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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.22 2007/06/09 12:40:12 jkt Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.38 2010/05/23 21:29:35 nightmorph Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide>
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.16</version> 25<version>1.28</version>
26<date>2007-06-09</date> 26<date>2010-05-23</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87 87
88<chapter> 88<chapter>
89<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
90<section> 90<section>
91<title>Using emerge</title> 91<title>Kernel configuration</title>
92<body>
93
94<p>
95By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
96activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
97configuration. (Read the
98<uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel Configuration Guide</uri> if you
99don't know how to setup your kernel.)
100</p>
101
102<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
103Device Drivers ---&gt;
104 Input device support ---&gt;
105 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
106</pre>
107
92<body> 108</body>
109</section>
110<section>
111<title>make.conf configuration</title>
112<body>
93 113
94<p>
95Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
96need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
97though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
98</p> 114<p>
99
100<p>
101Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the 115Before you install Xorg, you have to configure two important variables in the
102<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file. 116<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
103</p> 117</p>
104 118
105<p> 119<p>
106The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that 120The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
107you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have. 121that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you
108The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for 122have. The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or
109ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI 123<c>fglrx</c> for ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia
110respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c> 124and ATI respectively. If you would like to use the open source nVidia driver,
111rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this 125use <c>nv</c> rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that
112driver means no 3d acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> driver for ATI 126using this driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and
113cards supports full 3D acceleration on older Radeons but doesn't work at all 127<c>radeonhd</c> drivers are available for ATI cards, and are more or less the
114with the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in 128equal of the proprietary <c>fglrx</c> driver. The <c>intel</c> driver may be
115this case list of them should be separated with spaces. 129used for desktops or laptops with common Intel integrated graphics chipsets.
130<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in this case list of them
131should be separated with spaces.
116</p> 132</p>
117 133
118<p> 134<p>
119The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which 135The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
120drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to 136drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
121<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. 137<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
138devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
139<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
122</p> 140</p>
123 141
124<p> 142<p>
125Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to 143Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
126the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file: 144the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
127</p> 145</p>
128 146
129<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries"> 147<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
130<comment>(For mouse and keyboard support)</comment> 148<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
131INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse" 149INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
132<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment> 150<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
133VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia" 151VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
134<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment> 152<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
135VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx" 153VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
136</pre> 154</pre>
137 155
138<p> 156<note>
139More instructions on how to configure Nvidia and ATI cards can be found in 157More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in the
140<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in 158<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in the
141<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know 159<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
142which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information. 160which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
161</note>
162
143</p> 163<p>
164If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
165xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
166your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
167touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
168</p>
169
170<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
171# <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
172
173These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
174
175Calculating dependencies... done!
176[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.6.3.901-r2 USE="hal nptl xorg -debug
177-dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -tslib" 0 kB
178[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.6 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
179-acecad -aiptek -citron -elographics -fpit -hyperpen -joystick -keyboard -mouse
180-mutouch -penmount -tslib -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
181VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
182(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) (-imstt) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic
183(-newport) -nv -nvidia -r128 -radeonhd -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage
184-siliconmotion -sis -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb)
185(-sunleo) (-suntcx) -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l (-vermilion) -vesa -via
186-virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)" 0 kB
187</pre>
188
189<p>
190After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
191</p>
192
193<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
194# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
195</pre>
144 196
145<note> 197<note>
146If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv 198You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
147xorg-x11</c>, check all the options available and choose those which 199lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
148apply to your system. In different versions of Xorg and on different 200<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
149architectures displaying these variables can be done with <c>emerge -pv 201packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
150xorg-server</c> command rather than the one above. The example is for x86 202many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
151architecture and xorg-x11-7.0.
152</note> 203</note>
153 204
154<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
155# <i>emerge -pv xorg-x11</i>
156
157These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
158
159Calculating dependencies... done!
160[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-x11-7.0-r1 USE="-3dfx" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard
161mouse -acecad -aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300
162-elographics -evdev -fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -magictouch
163-microtouch -mutouch -palmax -penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957
164-ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus
165-cyrix -dummy -fbdev -fglrx -glint -i128 -i740 -i810 -imstt -mach64 -mga
166-neomagic -nsc -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion
167-sis -sisusb -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0
168kB
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
173</p> 205<p>
174
175<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
176# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i>
177</pre>
178
179<p>
180When the installation is finished, you might need to re-initialise some 206When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
181environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 207environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
182by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. 208by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
183</p> 209</p>
184 210
185<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables"> 211<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
186# <i>env-update</i> 212# <i>env-update</i>
187# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 213# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
188</pre> 214</pre>
189 215
216<p>
217Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
218automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
219environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
220just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
221link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
222</p>
223
224<pre caption="Starting HAL">
225# <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
226# <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
227</pre>
228
190</body> 229</body>
191</section> 230</section>
192</chapter> 231</chapter>
232
193<chapter> 233<chapter>
194<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 234<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
235<section id="using_hal">
236<title>Using HAL</title>
237<body>
238
239<p>
240Recent X server versions are designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to
241manually edit Xorg's configuration files.
