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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.22 2007/06/09 12:40:12 jkt Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.48 2011/09/02 19:07:12 swift Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide>
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.16</version> 25<version>10</version>
26<date>2007-06-09</date> 26<date>2011-09-02</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87 87
88<chapter> 88<chapter>
89<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
90<section> 90<section>
91<title>Using emerge</title> 91<body>
92
93<p>
94Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97are built and installed.
98</p>
99
92<body> 100</body>
101</section>
102<section>
103<title>Input driver support</title>
104<body>
93 105
94<p>
95Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
96need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
97though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
98</p> 106<p>
99 107By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
100<p> 111</p>
101Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the 112
102<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file. 113<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
114Device Drivers ---&gt;
115 Input device support ---&gt;
116 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117</pre>
118
119</body>
120</section>
121<section>
122<title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123<body>
124
103</p> 125<p>
104 126Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130<b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
105<p> 131</p>
132
133<p>
134First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135Xorg video driver you're using.
136</p>
137
138<pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Graphics support ---&gt;
141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143
144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145 Console display driver support ---&gt;
146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147</pre>
148
149<p>
150Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152your card below.
153</p>
154
155<p>
156For Intel cards:
157</p>
158
159<pre caption="Intel settings">
160Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166 i915 driver
167 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168</pre>
169
170<p>
171For nVidia cards:
172</p>
173
174<pre caption="nVidia settings">
175<comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176Device Drivers ---&gt;
177 Graphics support ---&gt;
178 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179
180<comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181Device Drivers ---&gt;
182 Staging drivers ---&gt;
183 [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185</pre>
186
187<p>
188For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c> or
190<c>linux-firmware</c>. Once you have installed one of these packages,
191configure your kernel as shown:
192</p>
193
194<pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
195<comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
196Device Drivers ---&gt;
197 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
198 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
199 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
200 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
201 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
202 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
203 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
204 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
205 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
206 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
207 <comment># Radeon HD 6000 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
208 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO2_me.bin
209 radeon/SUMO2_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_me.bin radeon/SUMO_pfp.bin
210 radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
211 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
212 (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
213 radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
214 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin radeon/CAYMAN_mc.bin radeon/CAYMAN_me.bin
215 radeon/CAYMAN_pfp.bin radeon/CAYMAN_rlc.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin
216 radeon/TURKS_me.bin radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
217 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
218
219<comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
220Device Drivers ---&gt;
221 Graphics support ---&gt;
222 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
223 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
224 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
225</pre>
226
227<note>
228Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
229package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
230and ATI Radeon modesetting.
231</note>
232
233<p>
234Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
235<path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
236</p>
237
238</body>
239</section>
240<section>
241<title>make.conf configuration</title>
242<body>
243
244<p>
245Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
246in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
247</p>
248
249<p>
106The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that 250The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
107you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have. 251that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
108The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for 252The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
109ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI 253for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
110respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c> 254drivers.
111rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this 255</p>
112driver means no 3d acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> driver for ATI 256
113cards supports full 3D acceleration on older Radeons but doesn't work at all 257<note>
114with the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in 258You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
115this case list of them should be separated with spaces. 259and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
260beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
261link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
262link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
263drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
264</note>
265
116</p> 266<p>
267The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
268integrated graphics chipsets.
269</p>
270
271<note>
272<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
273space.
274</note>
117 275
118<p> 276<p>
119The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which 277The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
120drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to 278drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
121<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. 279<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
280devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
281<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
122</p> 282</p>
123 283
124<p> 284<p>
125Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to 285Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
126the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file: 286the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
127</p> 287</p>
128 288
129<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries"> 289<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
130<comment>(For mouse and keyboard support)</comment> 290<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
131INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse" 291INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
132<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment> 292<comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
133VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia" 293VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
134<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment> 294<comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
135VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx" 295VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
136</pre> 296</pre>
137 297
138<p>
139More instructions on how to configure Nvidia and ATI cards can be found in
140<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in
141<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
142which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
143</p> 298<p>
299If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
300xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
301your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
302touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
303</p>
304
305<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
306# <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
307
308These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
309
310Calculating dependencies... done!
