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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.9 2005/03/25 15:55:32 swift Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.22 2007/06/09 12:40:12 jkt Exp $ -->
4 4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6 6
7<guide link="xorg-config.xml"> 7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
8 8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 10
11<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.8</version> 25<version>1.16</version>
26<date>2005-03-25</date> 26<date>2007-06-09</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47</p> 47</p>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51screen, interacting with the user through mouse and keyboard and other basic yet 51screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
68<title>The X.org Project</title> 68<title>The X.org Project</title>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X11 system. 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87
87<chapter> 88<chapter>
88<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
89<section> 90<section>
90<title>Using emerge</title> 91<title>Using emerge</title>
91<body> 92<body>
94Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 95Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
95need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 96need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
96though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 97though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
97</p> 98</p>
98 99
100<p>
101Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the
102<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
103</p>
104
105<p>
106The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that
107you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have.
108The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for
109ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI
110respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c>
111rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this
112driver means no 3d acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> driver for ATI
113cards supports full 3D acceleration on older Radeons but doesn't work at all
114with the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in
115this case list of them should be separated with spaces.
116</p>
117
118<p>
119The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
120drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
121<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine.
122</p>
123
124<p>
125Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
126the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
127</p>
128
129<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
130<comment>(For mouse and keyboard support)</comment>
131INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse"
132<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
133VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
134<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
135VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx"
136</pre>
137
138<p>
139More instructions on how to configure Nvidia and ATI cards can be found in
140<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in
141<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
142which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
143</p>
144
145<note>
146If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
147xorg-x11</c>, check all the options available and choose those which
148apply to your system. In different versions of Xorg and on different
149architectures displaying these variables can be done with <c>emerge -pv
150xorg-server</c> command rather than the one above. The example is for x86
151architecture and xorg-x11-7.0.
152</note>
153
154<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
155# <i>emerge -pv xorg-x11</i>
156
157These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
158
159Calculating dependencies... done!
160[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-x11-7.0-r1 USE="-3dfx" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard
161mouse -acecad -aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300
162-elographics -evdev -fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -magictouch
163-microtouch -mutouch -palmax -penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957
164-ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus
165-cyrix -dummy -fbdev -fglrx -glint -i128 -i740 -i810 -imstt -mach64 -mga
166-neomagic -nsc -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion
167-sis -sisusb -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0
168kB
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
173</p>
174
99<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 175<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
100# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 176# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i>
101</pre> 177</pre>
102 178
103<p> 179<p>
104When the installation is finished, you might need to reinitialise some 180When the installation is finished, you might need to re-initialise some
105environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 181environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
106by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. This doesn't harm your system 182by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
107in any way.
108</p> 183</p>
109 184
110<pre caption="Reinitialising the environment variables"> 185<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
111# <i>env-update</i> 186# <i>env-update</i>
112# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 187# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
113</pre> 188</pre>
114 189
115</body> 190</body>
167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 242<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 243# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
169</pre> 244</pre>
170 245
171<p> 246<p>
172If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if 247If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
173your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able 248your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. If you received errors
249about "/dev/mouse", try changing your mouse device to <c>/dev/input/mice</c> in
250the "InputDevice" section of <path>xorg.conf</path>. You might not be able to
174to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. 251deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You
175You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. 252can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
176</p> 253</p>
177 254
178</body> 255</body>
179</section> 256</section>
180<section> 257<section>
187your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file. 264your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
188</p> 265</p>
189 266
190<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf"> 267<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
191# <i>xorgconfig</i> 268# <i>xorgconfig</i>
269</pre>
270
271<p>
272Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
273attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
274final tweaking.
275</p>
276
277<pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
278# <i>xorgcfg</i>
279<comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
280# <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
192</pre> 281</pre>
193 282
194</body> 283</body>
195</section> 284</section>
196<section> 285<section>
243 332
244<p> 333<p>
245If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 334If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
246<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 335<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
247upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace 336upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
248combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully - something that you 337combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
249might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 338might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
250</p> 339</p>
251 340
252</body> 341</body>
253</section> 342</section>
259<body> 348<body>
260 349
261<p> 350<p>
262If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 351If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
263sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 352sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section
264which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By 353which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By
265default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 354default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the
266case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 355case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the
267second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 356second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
268</p> 357</p>
269 358
276use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as 365use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
277<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>. 366<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
278</p> 367</p>
279 368
280<warn> 369<warn>
281Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor-related variables 370Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
282without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting 371without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
283incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at 372incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
284worst. 373worst.
285</warn> 374</warn>
286 375
287<p> 376<p>
288Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 377Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
289<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 378<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
290<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 379<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by
291default. Don't mind the given strings - they are examples and will most likely 380default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
292differ from the settings on your system. 381differ from the settings on your system.
293</p> 382</p>
294 383
295<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 384<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
296Section "Screen" 385Section "Screen"
340<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 429<title>Configuring your Mouse</title>
341<body> 430<body>
342 431
343<p> 432<p>
344If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected 433If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
345by the kernel at all. PS/2 mice are (device-wise) seen as 434by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
346<path>/dev/psaux</path>. Other mice (like USBs) are seen as
347<path>/dev/input</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path>). In either case you 435<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
348can check if the devices do represent your mouse by checking the output of those 436use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
349files when you move your mouse. To end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>. 437case you can check if the devices do represent
438your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
439will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
440<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
350</p> 441</p>
351 442
352<pre caption="Checking the device files"> 443<pre caption="Checking the device files">
353# <i>cat /dev/input</i> 444# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
354<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment> 445<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
355</pre> 446</pre>
356 447
357<p> 448<p>
358If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded. 449If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
359</p> 450</p>
360 451
361<p> 452<p>
362If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 453If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
363<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other 454<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
364options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used - most users 455options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
365will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the 456users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
366mousewheel (if applicable) to be used). 457mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
367</p> 458</p>
368 459
369<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg"> 460<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
370Section "InputDevice" 461Section "InputDevice"
371 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse" 462 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
372 Driver "mouse" 463 Driver "mouse"
373 Option "CorePointer" 464 Option "CorePointer"
374 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"</i> 465 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
375 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i> 466 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
376 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i> 467 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
377EndSection 468EndSection
378</pre> 469</pre>
379 470
426 </li> 517 </li>
427</ul> 518</ul>
428 519
429</body> 520</body>
430</section> 521</section>
522<section>
523<title>Other resources</title>
524<body>
525
526<p>
527If you want to update your system from the old monolithic Xorg to the newer,
528modular Xorg 7, you should refer to the <uri
529link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/modular-x-howto.xml">Migrating to Modular X
530HOWTO</uri>.
531</p>
532
533<p>
534More information about configuring different packages to work in X environment
535can be found in the <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop
536Documentation Resources</uri> section of our documentation.
537</p>
538
539</body>
540</section>
431</chapter> 541</chapter>
432</guide> 542</guide>

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