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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.22 2007/06/09 12:40:12 jkt Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.29 2009/04/15 06:48:50 nightmorph Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
13</author> 10</author>
11<author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.16</version> 25<version>1.20</version>
26<date>2007-06-09</date> 26<date>2009-04-14</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87 87
88<chapter> 88<chapter>
89<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
90<section> 90<section>
91<title>Using emerge</title>
92<body> 91<body>
93
94<p>
95Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
96need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
97though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
98</p>
99 92
100<p> 93<p>
101Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the 94Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the
102<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file. 95<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
103</p> 96</p>
107you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have. 100you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have.
108The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for 101The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for
109ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI 102ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI
110respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c> 103respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c>
111rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this 104rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this
112driver means no 3d acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> driver for ATI 105driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and
113cards supports full 3D acceleration on older Radeons but doesn't work at all 106<c>radeonhd</c> drivers for ATI cards support 3D acceleration on older Radeons
114with the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in 107but don't yet support all the features of the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may
115this case list of them should be separated with spaces. 108contain more than one driver, in this case list of them should be separated with
109spaces.
116</p> 110</p>
117 111
118<p> 112<p>
119The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which 113The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
120drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to 114drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
121<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. 115<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
116devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
117<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
122</p> 118</p>
123 119
124<p> 120<p>
125Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to 121Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
126the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file: 122the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
134<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment> 130<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
135VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx" 131VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx"
136</pre> 132</pre>
137 133
138<p> 134<p>
139More instructions on how to configure Nvidia and ATI cards can be found in 135More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in
140<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in 136<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in
141<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know 137<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
142which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information. 138which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
143</p> 139</p>
144 140
145<note> 141<note>
146If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv 142If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
147xorg-x11</c>, check all the options available and choose those which 143xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
148apply to your system. In different versions of Xorg and on different 144your system. The example is for the amd64 architecture and
149architectures displaying these variables can be done with <c>emerge -pv 145<c>xorg-server-1.2</c>.
150xorg-server</c> command rather than the one above. The example is for x86
151architecture and xorg-x11-7.0.
152</note> 146</note>
153 147
154<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available"> 148<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
155# <i>emerge -pv xorg-x11</i> 149# <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
156 150
157These are the packages that would be merged, in order: 151These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
158 152
159Calculating dependencies... done! 153Calculating dependencies... done!
160[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-x11-7.0-r1 USE="-3dfx" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard 154[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.2.0-r3 USE="dri nptl xorg (-3dfx) -debug
155-dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -xprint" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse -acecad
161mouse -acecad -aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300 156-aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300 -elographics -evdev
162-elographics -evdev -fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -magictouch 157-fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -microtouch -mutouch -palmax
163-microtouch -mutouch -palmax -penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957 158-penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957 -ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom"
164-ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus 159VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus -cyrix -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
165-cyrix -dummy -fbdev -fglrx -glint -i128 -i740 -i810 -imstt -mach64 -mga 160-glint -i128 (-i740) -i810 (-impact) (-imstt) -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
166-neomagic -nsc -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion 161(-nsc) -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
162-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
167-sis -sisusb -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0 163-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0 kB
168kB
169</pre> 164</pre>
170 165
171<p> 166<p>
172After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package. 167After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
173</p> 168</p>
218<section> 213<section>
219<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 214<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
220<body> 215<body>
221 216
222<p> 217<p>
223Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 218Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
224will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 219will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
225running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the 220running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
226resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully 221resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
227working) Xorg configuration file. 222working) Xorg configuration file.
228</p> 223</p>
229 224
230<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 225<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
231# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 226# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
232</pre> 227</pre>
234<p> 229<p>
235Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 230Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
236probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 231probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
237manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 232manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
238will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 233will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
239for you to test. So let's test :) 234for you to test. So let's test. :)
240</p> 235</p>
241 236
242<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 237<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
243# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 238# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
244</pre> 239</pre>
287<body> 282<body>
288 283
289<p> 284<p>
290Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 285Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
291<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run 286<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
292<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :) 287<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
293</p> 288</p>
294 289
295<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 290<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
296# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 291# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
297</pre> 292</pre>
318 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 313 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
319 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 314 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
320 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 315 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
321 to make it a default for all the users on the system). 316 to make it a default for all the users on the system).
322 </li> 317 </li>
323<li> 318 <li>
324 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager, 319 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
325 usually <c>twm</c>. 320 usually <c>twm</c>.
326 </li> 321 </li>
327</ul> 322</ul>
328 323
333<p> 328<p>
334If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 329If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
335<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 330<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
336upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace 331upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
337combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you 332combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
338might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 333might not always want. It doesn't hurt though. :)
339</p> 334</p>
340 335
341</body> 336</body>
342</section> 337</section>
343</chapter> 338</chapter>
394 EndSubSection 389 EndSubSection
395EndSection 390EndSection
396</pre> 391</pre>
397 392
398<p> 393<p>
399Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :) 394Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want. :)
400</p> 395</p>
401 396
402</body> 397</body>
403</section> 398</section>
404<section> 399<section>
431 426
432<p> 427<p>
433If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected 428If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
434by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as 429by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
435<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to 430<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
436use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either 431use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
437case you can check if the devices do represent 432case you can check if the devices do represent
438your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You 433your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
439will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press 434will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
440<c>Ctrl-C</c>. 435<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
441</p> 436</p>
448<p> 443<p>
449If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded. 444If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
450</p> 445</p>
451 446
452<p> 447<p>
453If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 448If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
454<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other 449<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
455options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most 450options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
456users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the 451users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
457mousewheel (if applicable) to be used). 452mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
458</p> 453</p>
467 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i> 462 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
468EndSection 463EndSection
469</pre> 464</pre>
470 465
471<p> 466<p>
472Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now 467Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. :) Congratulations, you now
473(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 468(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this
474ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 469ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop
475environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :) 470environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide. :)
476</p> 471</p>
477 472
478</body> 473</body>
479</section> 474</section>
480</chapter> 475</chapter>
483<section> 478<section>
484<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 479<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
485<body> 480<body>
486 481
487<p> 482<p>
488First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference 483First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference
489about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a 484about the syntax used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a
490terminal near you when you edit your configuration file! 485terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
491</p> 486</p>
492 487
493<p> 488<p>
494A second point of resources on your system is the 489Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
495<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s 490to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
496for individual graphical chipsets. 491<path>xorg.conf</path>.
492</p>
493
494<p>
495You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
496on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
497</p> 497</p>
498 498
499<p> 499<p>
500There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 500There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
501list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 501list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
502for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the 502for more. :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the
503configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the 503configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
504same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about 504same syntax for most configuration options and more information about
505<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well. 505<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
506</p> 506</p>
507 507
508<ul> 508<ul>
509 <li> 509 <li>
522<section> 522<section>
523<title>Other resources</title> 523<title>Other resources</title>
524<body> 524<body>
525 525
526<p> 526<p>
527If you want to update your system from the old monolithic Xorg to the newer, 527More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
528modular Xorg 7, you should refer to the <uri 528environments and applications can be found in the <uri
529link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/modular-x-howto.xml">Migrating to Modular X 529link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
530HOWTO</uri>. 530section of our documentation.
531</p>
532
533<p> 531</p>
534More information about configuring different packages to work in X environment 532
535can be found in the <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop 533<p>
536Documentation Resources</uri> section of our documentation. 534If you're upgrading to xorg-server-1.5 from an earlier version, then be sure to
535read the <uri
536link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.5-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
537guide</uri>.
537</p> 538</p>
538 539
539</body> 540</body>
540</section> 541</section>
541</chapter> 542</chapter>

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