> 214<section>
219<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 215<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
220<body> 216<body>
221 217
222<p> 218<p>
223Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 219Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
224will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 220will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
225running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the 221running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
226resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully 222resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
227working) Xorg configuration file. 223working) Xorg configuration file.
228</p> 224</p>
229 225
230<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 226<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
231# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 227# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
232</pre> 228</pre>
234<p> 230<p>
235Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 231Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
236probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 232probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
237manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 233manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
238will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 234will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
239for you to test. So let's test :) 235for you to test. So let's test. :)
240</p> 236</p>
241 237
242<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 238<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
243# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 239# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
244</pre> 240</pre>
287<body> 283<body>
288 284
289<p> 285<p>
290Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 286Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
291<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run 287<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
292<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :) 288<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
293</p> 289</p>
294 290
295<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 291<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
296# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 292# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
297</pre> 293</pre>
318 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 314 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
319 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 315 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
320 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 316 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
321 to make it a default for all the users on the system). 317 to make it a default for all the users on the system).
322 </li> 318 </li>
323<li> 319 <li>
324 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager, 320 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
325 usually <c>twm</c>. 321 usually <c>twm</c>.
326 </li> 322 </li>
327</ul> 323</ul>
328 324
333<p> 329<p>
334If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 330If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
335<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 331<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
336upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace 332upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
337combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you 333combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
338might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 334might not always want. It doesn't hurt though. :)
339</p> 335</p>
340 336
341</body> 337</body>
342</section> 338</section>
343</chapter> 339</chapter>
394 EndSubSection 390 EndSubSection
395EndSection 391EndSection
396</pre> 392</pre>
397 393
398<p> 394<p>
399Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :) 395Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want. :)
400</p> 396</p>
401 397
402</body> 398</body>
403</section> 399</section>
404<section> 400<section>
431 427
432<p> 428<p>
433If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected 429If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
434by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as 430by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
435<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to 431<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
436use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either 432use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
437case you can check if the devices do represent 433case you can check if the devices do represent
438your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You 434your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
439will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press 435will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
440<c>Ctrl-C</c>. 436<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
441</p> 437</p>
448<p> 444<p>
449If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded. 445If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
450</p> 446</p>
451 447
452<p> 448<p>
453If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 449If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
454<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other 450<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
455options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most 451options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
456users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the 452users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
457mousewheel (if applicable) to be used). 453mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
458</p> 454</p>
467 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i> 463 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
468EndSection 464EndSection
469</pre> 465</pre>
470 466
471<p> 467<p>
472Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now 468Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. :) Congratulations, you now
473(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 469(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this
474ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 470ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop
475environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :) 471environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide. :)
476</p> 472</p>
477 473
478</body> 474</body>
479</section> 475</section>
480</chapter> 476</chapter>
490terminal near you when you edit your configuration file! 486terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
491</p> 487</p>
492 488
493<p> 489<p>
494A second point of resources on your system is the 490A second point of resources on your system is the
495<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s 491<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>s
496for individual graphical chipsets. 492for individual graphical chipsets.
497</p> 493</p>
498 494
499<p> 495<p>
500There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 496There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
501list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 497list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
502for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the 498for more. :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the
503configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the 499configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
504same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about 500same syntax for most configuration options and more information about
505<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well. 501<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
506</p> 502</p>
507 503
508<ul> 504<ul>
509 <li> 505 <li>

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