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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.28 2009/01/26 08:08:22 nightmorph Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.37 2010/03/16 20:07:43 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide>
6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7 7
8<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author> 10</author>
11<author title="Editor"> 11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/> 12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.19</version> 25<version>1.27</version>
26<date>2009-01-26</date> 26<date>2010-03-16</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87 87
88<chapter> 88<chapter>
89<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
90<section> 90<section>
91<title>Kernel configuration</title>
92<body>
93
94<p>
95By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
96activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
97configuration. (Read the
98<uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel Configuration Guide</uri> if you
99don't know how to setup your kernel.)
100</p>
101
102<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
103Device Drivers ---&gt;
104 Input device support ---&gt;
105 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
106</pre>
107
91<body> 108</body>
109</section>
110<section>
111<title>make.conf configuration</title>
112<body>
92 113
93<p> 114<p>
94Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the 115Before you install Xorg, you have to configure two important variables in the
95<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file. 116<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
96</p> 117</p>
97 118
98<p> 119<p>
99The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that 120The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
100you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have. 121that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you
101The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for 122have. The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or
102ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI 123<c>fglrx</c> for ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia
103respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c> 124and ATI respectively. If you would like to use the open source nVidia driver,
104rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this 125use <c>nv</c> rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that
105driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and 126using this driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and
106<c>radeonhd</c> drivers for ATI cards support 3D acceleration on older Radeons 127<c>radeonhd</c> drivers are available for ATI cards, and are more or less the
107but don't yet support all the features of the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may 128equal of the proprietary <c>fglrx</c> driver. The <c>intel</c> driver may be
108contain more than one driver, in this case list of them should be separated with 129used for desktops or laptops with common Intel integrated graphics chipsets.
109spaces. 130<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in this case list of them
131should be separated with spaces.
110</p> 132</p>
111 133
112<p> 134<p>
113The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which 135The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
114drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to 136drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
115<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input 137<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
116devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to 138devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
117<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>. 139<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
118</p> 140</p>
119 141
120<p> 142<p>
121Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to 143Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
122the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file: 144the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
123</p> 145</p>
124 146
125<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries"> 147<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
126<comment>(For mouse and keyboard support)</comment> 148<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
127INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse" 149INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
128<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment> 150<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
129VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia" 151VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
130<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment> 152<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
131VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx" 153VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
132</pre> 154</pre>
133 155
134<p> 156<note>
135More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in 157More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in the
136<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in 158<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in the
137<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know 159<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
138which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information. 160which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
139</p>
140
141<note> 161</note>
162
163<p>
142If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv 164If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
143xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to 165xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
144your system. The example is for the amd64 architecture and 166your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
145<c>xorg-server-1.2</c>. 167touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
146</note> 168</p>
147 169
148<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available"> 170<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
149# <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i> 171# <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
150 172
151These are the packages that would be merged, in order: 173These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
152 174
153Calculating dependencies... done! 175Calculating dependencies... done!
154[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.2.0-r3 USE="dri nptl xorg (-3dfx) -debug 176[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.6.3.901-r2 USE="hal nptl xorg -debug
155-dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -xprint" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse -acecad 177-dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -tslib" 0 kB
156-aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300 -elographics -evdev 178[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.6 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
157-fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -microtouch -mutouch -palmax 179-acecad -aiptek -citron -elographics -fpit -hyperpen -joystick -keyboard -mouse
158-penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957 -ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom" 180-mutouch -penmount -tslib -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
159VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus -cyrix -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx 181VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
160-glint -i128 (-i740) -i810 (-impact) (-imstt) -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport) 182(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) (-imstt) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic
161(-nsc) -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis 183(-newport) -nv -nvidia -r128 -radeonhd -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage
162-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx) 184-siliconmotion -sis -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb)
163-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0 kB 185(-sunleo) (-suntcx) -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l (-vermilion) -vesa -via
186-virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)" 0 kB
164</pre> 187</pre>
165 188
166<p> 189<p>
167After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package. 190After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
168</p> 191</p>
169 192
170<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 193<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
171# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 194# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
172</pre> 195</pre>
173 196
197<note>
198You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
199lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
200<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
201packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
202many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
203</note>
204
174<p> 205<p>
175When the installation is finished, you might need to re-initialise some 206When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
176environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 207environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
177by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. 208by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
178</p> 209</p>
179 210
180<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables"> 211<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
181# <i>env-update</i> 212# <i>env-update</i>
182# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 213# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
183</pre> 214</pre>
184 215
216<p>
217Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
218automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
219environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
220just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
221link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
222</p>
223
224<pre caption="Starting HAL">
225# <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
226# <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
227</pre>
228
185</body> 229</body>
186</section> 230</section>
187</chapter> 231</chapter>
232
188<chapter> 233<chapter>
189<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 234<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
235<section id="using_hal">
236<title>Using HAL</title>
237<body>
238
239<p>
240Recent X server versions are designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to
241manually edit Xorg's configuration files.