311[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
312-acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
313-virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
314VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
315(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
316-nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
317-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
318-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
3190 kB
320</pre>
321
322<p>
323After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
324</p>
325
326<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
327<comment>(Make sure udev is in your USE flags)</comment>
328# <i>echo "x11-base/xorg-server udev" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
329<comment>(Install Xorg)</comment>
330# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
331</pre>
144 332
145<note> 333<note>
146If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv 334You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
147xorg-x11</c>, check all the options available and choose those which 335lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
148apply to your system. In different versions of Xorg and on different 336<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
149architectures displaying these variables can be done with <c>emerge -pv 337packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
150xorg-server</c> command rather than the one above. The example is for x86 338many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
151architecture and xorg-x11-7.0.
152</note> 339</note>
153 340
154<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
155# <i>emerge -pv xorg-x11</i>
156
157These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
158
159Calculating dependencies... done!
160[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-x11-7.0-r1 USE="-3dfx" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard
161mouse -acecad -aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300
162-elographics -evdev -fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -magictouch
163-microtouch -mutouch -palmax -penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957
164-ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus
165-cyrix -dummy -fbdev -fglrx -glint -i128 -i740 -i810 -imstt -mach64 -mga
166-neomagic -nsc -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion
167-sis -sisusb -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0
168kB
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
173</p> 341<p>
174
175<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
176# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i>
177</pre>
178
179<p>
180When the installation is finished, you might need to re-initialise some 342When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
181environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 343environment variables before you continue:
182by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
183</p> 344</p>
184 345
185<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables"> 346<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
186# <i>env-update</i> 347# <i>env-update</i>
187# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 348# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
188</pre> 349</pre>
189 350
190</body> 351</body>
191</section> 352</section>
192</chapter> 353</chapter>
354
193<chapter> 355<chapter>
194<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 356<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
195<section> 357<section>
196<title>The xorg.conf File</title>
197<body>
198
199<p>
200The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it
201resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example
202configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to
203create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need
204of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
205</p>
206
207<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
208# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
209</pre>
210
211<p>
212Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
213with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
214</p>
215
216</body> 358<body>
217</section> 359
360<p>
361The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
362Xorg's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as
363displays, keyboards, and mice.
364</p>
365
366<p>
367You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without editing
368any configuration files. If Xorg won't start, or there's some other problem,
369then you'll need to manually configure Xorg as shown in the next section.
370</p>
371
372</body>
218<section> 373</section>
219<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
220<body>
221
222<p>
223Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
224will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
225running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
226resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
227working) Xorg configuration file.
228</p>
229
230<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
231# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
232</pre>
233
234<p>
235Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
236probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
237manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
238will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
239for you to test. So let's test :)
240</p>
241
242<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
243# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
244</pre>
245
246<p>
247If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
248your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. If you received errors
249about "/dev/mouse", try changing your mouse device to <c>/dev/input/mice</c> in
250the "InputDevice" section of <path>xorg.conf</path>. You might not be able to
251deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You
252can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
253</p>
254
255</body>
256</section> 374<section>
257<section> 375<title>The xorg.conf.d directory</title>
258<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
259<body>
260
261<p>
262Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
263information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
264your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
265</p>
266
267<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
268# <i>xorgconfig</i>
269</pre>
270
271<p>
272Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
273attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
274final tweaking.
275</p>
276
277<pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
278# <i>xorgcfg</i>
279<comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
280# <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
281</pre>
282
283</body> 376<body>
284</section>
285<section>
286<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
287<body>
288 377
289<p> 378<note>
290Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 379Configuring files in <path>xorg.conf.d</path> should be seen as a "last resort"
291<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run 380option. It really desirable to run without any special configuration if
292<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :) 381possible. If you still can't get a working configuration, then read on.
382</note>
383
293</p> 384<p>
294 385The configuration files of Xorg are stored in
295<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 386<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. Each file is given a unique name and ends in
296# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 387<path>.conf</path>. If the filenames start with a number, then Xorg will read
388the files in numeric order. <path>10-evdev.conf</path> will be read before
389<path>20-synaptics.conf</path>, and so on. You don't <e>have</e> to give them
390numbers, but it may help you organize them.
