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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.22 2007/06/09 12:40:12 jkt Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.50 2012/07/24 12:12:51 swift Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide>
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.16</version> 25<version>12</version>
26<date>2007-06-09</date> 26<date>2012-07-24</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87 87
88<chapter> 88<chapter>
89<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
90<section> 90<section>
91<title>Using emerge</title> 91<body>
92
93<p>
94Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96prepare <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97are built and installed.
98</p>
99
92<body> 100</body>
101</section>
102<section>
103<title>Input driver support</title>
104<body>
93 105
94<p>
95Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
96need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
97though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
98</p> 106<p>
99 107By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
100<p> 111</p>
101Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the 112
102<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file. 113<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
114Device Drivers ---&gt;
115 Input device support ---&gt;
116 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117</pre>
118
119</body>
120</section>
121<section>
122<title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123<body>
124
103</p> 125<p>
104 126Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130<b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
105<p> 131</p>
132
133<p>
134First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135Xorg video driver you're using.
136</p>
137
138<pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Graphics support ---&gt;
141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143
144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145 Console display driver support ---&gt;
146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147</pre>
148
149<p>
150Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152your card below.
153</p>
154
155<p>
156For Intel cards:
157</p>
158
159<pre caption="Intel settings">
160Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 8xx/9xx/G3x/G4x/HD Graphics
166 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
167</pre>
168
169<p>
170For nVidia cards:
171</p>
172
173<pre caption="nVidia settings">
174Device Drivers ---&gt;
175 Graphics support ---&gt;
176 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
177 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
178</pre>
179
180<p>
181For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
182up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c> or
183<c>linux-firmware</c>. Once you have installed one of these packages,
184configure your kernel as shown:
185</p>
186
187<pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
188<comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
189Device Drivers ---&gt;
190 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
191 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
192 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
193 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
194 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen:</comment>
195 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
196 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
197 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
198 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
199 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
200 <comment># Radeon HD 6000/7300 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
201 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO2_me.bin
202 radeon/SUMO2_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_me.bin radeon/SUMO_pfp.bin
203 radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
204 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-7600 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
205 (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
206 radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
207 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin radeon/CAYMAN_mc.bin radeon/CAYMAN_me.bin
208 radeon/CAYMAN_pfp.bin radeon/CAYMAN_rlc.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin
209 radeon/TURKS_me.bin radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
210 <comment># Radeon HD 7500/7600 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
211 (radeon/ARUBA_me.bin radeon/ARUBA_pfp.bin radeon/ARUBA_rlc.bin)
212 External firmware blobs
213 <comment># Radeon HD 7700-7900 aka. Southern Islands:</comment>
214 (radeon/PITCAIRN_ce.bin radeon/PITCAIRN_mc.bin radeon/PITCAIRN_me.bin
215 radeon/PITCAIRN_pfp.bin radeon/PITCAIRN_rlc.bin radeon/TAHITI_ce.bin
216 radeon/TAHITI_mc.bin radeon/TAHITI_me.bin radeon/TAHITI_pfp.bin
217 radeon/TAHITI_rlc.bin radeon/VERDE_ce.bin radeon/VERDE_mc.bin
218 radeon/VERDE_me.bin radeon/VERDE_pfp.bin radeon/VERDE_rlc.bin)
219 External firmware blobs
220 <comment># all:</comment>
221 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
222
223<comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
224Device Drivers ---&gt;
225 Graphics support ---&gt;
226 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
227 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
228 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
229</pre>
230
231<note>
232Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
233package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
234and ATI Radeon modesetting.
235</note>
236
237<p>
238Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
239<path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> in the next section.
240</p>
241
242</body>
243</section>
244<section>
245<title>make.conf configuration</title>
246<body>
247
248<p>
249Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
250in the <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
251</p>
252
253<p>
106The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that 254The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
107you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have. 255that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
108The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for 256The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
109ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI 257for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
110respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c> 258drivers.
111rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this 259</p>
112driver means no 3d acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> driver for ATI 260
113cards supports full 3D acceleration on older Radeons but doesn't work at all 261<note>
114with the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in 262You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
115this case list of them should be separated with spaces. 263and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
264beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
265link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
266link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
267drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
268</note>
269
116</p> 270<p>
271The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
272integrated graphics chipsets.
273</p>
274
275<note>
276<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
277space.