242</p>
243
244<p>
245You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
246<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
247</p>
248
249<p>
250If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
251keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
252configuration files.
253</p>
254
255<p>
256By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
257devices such as keyboards and mice.
258</p>
259
260<p>
261HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
262files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
263that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
264<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
265</p>
266
267<impo>
268Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
269you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
270location.
271</impo>
272
273<p>
274For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
275the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
276</p>
277
278<pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
279# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
280# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
281</pre>
282
283<p>
284There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
285may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
286management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
287<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
288</p>
289
290<impo>
291Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
292need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
293</impo>
294
295<p>
296You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
297liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
298functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
299</p>
300
301<p>
302One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
303Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
304etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
305</p>
306
307<p>
308Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
309can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
310<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
311line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
312</p>
313
314<pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
315<comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
316# <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
317<comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
318&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
319<comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
320&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
321 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
322 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
323 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
324 string="Linux"&gt;
325 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
326 &lt;/match&gt;
327 &lt;/match&gt;
328</pre>
329
330<p>
331Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
332changes.
333</p>
334
335<p>
336There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
337useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
338tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
339key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
340way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
341</p>
342
343<p>
344Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
345If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
346manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
347</p>
348
349</body>
190<section> 350</section>
351<section>
191<title>The xorg.conf File</title> 352<title>The xorg.conf file</title>
192<body> 353<body>
193 354
355<note>
356Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It
357really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your
358configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working
359configuration, then read on.
360</note>
361
194<p> 362<p>
195The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it 363The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides
196resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example 364in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as
197configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to 365<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own
198create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need 366configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more
199of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page: 367documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
200</p> 368</p>
201 369
202<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page"> 370<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
203# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i> 371$ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
204</pre>
205
206<p>
207Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
208with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
209</p> 372</pre>
210 373
211</body> 374</body>
212</section>
213<section> 375</section>
376<section>
214<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 377<title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
215<body> 378<body>
216 379
217<p> 380<p>
218Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 381Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
219will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 382will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
233will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 396will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
234for you to test. So let's test. :) 397for you to test. So let's test. :)
235</p> 398</p>
236 399
237<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 400<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
238# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 401# <i>X -config -retro /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
239</pre> 402</pre>
240 403
241<p> 404<p>
242If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if 405If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
243your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. If you received errors 406your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
244about "/dev/mouse", try changing your mouse device to <c>/dev/input/mice</c> in
245the "InputDevice" section of <path>xorg.conf</path>. You might not be able to
246deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You 407to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
247can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. 408You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
248</p>
249
250</body>
251</section>
252<section>
253<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
254<body>
255
256<p> 409</p>
257Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
258information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
259your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
260</p>
261
262<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
263# <i>xorgconfig</i>
264</pre>
265
266<p>
267Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
268attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
269final tweaking.
270</p>
271
272<pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
273# <i>xorgcfg</i>
274<comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
275# <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
276</pre>
277 410
278</body> 411</body>
279</section> 412</section>
280<section> 413<section>
281<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title> 414<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
282<body> 415<body>
283 416
284<p> 417<p>
285Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 418Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
286<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run 419<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
287<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is easier. :) 420<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
288</p> 421</p>
289 422
290<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 423<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
291# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 424# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
292</pre> 425</pre>
296<section id="using_startx"> 429<section id="using_startx">
297<title>Using startx</title> 430<title>Using startx</title>
298<body> 431<body>
299 432
300<p> 433<p>
301Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script 434Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
302that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some 435that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
303graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run 436graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
304using the following logic: 437using the following logic:
305</p> 438</p>
306 439
307<ul> 440<ul>
308 <li> 441 <li>
310 execute the commands listed there. 443 execute the commands listed there.
311 </li> 444 </li>
312 <li> 445 <li>
313 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 446 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
314 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 447 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
315 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 448 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
316 to make it a default for all the users on the system). 449 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users on
317 </li> 450 the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
318 <li> 451 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
319 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager, 452 and set the default X session to Xfce4.
320 usually <c>twm</c>.
321 </li> 453 </li>
322</ul> 454</ul>
323 455
324<pre caption="Starting X"> 456<pre caption="Starting X">
325# <i>startx</i> 457$ <i>startx</i>
326</pre> 458</pre>
327 459
460<p>
461You can kill the X session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This
462will, however, make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always
463want.
328<p> 464</p>
329If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 465
330<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 466<p>
331upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace 467If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
332combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you 468Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
333might not always want. It doesn't hurt though. :) 469<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
470</p>
471
472<p>
473Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few xterm
474windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working correctly.
475Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm xterm</c> as
476root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once you've setup a
477proper desktop environment.