297</pre> 391</p>
392
393<note>
394Xorg provides example configurations in
395<path>/usr/share/doc/xorg-server-${version}/xorg.conf.example.bz2</path>. You
396can use these to create your own configuration files in
397<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. The examples are heavily commented, but if
398you are in need of more documentation regarding the syntax, read <c>man
399xorg.conf</c>. Other examples can be found in the <uri
400link="#resources">Resources</uri> chapter at the end of this guide.
401</note>
298 402
299</body> 403</body>
300</section> 404</section>
301<section id="using_startx"> 405<section id="using_startx">
302<title>Using startx</title> 406<title>Using startx</title>
303<body> 407<body>
304 408
305<p> 409<p>
306Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script 410Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
307that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some 411that executes an <e>X session</e>; that is, it starts the X server and some
308graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run 412graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
309using the following logic: 413using the following logic:
310</p> 414</p>
311 415
312<ul> 416<ul>
313 <li> 417 <li>
315 execute the commands listed there. 419 execute the commands listed there.
316 </li> 420 </li>
317 <li> 421 <li>
318 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 422 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
319 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 423 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
320 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 424 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
321 to make it a default for all the users on the system). 425 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
322 </li> 426 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
323<li> 427 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
324 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager, 428 and set the default X session to <uri
325 usually <c>twm</c>. 429 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
430 after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
326 </li> 431 </li>
327</ul> 432</ul>
328 433
329<pre caption="Starting X"> 434<pre caption="Starting X">
330# <i>startx</i> 435$ <i>startx</i>
331</pre> 436</pre>
332 437
438<p>
439If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
440Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
441<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
333<p> 442</p>
334If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 443
335<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 444<p>
336upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace 445Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few
337combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you 446<c>xterm</c> windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working
338might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 447correctly. Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm
448xterm</c> as root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once
449you've setup a proper desktop environment.
339</p> 450</p>
340 451
341</body> 452</body>
342</section> 453</section>
343</chapter> 454</chapter>
455
344<chapter> 456<chapter>
345<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 457<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
346<section> 458<section>
347<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 459<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
348<body> 460<body>
349 461
350<p> 462<p>
351If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 463If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
352sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 464sections in your <path>xorg.conf.d</path> configuration. First of all, you have
353which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By 465the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions that your X server will
354default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 466run at. This section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the case,
355case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 467Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the second
356second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 468section, <e>Monitor</e>.
357</p>
358
359<p> 469</p>
360What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 470
361<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
362For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
363section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
364look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also
365use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
366<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
367</p> 471<p>
368
369<warn>
370Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
371without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
372incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
373worst.
374</warn>
375
376<p>
377Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 472Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
378<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 473<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</path> we add the
379<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 474<c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our X server starts at 1440x900 by default.
380default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely 475The <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
381differ from the settings on your system. 476monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
477need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
478argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
479<c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
382</p> 480</p>
383 481
384<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 482<pre caption="Changing the Monitor section">
483# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
484
385Section "Screen" 485Section "Device"
386 Identifier "Default Screen" 486 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
387 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]" 487 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
388 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
389 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
390 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
391 SubSection "Display"
392 Depth 24
393 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i>
394 EndSubSection
395EndSection 488EndSection
396</pre> 489Section "Monitor"
397 490 Identifier "DVI screen"
398<p> 491 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
399Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :)
400</p>
401
402</body>
403</section>
404<section>
405<title>Configuring your Keyboard</title>
406<body>
407
408<p>
409To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
410section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
411point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
412for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
413</p>
414
415<pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
416Section "InputDevice"
417 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
418 Driver "keyboard"
419 Option "CoreKeyboard"
420 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
421 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
422 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
423EndSection 492EndSection
424</pre> 493</pre>
425 494
495<p>
496Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
497</p>
498
426</body> 499</body>
427</section>
428<section> 500</section>
429<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 501<section>
502<title>Multiple monitors</title>
430<body> 503<body>
431 504
432<p>
433If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
434by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
435<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
436use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
437case you can check if the devices do represent
438your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
439will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
440<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
441</p> 505<p>
442 506You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>.