278</note>
117 279
118<p> 280<p>
119The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which 281The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
120drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to 282drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
121<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. 283<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
284devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
285<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
122</p> 286</p>
123 287
124<p> 288<p>
125Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to 289Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
126the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file: 290the <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> file:
127</p> 291</p>
128 292
129<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries"> 293<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
130<comment>(For mouse and keyboard support)</comment> 294<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
131INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse" 295INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
132<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment> 296<comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
133VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia" 297VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
134<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment> 298<comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
135VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx" 299VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
136</pre> 300</pre>
137 301
138<p>
139More instructions on how to configure Nvidia and ATI cards can be found in
140<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in
141<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
142which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
143</p> 302<p>
303If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
304xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
305your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
306touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
307</p>
308
309<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
310# <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
311
312These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
313
314Calculating dependencies... done!
315[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
316-acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
317-virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
318VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
319(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
320-nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
321-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
322-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
3230 kB
324</pre>
325
326<p>
327After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
328</p>
329
330<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
331<comment>(Make sure udev is in your USE flags)</comment>
332# <i>echo "x11-base/xorg-server udev" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
333<comment>(Install Xorg)</comment>
334# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
335</pre>
144 336
145<note> 337<note>
146If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv 338You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
147xorg-x11</c>, check all the options available and choose those which 339lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
148apply to your system. In different versions of Xorg and on different 340<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
149architectures displaying these variables can be done with <c>emerge -pv 341packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
150xorg-server</c> command rather than the one above. The example is for x86 342many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
151architecture and xorg-x11-7.0.
152</note> 343</note>
153 344
154<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
155# <i>emerge -pv xorg-x11</i>
156
157These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
158
159Calculating dependencies... done!
160[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-x11-7.0-r1 USE="-3dfx" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard
161mouse -acecad -aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300
162-elographics -evdev -fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -magictouch
163-microtouch -mutouch -palmax -penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957
164-ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus
165-cyrix -dummy -fbdev -fglrx -glint -i128 -i740 -i810 -imstt -mach64 -mga
166-neomagic -nsc -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion
167-sis -sisusb -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0
168kB
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
173</p> 345<p>
174
175<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
176# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i>
177</pre>
178
179<p>
180When the installation is finished, you might need to re-initialise some 346When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
181environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 347environment variables before you continue:
182by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
183</p> 348</p>
184 349
185<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables"> 350<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
186# <i>env-update</i> 351# <i>env-update</i>
187# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 352# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
188</pre> 353</pre>
189 354
190</body> 355</body>
191</section> 356</section>
192</chapter> 357</chapter>
358
193<chapter> 359<chapter>
194<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 360<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
195<section> 361<section>
196<title>The xorg.conf File</title>
197<body>
198
199<p>
200The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it
201resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example
202configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to
203create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need
204of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
205</p>
206
207<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
208# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
209</pre>
210
211<p>
212Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
213with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
214</p>
215
216</body> 362<body>
217</section> 363
364<p>
365The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
366Xorg's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as
367displays, keyboards, and mice.
368</p>
369
370<p>
371You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without editing
372any configuration files. If Xorg won't start, or there's some other problem,
373then you'll need to manually configure Xorg as shown in the next section.
374</p>
375
376</body>
218<section> 377</section>
219<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
220<body>
221
222<p>
223Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
224will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
225running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
226resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
227working) Xorg configuration file.
228</p>
229
230<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
231# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
232</pre>
233
234<p>
235Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
236probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
237manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
238will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
239for you to test. So let's test :)
240</p>
241
242<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
243# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
244</pre>
245
246<p>
247If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
248your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. If you received errors
249about "/dev/mouse", try changing your mouse device to <c>/dev/input/mice</c> in
250the "InputDevice" section of <path>xorg.conf</path>. You might not be able to
251deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You
252can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
253</p>
254
255</body>
256</section> 378<section>
257<section> 379<title>The xorg.conf.d directory</title>
258<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
259<body>
260
261<p>
262Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
263information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
264your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
265</p>
266
267<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
268# <i>xorgconfig</i>
269</pre>
270
271<p>
272Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
273attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
274final tweaking.
275</p>
276
277<pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
278# <i>xorgcfg</i>
279<comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
280# <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
281</pre>
282
283</body> 380<body>
284</section>
285<section>
286<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
287<body>
288 381
289<p> 382<note>
290Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 383Configuring files in <path>xorg.conf.d</path> should be seen as a "last resort"
291<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run 384option. It really desirable to run without any special configuration if
292<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :) 385possible. If you still can't get a working configuration, then read on.
