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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.31 2009/10/02 07:37:57 nightmorph Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.32 2009/12/09 01:35:03 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide>
6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7 7
8<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10</author> 10</author>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.22</version> 25<version>1.23</version>
26<date>2009-10-02</date> 26<date>2009-12-08</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87 87
88<chapter> 88<chapter>
89<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
90<section> 90<section>
91<title>Kernel configuration</title>
92<body>
93
94<p>
95By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
96activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
97configuration. (Read the
98<uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel Configuration Guide</uri> if you
99don't know how to setup your kernel.)
100</p>
101
102<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
103Device Drivers ---&gt;
104 Input device support ---&gt;
105 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
106</pre>
107
91<body> 108</body>
109</section>
110<section>
111<title>make.conf configuration</title>
112<body>
92 113
93<p> 114<p>
94Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the 115Before you install Xorg, you have to configure two important variables in the
95<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file. 116<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
96</p> 117</p>
97 118
98<p> 119<p>
99The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that 120The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
100you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have. 121that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you
101The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for 122have. The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or
102ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI 123<c>fglrx</c> for ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia
103respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c> 124and ATI respectively. If you would like to use the open source nVidia driver,
104rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this 125use <c>nv</c> rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that
105driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and 126using this driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and
106<c>radeonhd</c> drivers for ATI cards support 3D acceleration on older Radeons 127<c>radeonhd</c> drivers are available for ATI cards, and are more or less the
107but don't yet support all the features of the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may 128equal of the proprietary <c>fglrx</c> driver. The <c>intel</c> driver may be
108contain more than one driver, in this case list of them should be separated with 129used for desktops or laptops with common Intel integrated graphics chipsets.
109spaces. 130<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in this case list of them
131should be separated with spaces.
110</p> 132</p>
111 133
112<p> 134<p>
113The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which 135The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
114drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to 136drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
115<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input 137<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
116devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to 138devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
117<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>. 139<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
118</p> 140</p>
119 141
120<p> 142<p>
121Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to 143Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
122the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file: 144the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
123</p> 145</p>
124 146
125<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries"> 147<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
126<comment>(For mouse and keyboard support)</comment> 148<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
127INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse" 149INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
128<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment> 150<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
129VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia" 151VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
130<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment> 152<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
131VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx" 153VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
132</pre> 154</pre>
133 155
134<p> 156<note>
135More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in 157More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in the
136<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in 158<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in the
137<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know 159<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
138which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information. 160which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
139</p>
140
141<note> 161</note>
162
163<p>
142If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv 164If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
143xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to 165xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
144your system. The example is for the amd64 architecture and 166your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
145<c>xorg-server-1.2</c>. 167touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
146</note> 168</p>
147 169
148<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available"> 170<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
149# <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i> 171# <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
150 172
151These are the packages that would be merged, in order: 173These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
152 174
153Calculating dependencies... done! 175Calculating dependencies... done!
154[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.2.0-r3 USE="dri nptl xorg (-3dfx) -debug 176[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.6.3.901-r2 USE="hal nptl xorg -debug
155-dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -xprint" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse -acecad 177-dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -tslib" 0 kB
156-aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300 -elographics -evdev 178[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.6 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
157-fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -microtouch -mutouch -palmax 179-acecad -aiptek -citron -elographics -fpit -hyperpen -joystick -keyboard -mouse
158-penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957 -ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom" 180-mutouch -penmount -tslib -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
159VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus -cyrix -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx 181VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
160-glint -i128 (-i740) -i810 (-impact) (-imstt) -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport) 182(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) (-imstt) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic
161(-nsc) -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis 183(-newport) -nv -nvidia -r128 -radeonhd -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage
162-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx) 184-siliconmotion -sis -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb)
163-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0 kB 185(-sunleo) (-suntcx) -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l (-vermilion) -vesa -via
186-virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)" 0 kB
164</pre> 187</pre>
165 188
166<p> 189<p>
167After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package. 190After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
168</p> 191</p>
171# <i>emerge xorg-server</i> 194# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
172</pre> 195</pre>
173 196
174<note> 197<note>
175You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more 198You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
176lightweight xorg-server. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and <c>xorg-server</c> 199lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
177are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more packages that 200<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
178you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in many different 201packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
179languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop. 202many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
180</note> 203</note>
181 204
182<p> 205<p>
183When the installation is finished, you might need to re-initialise some 206When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
184environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 207environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
185by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. 208by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
186</p> 209</p>
187 210
188<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables"> 211<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
191</pre> 214</pre>
192 215
193</body> 216</body>
194</section> 217</section>
195</chapter> 218</chapter>
219
196<chapter> 220<chapter>
197<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 221<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
198<section> 222<section>
223<title>Using HAL</title>
224<body>
225
226<p>
227Recent X server versions are designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to
228manually configure Xorg's configuration files.
