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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.22 2007/06/09 12:40:12 jkt Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.27 2008/11/10 07:01:00 nightmorph Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
13</author> 10</author>
11<author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.16</version> 25<version>1.18</version>
26<date>2007-06-09</date> 26<date>2008-11-09</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
90<section> 90<section>
91<title>Using emerge</title> 91<title>Using emerge</title>
92<body> 92<body>
93 93
94<p> 94<p>
95Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 95Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
96need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 96need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
97though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 97though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
98</p> 98</p>
99 99
100<p> 100<p>
101Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the 101Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the
107you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have. 107you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have.
108The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for 108The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for
109ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI 109ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI
110respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c> 110respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c>
111rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this 111rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this
112driver means no 3d acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> driver for ATI 112driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and
113cards supports full 3D acceleration on older Radeons but doesn't work at all 113<c>radeonhd</c> drivers for ATI cards support 3D acceleration on older Radeons
114with the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in 114but don't yet support all the features of the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may
115this case list of them should be separated with spaces. 115contain more than one driver, in this case list of them should be separated with
116spaces.
116</p> 117</p>
117 118
118<p> 119<p>
119The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which 120The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
120drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to 121drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
121<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. 122<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
123devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
124<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
122</p> 125</p>
123 126
124<p> 127<p>
125Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to 128Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
126the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file: 129the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
134<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment> 137<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
135VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx" 138VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx"
136</pre> 139</pre>
137 140
138<p> 141<p>
139More instructions on how to configure Nvidia and ATI cards can be found in 142More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in
140<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in 143<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in
141<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know 144<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
142which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information. 145which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
143</p> 146</p>
144 147
145<note> 148<note>
146If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv 149If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
147xorg-x11</c>, check all the options available and choose those which 150xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
148apply to your system. In different versions of Xorg and on different 151your system. The example is for the amd64 architecture and
149architectures displaying these variables can be done with <c>emerge -pv 152<c>xorg-server-1.2</c>.
150xorg-server</c> command rather than the one above. The example is for x86
151architecture and xorg-x11-7.0.
152</note> 153</note>
153 154
154<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available"> 155<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
155# <i>emerge -pv xorg-x11</i> 156# <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
156 157
157These are the packages that would be merged, in order: 158These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
158 159
159Calculating dependencies... done! 160Calculating dependencies... done!
160[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-x11-7.0-r1 USE="-3dfx" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard 161[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.2.0-r3 USE="dri nptl xorg (-3dfx) -debug
162-dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -xprint" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse -acecad
161mouse -acecad -aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300 163-aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300 -elographics -evdev
162-elographics -evdev -fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -magictouch 164-fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -microtouch -mutouch -palmax
163-microtouch -mutouch -palmax -penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957 165-penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957 -ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom"
164-ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus 166VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus -cyrix -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
165-cyrix -dummy -fbdev -fglrx -glint -i128 -i740 -i810 -imstt -mach64 -mga 167-glint -i128 (-i740) -i810 (-impact) (-imstt) -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
166-neomagic -nsc -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion 168(-nsc) -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
169-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
167-sis -sisusb -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0 170-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0 kB
168kB
169</pre> 171</pre>
170 172
171<p> 173<p>
172After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package. 174After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
173</p> 175</p>
218<section> 220<section>
219<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 221<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
220<body> 222<body>
221 223
222<p> 224<p>
223Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 225Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
224will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 226will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
225running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the 227running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
226resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully 228resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
227working) Xorg configuration file. 229working) Xorg configuration file.
228</p> 230</p>
229 231
230<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 232<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
231# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 233# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
232</pre> 234</pre>
234<p> 236<p>
235Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 237Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
236probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 238probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
237manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 239manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
238will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 240will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
239for you to test. So let's test :) 241for you to test. So let's test. :)
240</p> 242</p>
241 243
242<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 244<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
243# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 245# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
244</pre> 246</pre>
287<body> 289<body>
288 290
289<p> 291<p>
290Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 292Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
291<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run 293<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
292<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :) 294<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
293</p> 295</p>
294 296
295<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 297<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
296# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 298# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
297</pre> 299</pre>
318 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 320 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
319 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 321 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
320 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 322 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
321 to make it a default for all the users on the system). 323 to make it a default for all the users on the system).
322 </li> 324 </li>
323<li> 325 <li>
324 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager, 326 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
325 usually <c>twm</c>. 327 usually <c>twm</c>.
326 </li> 328 </li>
327</ul> 329</ul>
328 330
333<p> 335<p>
334If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 336If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
335<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 337<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
336upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace 338upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
337combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you 339combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
338might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 340might not always want. It doesn't hurt though. :)
339</p> 341</p>
340 342
341</body> 343</body>
342</section> 344</section>
343</chapter> 345</chapter>
394 EndSubSection 396 EndSubSection
395EndSection 397EndSection
396</pre> 398</pre>
397 399
398<p> 400<p>
399Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :) 401Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want. :)
400</p> 402</p>
401 403
402</body> 404</body>
403</section> 405</section>
404<section> 406<section>
431 433
432<p> 434<p>
433If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected 435If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
434by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as 436by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
435<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to 437<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
436use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either 438use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
437case you can check if the devices do represent 439case you can check if the devices do represent
438your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You 440your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
439will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press 441will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
440<c>Ctrl-C</c>. 442<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
441</p> 443</p>
448<p> 450<p>
449If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded. 451If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
450</p> 452</p>
451 453
452<p> 454<p>
453If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 455If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
454<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other 456<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
455options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most 457options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
456users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the 458users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
457mousewheel (if applicable) to be used). 459mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
458</p> 460</p>
467 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i> 469 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
468EndSection 470EndSection
469</pre> 471</pre>
470 472
471<p> 473<p>
472Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now 474Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. :) Congratulations, you now
473(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 475(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this
474ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 476ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop
475environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :) 477environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide. :)
476</p> 478</p>
477 479
478</body> 480</body>
479</section> 481</section>
480</chapter> 482</chapter>
483<section> 485<section>
484<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 486<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
485<body> 487<body>
486 488
487<p> 489<p>
488First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference 490First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference
489about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a 491about the syntax used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a
490terminal near you when you edit your configuration file! 492terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
491</p> 493</p>
492 494
493<p> 495<p>
494A second point of resources on your system is the 496Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
495<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s 497to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
496for individual graphical chipsets. 498<path>xorg.conf</path>.
499</p>
500
501<p>
502You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
503on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
497</p> 504</p>
498 505
499<p> 506<p>
500There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 507There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
501list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 508list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
502for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the 509for more. :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the
503configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the 510configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
504same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about 511same syntax for most configuration options and more information about
505<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well. 512<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
506</p> 513</p>
507 514
508<ul> 515<ul>
509 <li> 516 <li>
522<section> 529<section>
523<title>Other resources</title> 530<title>Other resources</title>
524<body> 531<body>
525 532
526<p> 533<p>
527If you want to update your system from the old monolithic Xorg to the newer, 534More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
528modular Xorg 7, you should refer to the <uri 535environments and applications can be found in the <uri
529link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/modular-x-howto.xml">Migrating to Modular X 536link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
530HOWTO</uri>. 537section of our documentation.
531</p>
532
533<p>
534More information about configuring different packages to work in X environment
535can be found in the <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop
536Documentation Resources</uri> section of our documentation.
537</p> 538</p>
538 539
539</body> 540</body>
540</section> 541</section>
541</chapter> 542</chapter>

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