386</note>
387
293</p> 388<p>
294 389The configuration files of Xorg are stored in
295<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 390<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. Each file is given a unique name and ends in
296# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 391<path>.conf</path>. If the filenames start with a number, then Xorg will read
392the files in numeric order. <path>10-evdev.conf</path> will be read before
393<path>20-synaptics.conf</path>, and so on. You don't <e>have</e> to give them
394numbers, but it may help you organize them.
297</pre> 395</p>
396
397<note>
398Xorg provides example configurations in
399<path>/usr/share/doc/xorg-server-${version}/xorg.conf.example.bz2</path>. You
400can use these to create your own configuration files in
401<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. The examples are heavily commented, but if
402you are in need of more documentation regarding the syntax, read <c>man
403xorg.conf</c>. Other examples can be found in the <uri
404link="#resources">Resources</uri> chapter at the end of this guide.
405</note>
298 406
299</body> 407</body>
300</section> 408</section>
301<section id="using_startx"> 409<section id="using_startx">
302<title>Using startx</title> 410<title>Using startx</title>
303<body> 411<body>
304 412
305<p> 413<p>
306Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script 414Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
307that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some 415that executes an <e>X session</e>; that is, it starts the X server and some
308graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run 416graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
309using the following logic: 417using the following logic:
310</p> 418</p>
311 419
312<ul> 420<ul>
313 <li> 421 <li>
315 execute the commands listed there. 423 execute the commands listed there.
316 </li> 424 </li>
317 <li> 425 <li>
318 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 426 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
319 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 427 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
320 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 428 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
321 to make it a default for all the users on the system). 429 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
322 </li> 430 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
323<li> 431 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
324 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager, 432 and set the default X session to <uri
325 usually <c>twm</c>. 433 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
434 after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
326 </li> 435 </li>
327</ul> 436</ul>
328 437
329<pre caption="Starting X"> 438<pre caption="Starting X">
330# <i>startx</i> 439$ <i>startx</i>
331</pre> 440</pre>
332 441
442<p>
443If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
444Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
445<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
333<p> 446</p>
334If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 447
335<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 448<p>
336upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace 449Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few
337combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you 450<c>xterm</c> windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working
338might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 451correctly. Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm
452xterm</c> as root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once
453you've setup a proper desktop environment.
339</p> 454</p>
340 455
341</body> 456</body>
342</section> 457</section>
343</chapter> 458</chapter>
459
344<chapter> 460<chapter>
345<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 461<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
346<section> 462<section>
347<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 463<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
348<body> 464<body>
349 465
350<p> 466<p>
351If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 467If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
352sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 468sections in your <path>xorg.conf.d</path> configuration. First of all, you have
353which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By 469the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions that your X server will
354default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 470run at. This section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the case,
355case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 471Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the second
356second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 472section, <e>Monitor</e>.
357</p>
358
359<p> 473</p>
360What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 474
361<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
362For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
363section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
364look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also
365use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
366<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
367</p> 475<p>
368
369<warn>
370Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
371without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
372incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
373worst.
374</warn>
375
376<p>
377Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 476Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
378<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 477<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</path> we add the
379<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 478<c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our X server starts at 1440x900 by default.
380default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely 479The <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
381differ from the settings on your system. 480monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
481need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
482argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
483<c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
382</p> 484</p>
383 485
384<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 486<pre caption="Changing the Monitor section">
487# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
488
385Section "Screen" 489Section "Device"
386 Identifier "Default Screen" 490 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
387 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]" 491 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
388 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
389 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
390 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
391 SubSection "Display"
392 Depth 24
393 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i>
394 EndSubSection
395EndSection 492EndSection
396</pre> 493Section "Monitor"
397 494 Identifier "DVI screen"
398<p> 495 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
399Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :)
400</p>
401
402</body>
403</section>
404<section>
405<title>Configuring your Keyboard</title>
406<body>
407
408<p>
409To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
410section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
411point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
412for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
413</p>
414
415<pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
416Section "InputDevice"
417 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
418 Driver "keyboard"
419 Option "CoreKeyboard"
420 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
421 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
422 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
423EndSection 496EndSection
424</pre> 497</pre>
425 498
499<p>
500Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
501</p>
502
426</body> 503</body>
427</section>
428<section> 504</section>
429<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 505<section>
506<title>Multiple monitors</title>
430<body> 507<body>
431 508
432<p>
433If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
434by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
435<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
436use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
437case you can check if the devices do represent
438your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
439will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
440<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
441</p> 509<p>
442 510You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>.