229</p>
230
231<p>
232You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
233<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
234</p>
235
236<p>
237If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
238keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
239configuration files.
240</p>
241
242<p>
243By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
244devices such as keyboards and mice.
245</p>
246
247<p>
248HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
249files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
250that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
251<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
252</p>
253
254<impo>
255Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
256you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
257location.
258</impo>
259
260<p>
261For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
262the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
263</p>
264
265<pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
266# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
267# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
268</pre>
269
270<p>
271There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
272may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
273management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
274<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
275</p>
276
277<p>
278You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
279liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
280functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
281</p>
282
283<p>
284One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
285Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
286etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
287</p>
288
289<p>
290Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
291can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
292<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
293line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
294</p>
295
296<pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
297<comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
298# <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
299<comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
300&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
301<comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
302&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
303 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
304 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge>&gt;</i>
305 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
306 string="Linux"&gt;
307 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
308 &lt;/match&gt;
309 &lt;/match&gt;
310</pre>
311
312<p>
313There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
314useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
315tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
316key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
317way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
318</p>
319
320<p>
321Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
322If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
323manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
324</p>
325
326</body>
327</section>
328<section>
199<title>The xorg.conf File</title> 329<title>The xorg.conf file</title>
200<body> 330<body>
331
332<note>
333Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It
334really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your
335configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working
336configuration, then read on.
337</note>
201 338
202<p> 339<p>
203The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides 340The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides
204in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as 341in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as
205<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own 342<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own
206configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more 343configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more
207documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page: 344documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
208</p> 345</p>
209 346
210<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page"> 347<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
211# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i> 348$ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
212</pre>
213
214<p>
215Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
216with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
217</p> 349</pre>
218 350
219</body> 351</body>
220</section>
221<section> 352</section>
353<section>
222<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 354<title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
223<body> 355<body>
224 356
225<p> 357<p>
226Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 358Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
227will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 359will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
246# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 378# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
247</pre> 379</pre>
248 380
249<p> 381<p>
250If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if 382If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
251your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. If you received errors 383your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
252about "/dev/mouse", try changing your mouse device to <c>/dev/input/mice</c> in
253the "InputDevice" section of <path>xorg.conf</path>. You might not be able to
254deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You 384to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
255can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. 385You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
256</p>
257
258</body>
259</section>
260<section>
261<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
262<body>
263
264<p> 386</p>
265Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
266information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
267your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
268</p>
269
270<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
271# <i>xorgconfig</i>
272</pre>
273
274<p>
275Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
276attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
277final tweaking.
278</p>
279
280<pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
281# <i>xorgcfg</i>
282<comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
283# <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
284</pre>
285 387
286</body> 388</body>
287</section> 389</section>
288<section> 390<section>
289<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title> 391<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
290<body> 392<body>
291 393
292<p> 394<p>
293Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 395Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
294<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run 396<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
295<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is easier. :) 397<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
296</p> 398</p>
297 399
298<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 400<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
299# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 401# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
300</pre> 402</pre>
304<section id="using_startx"> 406<section id="using_startx">
305<title>Using startx</title> 407<title>Using startx</title>
306<body> 408<body>
307 409
308<p> 410<p>
309Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script 411Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
310that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some 412that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
311graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run 413graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
312using the following logic: 414using the following logic:
313</p> 415</p>
314 416
315<ul> 417<ul>
316 <li> 418 <li>
339<p> 441<p>
340If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 442If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
341<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 443<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
342upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace 444upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
343combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you 445combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
344might not always want. It doesn't hurt though. :) 446might not always want.