242</p>
243
244<p>
245You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
246<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
247</p>
248
249<p>
250If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
251keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
252configuration files.
253</p>
254
255<p>
256By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
257devices such as keyboards and mice.
258</p>
259
260<p>
261HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
262files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
263that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
264<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
265</p>
266
267<impo>
268Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
269you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
270location.
271</impo>
272
273<p>
274For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
275the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
276</p>
277
278<pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
279# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
280# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
281</pre>
282
283<p>
284There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
285may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
286management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
287<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
288</p>
289
290<impo>
291Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
292need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
293</impo>
294
295<p>
296You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
297liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
298functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
299</p>
300
301<p>
302One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
303Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
304etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
305</p>
306
307<p>
308Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
309can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
310<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
311line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
312</p>
313
314<pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
315<comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
316# <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
317<comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
318&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
319<comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
320&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
321 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
322 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
323 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
324 string="Linux"&gt;
325 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
326 &lt;/match&gt;
327 &lt;/match&gt;
328</pre>
329
330<p>
331Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
332changes.
333</p>
334
335<p>
336There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
337useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
338tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
339key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
340way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
341</p>
342
343<p>
344Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
345If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
346manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
347</p>
348
349</body>
195<section> 350</section>
351<section>
196<title>The xorg.conf File</title> 352<title>The xorg.conf file</title>
197<body> 353<body>
198 354
355<note>
356Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It
357really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your
358configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working
359configuration, then read on.
360</note>
361
199<p> 362<p>
200The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it 363The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides
201resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example 364in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as
202configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to 365<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own
203create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need 366configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more
204of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page: 367documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
205</p> 368</p>
206 369
207<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page"> 370<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
208# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i> 371$ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
209</pre>
210
211<p>
212Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
213with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
214</p> 372</pre>
215 373
216</body> 374</body>
217</section>
218<section> 375</section>
376<section>
219<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 377<title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
220<body> 378<body>
221 379
222<p> 380<p>
223Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 381Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
224will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 382will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
225running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the 383running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
226resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully 384resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
227working) Xorg configuration file. 385working) Xorg configuration file.
228</p> 386</p>
229 387
230<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 388<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
231# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 389# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
232</pre> 390</pre>
234<p> 392<p>
235Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 393Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
236probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 394probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
237manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 395manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
238will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 396will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
239for you to test. So let's test :) 397for you to test. So let's test. :)
240</p> 398</p>
241 399
242<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 400<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
243# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 401# <i>X -config -retro /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
244</pre> 402</pre>
245 403
246<p> 404<p>
247If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if 405If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
248your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. If you received errors 406your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
249about "/dev/mouse", try changing your mouse device to <c>/dev/input/mice</c> in
250the "InputDevice" section of <path>xorg.conf</path>. You might not be able to
251deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You 407to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
252can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. 408You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
253</p>
254
255</body>
256</section>
257<section>
258<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
259<body>
260
261<p> 409</p>
262Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
263information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
264your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
265</p>
266
267<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
268# <i>xorgconfig</i>
269</pre>
270
271<p>
272Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
273attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
274final tweaking.
275</p>
276
277<pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
278# <i>xorgcfg</i>
279<comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
280# <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
281</pre>
282 410
283</body> 411</body>
284</section> 412</section>
285<section> 413<section>
286<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title> 414<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
287<body> 415<body>
288 416
289<p> 417<p>
290Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 418Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
291<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run 419<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
292<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :) 420<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
293</p> 421</p>
294 422
295<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 423<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
296# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 424# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
297</pre> 425</pre>
301<section id="using_startx"> 429<section id="using_startx">
302<title>Using startx</title> 430<title>Using startx</title>
303<body> 431<body>
304 432
305<p> 433<p>
306Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script 434Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
307that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some 435that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
308graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run 436graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
309using the following logic: 437using the following logic:
310</p> 438</p>
311 439
312<ul> 440<ul>
313 <li> 441 <li>
315 execute the commands listed there. 443 execute the commands listed there.
316 </li> 444 </li>
317 <li> 445 <li>
318 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 446 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
319 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 447 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
320 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 448 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
321 to make it a default for all the users on the system). 449 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users on
322 </li> 450 the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
323<li> 451 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
324 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager, 452 and set the default X session to Xfce4.
325 usually <c>twm</c>.
326 </li> 453 </li>
327</ul> 454</ul>
328 455
329<pre caption="Starting X"> 456<pre caption="Starting X">
330# <i>startx</i> 457$ <i>startx</i>
331</pre> 458</pre>
332 459
460<p>
461You can kill the X session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This
462will, however, make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always
463want.
333<p> 464</p>
334If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 465
335<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 466<p>
336upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace 467If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
337combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you 468Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
338might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 469<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
470</p>
471
472<p>
473Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few xterm
474windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working correctly.
475Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm xterm</c> as
476root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once you've setup a
477proper desktop environment.
