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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.16 2005/09/09 05:57:43 fox2mike Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.28 2009/01/26 08:08:22 nightmorph Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
13</author> 10</author>
11<author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.12</version> 25<version>1.19</version>
26<date>2005-09-09</date> 26<date>2009-01-26</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87 87
88<chapter> 88<chapter>
89<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
90<section> 90<section>
91<title>Using emerge</title>
92<body> 91<body>
93 92
93<p>
94Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the
95<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
94<p> 96</p>
95Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 97
96need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 98<p>
97though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 99The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that
100you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have.
101The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for
102ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI
103respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c>
104rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this
105driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and
106<c>radeonhd</c> drivers for ATI cards support 3D acceleration on older Radeons
107but don't yet support all the features of the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may
108contain more than one driver, in this case list of them should be separated with
109spaces.
110</p>
111
112<p>
113The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
114drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
115<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
116devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
117<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
118</p>
119
120<p>
121Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
122the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
123</p>
124
125<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
126<comment>(For mouse and keyboard support)</comment>
127INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse"
128<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
129VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
130<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
131VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx"
132</pre>
133
134<p>
135More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in
136<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in
137<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
138which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
139</p>
140
141<note>
142If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
143xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
144your system. The example is for the amd64 architecture and
145<c>xorg-server-1.2</c>.
146</note>
147
148<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
149# <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
150
151These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
152
153Calculating dependencies... done!
154[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.2.0-r3 USE="dri nptl xorg (-3dfx) -debug
155-dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -xprint" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse -acecad
156-aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300 -elographics -evdev
157-fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -microtouch -mutouch -palmax
158-penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957 -ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom"
159VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus -cyrix -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
160-glint -i128 (-i740) -i810 (-impact) (-imstt) -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
161(-nsc) -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
162-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
163-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0 kB
164</pre>
165
166<p>
167After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
98</p> 168</p>
99 169
100<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 170<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
101# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 171# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i>
102</pre> 172</pre>
103 173
104<p> 174<p>
105When the installation is finished, you might need to reinitialise some 175When the installation is finished, you might need to re-initialise some
106environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 176environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
107by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. This doesn't harm your system 177by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
108in any way.
109</p> 178</p>
110 179
111<pre caption="Reinitialising the environment variables"> 180<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
112# <i>env-update</i> 181# <i>env-update</i>
113# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 182# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
114</pre> 183</pre>
115 184
116</body> 185</body>
144<section> 213<section>
145<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 214<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
146<body> 215<body>
147 216
148<p> 217<p>
149Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 218Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
150will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 219will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
151running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the 220running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
152resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully 221resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
153working) Xorg configuration file. 222working) Xorg configuration file.
154</p> 223</p>
155 224
156<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 225<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
157# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 226# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
158</pre> 227</pre>
160<p> 229<p>
161Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 230Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
162probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 231probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
163manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 232manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
164will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 233will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
165for you to test. So let's test :) 234for you to test. So let's test. :)
166</p> 235</p>
167 236
168<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 237<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
169# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 238# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
170</pre> 239</pre>
171 240
172<p> 241<p>
173If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if 242If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
174your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able 243your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. If you received errors
244about "/dev/mouse", try changing your mouse device to <c>/dev/input/mice</c> in
245the "InputDevice" section of <path>xorg.conf</path>. You might not be able to
175to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. 246deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You
176You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. 247can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
177</p> 248</p>
178 249
179</body> 250</body>
180</section> 251</section>
181<section> 252<section>
211<body> 282<body>
212 283
213<p> 284<p>
214Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 285Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
215<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run 286<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
216<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :) 287<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
217</p> 288</p>
218 289
219<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 290<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
220# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 291# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
221</pre> 292</pre>
242 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 313 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
243 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 314 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
244 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 315 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
245 to make it a default for all the users on the system). 316 to make it a default for all the users on the system).
246 </li> 317 </li>
247<li> 318 <li>
248 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager, 319 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
249 usually <c>twm</c>. 320 usually <c>twm</c>.
250 </li> 321 </li>
251</ul> 322</ul>
252 323
257<p> 328<p>
258If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 329If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
259<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 330<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
260upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace 331upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
261combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you 332combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
262might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 333might not always want. It doesn't hurt though. :)
263</p> 334</p>
264 335
265</body> 336</body>
266</section> 337</section>
267</chapter> 338</chapter>
318 EndSubSection 389 EndSubSection
319EndSection 390EndSection
320</pre> 391</pre>
321 392
322<p> 393<p>
323Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :) 394Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want. :)
324</p> 395</p>
325 396
326</body> 397</body>
327</section> 398</section>
328<section> 399<section>
355 426
356<p> 427<p>
357If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected 428If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
358by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as 429by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
359<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to 430<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
360use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either 431use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
361case you can check if the devices do represent 432case you can check if the devices do represent
362your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. To 433your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
363end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>. 434will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
435<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
364</p> 436</p>
365 437
366<pre caption="Checking the device files"> 438<pre caption="Checking the device files">
367# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i> 439# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
368<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment> 440<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
371<p> 443<p>
372If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded. 444If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
373</p> 445</p>
374 446
375<p> 447<p>
376If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 448If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
377<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other 449<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
378options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most 450options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
379users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the 451users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
380mousewheel (if applicable) to be used). 452mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
381</p> 453</p>
390 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i> 462 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
391EndSection 463EndSection
392</pre> 464</pre>
393 465
394<p> 466<p>
395Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now 467Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. :) Congratulations, you now
396(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 468(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this
397ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 469ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop
398environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :) 470environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide. :)
399</p> 471</p>
400 472
401</body> 473</body>
402</section> 474</section>
403</chapter> 475</chapter>
406<section> 478<section>
407<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 479<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
408<body> 480<body>
409 481
410<p> 482<p>
411First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference 483First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference
412about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a 484about the syntax used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a
413terminal near you when you edit your configuration file! 485terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
414</p> 486</p>
415 487
416<p> 488<p>
417A second point of resources on your system is the 489Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
418<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s 490to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
419for individual graphical chipsets. 491<path>xorg.conf</path>.
492</p>
493
494<p>
495You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
496on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
420</p> 497</p>
421 498
422<p> 499<p>
423There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 500There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
424list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 501list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
425for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the 502for more. :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the
426configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the 503configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
427same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about 504same syntax for most configuration options and more information about
428<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well. 505<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
429</p> 506</p>
430 507
431<ul> 508<ul>
432 <li> 509 <li>
440 </li> 517 </li>
441</ul> 518</ul>
442 519
443</body> 520</body>
444</section> 521</section>
522<section>
523<title>Other resources</title>
524<body>
525
526<p>
527More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
528environments and applications can be found in the <uri
529link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
530section of our documentation.
531</p>
532
533</body>
534</section>
445</chapter> 535</chapter>
446</guide> 536</guide>

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