345</p> 447</p>
346 448
347</body> 449</body>
348</section> 450</section>
349</chapter> 451</chapter>
452
350<chapter> 453<chapter>
351<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 454<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
352<section> 455<section>
353<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 456<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
354<body> 457<body>
355 458
356<p> 459<p>
357If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 460If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
358sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 461sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
359which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By 462the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server
360default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 463will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If
361case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 464this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in
362second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 465the second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
363</p> 466</p>
364 467
365<p> 468<p>
366What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 469What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
367<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions. 470<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
368For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e> 471For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
369section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to 472section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
370look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also 473look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
371use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
372<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
373</p> 474</p>
374 475
375<warn> 476<warn>
376Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables 477Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
377without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting 478without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
380</warn> 481</warn>
381 482
382<p> 483<p>
383Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 484Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
384<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 485<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
385<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 486<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1440x900 by
386default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely 487default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
387differ from the settings on your system. 488differ from the settings on your system.
388</p> 489</p>
389 490
390<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 491<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
391Section "Screen" 492Section "Screen"
392 Identifier "Default Screen" 493 Identifier "Default Screen"
393 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]" 494 Device "RadeonHD 4550"
394 Monitor "Generic Monitor" 495 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
395 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i> 496 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
396 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment> 497 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
397 SubSection "Display" 498 SubSection "Display"
398 Depth 24 499 Depth 24
399 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i> 500 <i>Modes "1440x900"</i>
400 EndSubSection 501 EndSubSection
401EndSection 502EndSection
402</pre> 503</pre>
403 504
404<p> 505<p>
406</p> 507</p>
407 508
408</body> 509</body>
409</section> 510</section>
410<section> 511<section>
411<title>Configuring your Keyboard</title> 512<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
412<body>
413
414<p>
415To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
416section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
417point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
418for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
419</p>
420
421<pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
422Section "InputDevice"
423 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
424 Driver "keyboard"
425 Option "CoreKeyboard"
426 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
427 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
428 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
429EndSection
430</pre>
431
432</body> 513<body>
433</section> 514
515<p>
516To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
517<path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
518<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
519</p>
520
521<pre caption="Using an existing config file">
522# <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
523</pre>
524
525<p>
526Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the
527Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain
528(<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>).
529</p>
530
531<p>
532When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure
533that HAL picks up your configuration file changes.
534</p>
535
536</body>
434<section> 537</section>
435<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 538<section>
539<title>Finishing up</title>
436<body> 540<body>
437 541
438<p>
439If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
440by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
441<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
442use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
443case you can check if the devices do represent
444your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
445will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
446<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
447</p> 542<p>
448
449<pre caption="Checking the device files">
450# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
451<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
452</pre>
453
454<p>
455If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
456</p>
457
458<p>
459If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
460<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
461options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
462users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
463mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
464</p>
465
466<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
467Section "InputDevice"
468 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
469 Driver "mouse"
470 Option "CorePointer"
471 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
472 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
473 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
474EndSection
475</pre>
476
477<p>
478Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. :) Congratulations, you now 543Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
479(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 544(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this
480ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 545ugly lightweight window manager (twm) and use a high-feature one (or even a
481environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide. :) 546desktop environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide.
482</p> 547</p>
483 548
484</body> 549</body>
485</section> 550</section>
486</chapter> 551</chapter>
552
487<chapter> 553<chapter>
488<title>Resources</title> 554<title>Resources</title>
489<section> 555<section>
490<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 556<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
491<body> 557<body>
492 558
493<p> 559<p>
494First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference 560First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
495about the syntax used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a 561complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
496terminal near you when you edit your configuration file! 562to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration
563files!
497</p> 564</p>
498 565
499<p> 566<p>
500Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish 567Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
501to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own 568to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
508</p> 575</p>
509 576
510<p> 577<p>
511There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 578There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
512list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 579list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
513for more. :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the 580for more.
514configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
515same syntax for most configuration options and more information about
516<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
517</p> 581</p>
518
519<ul>
520 <li>
521 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree
522 Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri>
523 </li>
524 <li>
525 <uri
526 link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
527 Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
528 </li>
529</ul>
530 582
531</body> 583</body>
532</section> 584</section>
533<section> 585<section>
534<title>Other resources</title> 586<title>Other resources</title>
540link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri> 592link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
541section of our documentation. 593section of our documentation.
542</p> 594</p>
543 595
544<p> 596<p>
545If you're upgrading to xorg-server-1.5 from an earlier version, then be sure to 597If you're upgrading to xorg-server-1.6 from an earlier version, then be sure to
546read the <uri 598read the <uri
547link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.5-upgrade-guide.xml">migration 599link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.6-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
548guide</uri>. 600guide</uri>.
549</p> 601</p>
550 602
551</body> 603</body>
552</section> 604</section>

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