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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.8 2005/02/14 09:26:19 swift Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.17 2005/09/09 06:01:15 fox2mike Exp $ -->
4 4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6 6
7<guide link="xorg-config.xml"> 7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
8 8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 10
11<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.7</version> 25<version>1.13</version>
26<date>2005-02-07</date> 26<date>2005-09-09</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47</p> 47</p>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51screen, interacting with the user through mouse and keyboard and other basic yet 51screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
68<title>The X.org Project</title> 68<title>The X.org Project</title>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X11 system. 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87
87<chapter> 88<chapter>
88<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
89<section> 90<section>
90<title>Using emerge</title> 91<title>Using emerge</title>
91<body> 92<body>
167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 168<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 169# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
169</pre> 170</pre>
170 171
171<p> 172<p>
172If all goes well, you should see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed 173If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
173window manager called <c>twm</c>, probably the smallest window manager 174your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
174available. Try moving your mouse and see if your keyboard and such is working. 175to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
175In the next section we will optimize our <path>xorg.conf</path> so it fits your 176You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
176hardware. Now go into one of the terminals you see on your screen and type in
177<c>exit</c> (or press Ctrl-D) until Xorg shuts down. If you are unable to
178use your mouse to focus the terminals, you can also press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to
179kill the X server.
180</p>
181
182<p>
183If <c>twm</c> doesn't load, don't worry - it will once you'll start the X server
184through the regular <c>startx</c> command. Verify if your mouse works correctly
185and if the resolution is good. You might not be able to deduce the exact
186resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You can exit any time
187by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
188</p> 177</p>
189 178
190</body> 179</body>
191</section> 180</section>
192<section> 181<section>
201 190
202<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf"> 191<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
203# <i>xorgconfig</i> 192# <i>xorgconfig</i>
204</pre> 193</pre>
205 194
195<p>
196Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
197attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
198final tweaking.
199</p>
200
201<pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
202# <i>xorgcfg</i>
203<comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
204# <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
205</pre>
206
207</body>
208</section>
209<section>
210<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
211<body>
212
213<p>
214Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
215<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
216<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :)
217</p>
218
219<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
220# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
221</pre>
222
223</body>
224</section>
225<section id="using_startx">
226<title>Using startx</title>
227<body>
228
229<p>
230Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
231that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
232graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
233using the following logic:
234</p>
235
236<ul>
237 <li>
238 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
239 execute the commands listed there.
240 </li>
241 <li>
242 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
243 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
244 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
245 to make it a default for all the users on the system).
246 </li>
247<li>
248 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
249 usually <c>twm</c>.
250 </li>
251</ul>
252
253<pre caption="Starting X">
254# <i>startx</i>
255</pre>
256
257<p>
258If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
259<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
260upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
261combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
262might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
263</p>
264
206</body> 265</body>
207</section> 266</section>
208</chapter> 267</chapter>
209<chapter> 268<chapter>
210<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 269<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
211<section> 270<section>
212<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
213<body>
214
215<p>
216Let us first copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
217<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> so we won't have to continuously run <c>Xorg
218-config</c> -- typing <c>startx</c> is far more easy :)
219</p>
220
221<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
222# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
223</pre>
224
225<p>
226Now run <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. It will use the freshly copied
227file as its configuration file. To finish the X session, type in <c>exit</c> or
228Ctrl-D in the upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the
229Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -
230something that you might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
231</p>
232
233<pre caption="Starting X">
234# <i>startx</i>
235</pre>
236
237</body>
238</section>
239<section>
240<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 271<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
241<body> 272<body>
242 273
243<p> 274<p>
244If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 275If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
245sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 276sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section
246which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By 277which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By
247default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 278default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the
248case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 279case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the
249second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 280second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
250</p> 281</p>
251 282
258use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as 289use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
259<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>. 290<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
260</p> 291</p>
261 292
262<warn> 293<warn>
263Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor-related variables 294Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
264without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting 295without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
265incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at 296incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
266worst. 297worst.
267</warn> 298</warn>
268 299
269<p> 300<p>
270Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 301Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
271<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 302<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
272<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 303<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by
273default. Don't mind the given strings - they are examples and will most likely 304default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
274differ from the settings on your system. 305differ from the settings on your system.
275</p> 306</p>
276 307
277<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 308<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
278Section "Screen" 309Section "Screen"
322<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 353<title>Configuring your Mouse</title>
323<body> 354<body>
324 355
325<p> 356<p>
326If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected 357If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
327by the kernel at all. PS/2 mice are (device-wise) seen as 358by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
328<path>/dev/psaux</path>. Other mice (like USBs) are seen as
329<path>/dev/input</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path>). In either case you 359<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
330can check if the devices do represent your mouse by checking the output of those 360use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
331files when you move your mouse. To end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>. 361case you can check if the devices do represent
362your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
363will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
364<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
332</p> 365</p>
333 366
334<pre caption="Checking the device files"> 367<pre caption="Checking the device files">
335# <i>cat /dev/input</i> 368# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
336<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment> 369<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
337</pre> 370</pre>
338 371
339<p> 372<p>
340If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded. 373If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
341</p> 374</p>
342 375
343<p> 376<p>
344If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 377If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
345<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other 378<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
346options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used - most users 379options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
347will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the 380users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
348mousewheel (if applicable) to be used). 381mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
349</p> 382</p>
350 383
351<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg"> 384<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
352Section "InputDevice" 385Section "InputDevice"
353 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse" 386 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
354 Driver "mouse" 387 Driver "mouse"
355 Option "CorePointer" 388 Option "CorePointer"
356 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"</i> 389 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
357 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i> 390 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
358 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i> 391 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
359EndSection 392EndSection
360</pre> 393</pre>
361 394

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