339</p> 478</p>
340 479
341</body> 480</body>
342</section> 481</section>
343</chapter> 482</chapter>
483
344<chapter> 484<chapter>
345<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 485<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
346<section> 486<section>
347<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 487<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
348<body> 488<body>
349 489
350<p> 490<p>
351If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 491If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
352sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 492sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
353which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By 493the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server
354default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 494will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If
355case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 495this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in
356second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 496the second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
357</p> 497</p>
358 498
359<p> 499<p>
360What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 500What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
361<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions. 501<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
362For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e> 502For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
363section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to 503section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
364look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also 504look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
365use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
366<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
367</p> 505</p>
368 506
369<warn> 507<warn>
370Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables 508Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
371without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting 509without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
374</warn> 512</warn>
375 513
376<p> 514<p>
377Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 515Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
378<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 516<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
379<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 517<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1440x900 by
380default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely 518default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
381differ from the settings on your system. 519differ from the settings on your system.
382</p> 520</p>
383 521
384<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 522<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
385Section "Screen" 523Section "Screen"
386 Identifier "Default Screen" 524 Identifier "Default Screen"
387 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]" 525 Device "RadeonHD 4550"
388 Monitor "Generic Monitor" 526 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
389 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i> 527 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
390 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment> 528 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
391 SubSection "Display" 529 SubSection "Display"
392 Depth 24 530 Depth 24
393 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i> 531 <i>Modes "1440x900"</i>
394 EndSubSection 532 EndSubSection
395EndSection 533EndSection
396</pre> 534</pre>
397 535
398<p> 536<p>
399Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :) 537Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
400</p> 538</p>
401 539
402</body> 540</body>
403</section>
404<section> 541</section>
542<section>
405<title>Configuring your Keyboard</title> 543<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
406<body>
407
408<p>
409To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
410section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
411point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
412for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
413</p>
414
415<pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
416Section "InputDevice"
417 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
418 Driver "keyboard"
419 Option "CoreKeyboard"
420 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
421 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
422 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
423EndSection
424</pre>
425
426</body> 544<body>
427</section> 545
546<p>
547To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
548<path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
549<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
550</p>
551
552<pre caption="Using an existing config file">
553# <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2 > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
554</pre>
555
556<p>
557Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the
558Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain
559(<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>).
560</p>
561
562<p>
563When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure
564that HAL picks up your configuration file changes.
565</p>
566
567</body>
428<section> 568</section>
429<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 569<section>
570<title>Finishing up</title>
430<body> 571<body>
431 572
432<p>
433If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
434by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
435<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
436use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
437case you can check if the devices do represent
438your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
439will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
440<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
441</p> 573<p>
442
443<pre caption="Checking the device files">
444# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
445<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
446</pre>
447
448<p>
449If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
450</p>
451
452<p>
453If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
454<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
455options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
456users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
457mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
458</p>
459
460<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
461Section "InputDevice"
462 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
463 Driver "mouse"
464 Option "CorePointer"
465 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
466 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
467 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
468EndSection
469</pre>
470
471<p>
472Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now 574Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
473(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 575(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
474ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 576useful window manager (or even a desktop environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but
475environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :) 577that's not part of this guide.
476</p> 578</p>
477 579
478</body> 580</body>
479</section> 581</section>
480</chapter> 582</chapter>
583
481<chapter> 584<chapter>
482<title>Resources</title> 585<title>Resources</title>
483<section> 586<section>
484<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 587<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
485<body> 588<body>
486 589
487<p> 590<p>
488First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference 591First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
489about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a 592complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
490terminal near you when you edit your configuration file! 593to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration
491</p> 594files!
492
493<p> 595</p>
494A second point of resources on your system is the 596
495<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s 597<p>
496for individual graphical chipsets. 598Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
599to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
600<path>xorg.conf</path>.
601</p>
602
603<p>
604You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
605on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
497</p> 606</p>
498 607
499<p> 608<p>
500There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 609There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
501list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 610list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
502for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the 611for more.
503configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
504same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about
505<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
506</p> 612</p>
507
508<ul>
509 <li>
510 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree
511 Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri>
512 </li>
513 <li>
514 <uri
515 link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
516 Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
517 </li>
518</ul>
519 613
520</body> 614</body>
521</section> 615</section>
522<section> 616<section>
523<title>Other resources</title> 617<title>Other resources</title>
524<body> 618<body>
525 619
526<p> 620<p>
527If you want to update your system from the old monolithic Xorg to the newer, 621More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
528modular Xorg 7, you should refer to the <uri 622environments and applications can be found in the <uri
529link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/modular-x-howto.xml">Migrating to Modular X 623link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
530HOWTO</uri>. 624section of our documentation.
531</p>
532
533<p> 625</p>
534More information about configuring different packages to work in X environment 626
535can be found in the <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop 627<p>
536Documentation Resources</uri> section of our documentation. 628If you're upgrading to xorg-server-1.6 from an earlier version, then be sure to
629read the <uri
630link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.6-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
631guide</uri>.
537</p> 632</p>
538 633
539</body> 634</body>
540</section> 635</section>
541</chapter> 636</chapter>

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