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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.25 2007/10/18 18:20:10 nightmorph Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.28 2009/01/26 08:08:22 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7 7
8<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10</author> 10</author>
11<author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author>
11 14
12<abstract> 15<abstract>
13Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
14environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
15install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
16</abstract> 19</abstract>
17 20
18<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
19<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
20<license/> 23<license/>
21 24
22<version>1.17</version> 25<version>1.19</version>
23<date>2007-06-20</date> 26<date>2009-01-26</date>
24 27
25<chapter> 28<chapter>
26<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
27<section> 30<section>
28<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
30 33
31<p> 34<p>
32The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
33Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
34by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
35do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
36environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
37</p> 40</p>
38 41
39<p> 42<p>
40This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
50commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
51and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
52</p> 55</p>
53 56
54<p> 57<p>
55The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
56user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
57the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
58compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
59The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
60</p> 63</p>
61 64
62</body> 65</body>
63</section> 66</section>
66<body> 69<body>
67 70
68<p> 71<p>
69The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
70maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
71system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
72</p> 75</p>
73 76
74<p> 77<p>
75Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
76you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
77are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
78one. 81one.
79</p> 82</p>
80 83
81</body> 84</body>
82</section> 85</section>
83</chapter> 86</chapter>
84 87
85<chapter> 88<chapter>
86<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
87<section> 90<section>
88<title>Using emerge</title>
89<body> 91<body>
90
91<p>
92Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
93need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
94though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
95</p>
96 92
97<p> 93<p>
98Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the 94Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the
99<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file. 95<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
100</p> 96</p>
104you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have. 100you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have.
105The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for 101The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for
106ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI 102ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI
107respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c> 103respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c>
108rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this 104rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this
109driver means no 3d acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> driver for ATI 105driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and
110cards supports full 3D acceleration on older Radeons but doesn't work at all 106<c>radeonhd</c> drivers for ATI cards support 3D acceleration on older Radeons
111with the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in 107but don't yet support all the features of the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may
112this case list of them should be separated with spaces. 108contain more than one driver, in this case list of them should be separated with
109spaces.
113</p> 110</p>
114 111
115<p> 112<p>
116The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which 113The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
117drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to 114drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
118<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. 115<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
116devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
117<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
119</p> 118</p>
120 119
121<p> 120<p>
122Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to 121Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
123the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file: 122the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
131<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment> 130<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
132VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx" 131VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx"
133</pre> 132</pre>
134 133
135<p> 134<p>
136More instructions on how to configure Nvidia and ATI cards can be found in 135More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in
137<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in 136<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in
138<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know 137<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
139which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information. 138which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
140</p> 139</p>
141 140
214<section> 213<section>
215<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 214<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
216<body> 215<body>
217 216
218<p> 217<p>
219Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 218Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
220will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 219will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
221running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the 220running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
222resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully 221resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
223working) Xorg configuration file. 222working) Xorg configuration file.
224</p> 223</p>
225 224
226<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 225<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
227# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 226# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
228</pre> 227</pre>
427 426
428<p> 427<p>
429If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected 428If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
430by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as 429by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
431<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to 430<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
432use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either 431use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
433case you can check if the devices do represent 432case you can check if the devices do represent
434your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You 433your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
435will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press 434will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
436<c>Ctrl-C</c>. 435<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
437</p> 436</p>
444<p> 443<p>
445If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded. 444If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
446</p> 445</p>
447 446
448<p> 447<p>
449If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 448If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
450<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other 449<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
451options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most 450options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
452users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the 451users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
453mousewheel (if applicable) to be used). 452mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
454</p> 453</p>
479<section> 478<section>
480<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 479<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
481<body> 480<body>
482 481
483<p> 482<p>
484First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference 483First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference
485about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a 484about the syntax used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a
486terminal near you when you edit your configuration file! 485terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
487</p> 486</p>
488 487
489<p> 488<p>
490A second point of resources on your system is the 489Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
491<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>s 490to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
492for individual graphical chipsets. 491<path>xorg.conf</path>.
492</p>
493
494<p>
495You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
496on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
493</p> 497</p>
494 498
495<p> 499<p>
496There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 500There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
497list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 501list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
518<section> 522<section>
519<title>Other resources</title> 523<title>Other resources</title>
520<body> 524<body>
521 525
522<p> 526<p>
523If you want to update your system from the old monolithic Xorg to the newer, 527More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
524modular Xorg 7, you should refer to the <uri 528environments and applications can be found in the <uri
525link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/modular-x-howto.xml">Migrating to Modular X 529link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
526HOWTO</uri>. 530section of our documentation.
527</p>
528
529<p>
530More information about configuring different packages to work in X environment
531can be found in the <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop
532Documentation Resources</uri> section of our documentation.
533</p> 531</p>
534 532
535</body> 533</body>
536</section> 534</section>
537</chapter> 535</chapter>

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