443<pre caption="Checking the device files"> 507All you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
444# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i> 508position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
445<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment> 509shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
446</pre> 510right-hand screen:
447
448<p> 511</p>
449If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
450</p>
451 512
452<p> 513<pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors">
453If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 514# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
454<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
455options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
456users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
457mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
458</p>
459 515
460<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
461Section "InputDevice" 516Section "Device"
462 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse" 517 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
463 Driver "mouse" 518 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
464 Option "CorePointer" 519 Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
465 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
466 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
467 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
468EndSection 520EndSection
521Section "Monitor"
522 Identifier "DVI screen"
523EndSection
524Section "Monitor"
525 Identifier "VGA screen"
526 Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
527EndSection
469</pre> 528</pre>
470 529
530</body>
531</section>
532<section>
533<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
534<body>
535
536<p>
537To setup X to use an international keyboard, you just have to create the
538appropriate config file in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. This example
539features a Czech keyboard layout:
471<p> 540</p>
541
542<pre caption="Using an international keyboard">
543# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf</i>
544
545Section "InputClass"
546 Identifier "keyboard-all"
547 Driver "evdev"
548 Option "XkbLayout" "us,cz"
549 Option "XkbModel" "logitech_g15"
550 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
551 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp:switch,grp_led:scroll,compose:rwin,terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
552 Option "XkbVariant" ",qwerty"
553 MatchIsKeyboard "on"
554EndSection
555</pre>
556
557<p>
558The "terminate" command (<c>terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp</c>) lets you kill the X
559session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This will, however,
560make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. It can be
561useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when you're
562configuring and tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your
563desktop with this key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you
564end them this way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
565</p>
566
567</body>
568</section>
569<section>
570<title>Finishing up</title>
571<body>
572
573<p>
472Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now 574Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
473(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 575(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
474ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 576useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or Xfce, but
475environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :) 577that's not part of this guide. Information on installing these desktop
578environments can be found in our <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo
579Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>.
476</p> 580</p>
477 581
478</body> 582</body>
479</section> 583</section>
480</chapter> 584</chapter>
481<chapter> 585
586<chapter id="resources">
482<title>Resources</title> 587<title>Resources</title>
483<section> 588<section>
484<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 589<title>Creating and editing config files</title>
485<body> 590<body>
486 591
487<p>
488First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference
489about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a
490terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
491</p> 592<p>
492 593First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
594complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
595to have them open on a terminal when you edit your configuration files!
493<p> 596</p>
494A second point of resources on your system is the 597
495<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s
496for individual graphical chipsets.
497</p> 598<p>
498 599There are also many online resources on editing config files in
600<path>/etc/X11/</path>. We only list few of them here; be sure to <uri
601link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> for more.
499<p> 602</p>
500There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
501list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
502for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the
503configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
504same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about
505<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
506</p>
507
508<ul>
509 <li>
510 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree
511 Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri>
512 </li>
513 <li>
514 <uri
515 link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
516 Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
517 </li>
518</ul>
519 603
520</body> 604</body>
521</section> 605</section>
522<section> 606<section>
523<title>Other resources</title> 607<title>Other resources</title>
524<body> 608<body>
525 609
526<p> 610<p>
527If you want to update your system from the old monolithic Xorg to the newer, 611More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
528modular Xorg 7, you should refer to the <uri 612environments and applications can be found in the <uri
529link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/modular-x-howto.xml">Migrating to Modular X 613link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
530HOWTO</uri>. 614section of our documentation.
531</p>
532
533<p> 615</p>
534More information about configuring different packages to work in X environment 616
535can be found in the <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop 617<p>
536Documentation Resources</uri> section of our documentation. 618If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.9 from an earlier version, then be
619sure to read the <uri
620link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.9-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
621guide</uri>.
622</p>
623
624<p>
625X.org provides many <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQs</uri> on their
626website, in addition to their other documentation.
537</p> 627</p>
538 628
539</body> 629</body>
540</section> 630</section>
541</chapter> 631</chapter>

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