443<pre caption="Checking the device files"> 511All you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
444# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i> 512position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
445<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment> 513shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
446</pre> 514right-hand screen:
447
448<p> 515</p>
449If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
450</p>
451 516
452<p> 517<pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors">
453If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 518# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
454<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
455options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
456users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
457mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
458</p>
459 519
460<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
461Section "InputDevice" 520Section "Device"
462 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse" 521 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
463 Driver "mouse" 522 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
464 Option "CorePointer" 523 Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
465 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
466 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
467 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
468EndSection 524EndSection
525Section "Monitor"
526 Identifier "DVI screen"
527EndSection
528Section "Monitor"
529 Identifier "VGA screen"
530 Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
531EndSection
469</pre> 532</pre>
470 533
534</body>
535</section>
536<section>
537<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
538<body>
539
540<p>
541To setup X to use an international keyboard, you just have to create the
542appropriate config file in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. This example
543features a Czech keyboard layout:
471<p> 544</p>
545
546<pre caption="Using an international keyboard">
547# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf</i>
548
549Section "InputClass"
550 Identifier "keyboard-all"
551 Driver "evdev"
552 Option "XkbLayout" "us,cz"
553 Option "XkbModel" "logitech_g15"
554 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
555 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp:switch,grp_led:scroll,compose:rwin,terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
556 Option "XkbVariant" ",qwerty"
557 MatchIsKeyboard "on"
558EndSection
559</pre>
560
561<p>
562The "terminate" command (<c>terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp</c>) lets you kill the X
563session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This will, however,
564make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. It can be
565useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when you're
566configuring and tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your
567desktop with this key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you
568end them this way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
569</p>
570
571</body>
572</section>
573<section>
574<title>Finishing up</title>
575<body>
576
577<p>
472Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now 578Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
473(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 579(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
474ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 580useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or Xfce, but
475environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :) 581that's not part of this guide. Information on installing these desktop
582environments can be found in our <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo
583Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>.
476</p> 584</p>
477 585
478</body> 586</body>
479</section> 587</section>
480</chapter> 588</chapter>
481<chapter> 589
590<chapter id="resources">
482<title>Resources</title> 591<title>Resources</title>
483<section> 592<section>
484<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 593<title>Creating and editing config files</title>
485<body> 594<body>
486 595
487<p>
488First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference
489about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a
490terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
491</p> 596<p>
492 597First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
598complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
599to have them open on a terminal when you edit your configuration files!
493<p> 600</p>
494A second point of resources on your system is the 601
495<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s
496for individual graphical chipsets.
497</p> 602<p>
498 603There are also many online resources on editing config files in
604<path>/etc/X11/</path>. We only list few of them here; be sure to <uri
605link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> for more.
499<p> 606</p>
500There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
501list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
502for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the
503configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
504same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about
505<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
506</p>
507
508<ul>
509 <li>
510 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree
511 Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri>
512 </li>
513 <li>
514 <uri
515 link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
516 Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
517 </li>
518</ul>
519 607
520</body> 608</body>
521</section> 609</section>
522<section> 610<section>
523<title>Other resources</title> 611<title>Other resources</title>
524<body> 612<body>
525 613
526<p> 614<p>
527If you want to update your system from the old monolithic Xorg to the newer, 615More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
528modular Xorg 7, you should refer to the <uri 616environments and applications can be found in the <uri
529link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/modular-x-howto.xml">Migrating to Modular X 617link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
530HOWTO</uri>. 618section of our documentation.
531</p>
532
533<p> 619</p>
534More information about configuring different packages to work in X environment 620
535can be found in the <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop 621<p>
536Documentation Resources</uri> section of our documentation. 622If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.9 from an earlier version, then be
623sure to read the <uri
624link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.9-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
625guide</uri>.
626</p>
627
628<p>
629X.org provides many <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQs</uri> on their
630website, in addition to their other documentation.
537</p> 631</p>
538 632
539</body> 633</body>
540</section> 634</section>
541</chapter> 635</chapter>

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