334</p> 478</p>
335 479
336</body> 480</body>
337</section> 481</section>
338</chapter> 482</chapter>
483
339<chapter> 484<chapter>
340<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 485<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
341<section> 486<section>
342<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 487<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
343<body> 488<body>
344 489
345<p> 490<p>
346If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 491If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
347sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 492sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
348which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By 493the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server
349default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 494will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If
350case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 495this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in
351second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 496the second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
352</p> 497</p>
353 498
354<p> 499<p>
355What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 500What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
356<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions. 501<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
357For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e> 502For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
358section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to 503section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
359look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also 504look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
360use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
361<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
362</p> 505</p>
363 506
364<warn> 507<warn>
365Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables 508Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
366without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting 509without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
369</warn> 512</warn>
370 513
371<p> 514<p>
372Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 515Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
373<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 516<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
374<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 517<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1440x900 by
375default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely 518default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
376differ from the settings on your system. 519differ from the settings on your system.
377</p> 520</p>
378 521
379<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 522<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
380Section "Screen" 523Section "Screen"
381 Identifier "Default Screen" 524 Identifier "Default Screen"
382 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]" 525 Device "RadeonHD 4550"
383 Monitor "Generic Monitor" 526 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
384 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i> 527 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
385 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment> 528 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
386 SubSection "Display" 529 SubSection "Display"
387 Depth 24 530 Depth 24
388 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i> 531 <i>Modes "1440x900"</i>
389 EndSubSection 532 EndSubSection
390EndSection 533EndSection
391</pre> 534</pre>
392 535
393<p> 536<p>
394Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want. :) 537Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
395</p> 538</p>
396 539
397</body> 540</body>
398</section>
399<section> 541</section>
542<section>
400<title>Configuring your Keyboard</title> 543<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
401<body>
402
403<p>
404To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
405section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
406point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
407for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
408</p>
409
410<pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
411Section "InputDevice"
412 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
413 Driver "keyboard"
414 Option "CoreKeyboard"
415 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
416 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
417 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
418EndSection
419</pre>
420
421</body> 544<body>
422</section> 545
546<p>
547To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
548<path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
549<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
550</p>
551
552<pre caption="Using an existing config file">
553# <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
554</pre>
555
556<p>
557Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the
558Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain
559(<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>).
560</p>
561
562<p>
563When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure
564that HAL picks up your configuration file changes.
565</p>
566
567</body>
423<section> 568</section>
424<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 569<section>
570<title>Finishing up</title>
425<body> 571<body>
426 572
427<p>
428If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
429by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
430<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
431use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
432case you can check if the devices do represent
433your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
434will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
435<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
436</p> 573<p>
437
438<pre caption="Checking the device files">
439# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
440<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
441</pre>
442
443<p>
444If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
445</p>
446
447<p>
448If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
449<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
450options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
451users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
452mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
453</p>
454
455<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
456Section "InputDevice"
457 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
458 Driver "mouse"
459 Option "CorePointer"
460 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
461 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
462 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
463EndSection
464</pre>
465
466<p>
467Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. :) Congratulations, you now 574Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
468(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 575(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
469ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 576useful window manager (or even a desktop environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but
470environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide. :) 577that's not part of this guide.
471</p> 578</p>
472 579
473</body> 580</body>
474</section> 581</section>
475</chapter> 582</chapter>
583
476<chapter> 584<chapter>
477<title>Resources</title> 585<title>Resources</title>
478<section> 586<section>
479<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 587<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
480<body> 588<body>
481 589
482<p> 590<p>
483First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference 591First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
484about the syntax used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a 592complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
485terminal near you when you edit your configuration file! 593to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration
594files!
486</p> 595</p>
487 596
488<p> 597<p>
489Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish 598Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
490to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own 599to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
497</p> 606</p>
498 607
499<p> 608<p>
500There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 609There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
501list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 610list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
502for more. :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the 611for more.
503configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
504same syntax for most configuration options and more information about
505<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
506</p> 612</p>
507
508<ul>
509 <li>
510 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree
511 Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri>
512 </li>
513 <li>
514 <uri
515 link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
516 Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
517 </li>
518</ul>
519 613
520</body> 614</body>
521</section> 615</section>
522<section> 616<section>
523<title>Other resources</title> 617<title>Other resources</title>
528environments and applications can be found in the <uri 622environments and applications can be found in the <uri
529link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri> 623link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
530section of our documentation. 624section of our documentation.
531</p> 625</p>
532 626
627<p>
628If you're upgrading to xorg-server-1.6 from an earlier version, then be sure to
629read the <uri
630link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.6-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
631guide</uri>.
632</p>
633
533</body> 634</body>
534</section> 635</section>
535</chapter> 636</chapter>
536</guide> 637</guide>

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