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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.8 2005/02/14 09:26:19 swift Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.19 2006/11/28 20:01:21 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6 6
7<guide link="xorg-config.xml"> 7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
8 8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 10
11<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 12 <mail link="sven.vermeulen@siphos.be">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.7</version> 25<version>1.15</version>
26<date>2005-02-07</date> 26<date>2006-11-28</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47</p> 47</p>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51screen, interacting with the user through mouse and keyboard and other basic yet 51screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
68<title>The X.org Project</title> 68<title>The X.org Project</title>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X11 system. 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87
87<chapter> 88<chapter>
88<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
89<section> 90<section>
90<title>Using emerge</title> 91<title>Using emerge</title>
91<body> 92<body>
94Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 95Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
95need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 96need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
96though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 97though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
97</p> 98</p>
98 99
100<p>
101Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the
102<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
103</p>
104
105<p>
106The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that
107you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have.
108The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for
109ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI
110respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c>
111rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this
112driver means no 3d acceleration at all. Use <c>radeon</c> in case you have an
113ATI card for the same. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in
114this case list of them should be separated with spaces.
115</p>
116
117<p>
118The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
119drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
120<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine.
121</p>
122
123<p>
124Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
125the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
126</p>
127
128<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
129<comment>(For mouse and keyboard support)</comment>
130INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse"
131<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
132VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
133<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
134VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx"
135</pre>
136
137<p>
138More instructions on how to configure Nvidia and ATI cards can be found in
139<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in
140<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
141which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
142</p>
143
144<note>
145If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
146xorg-x11</c>, check all the options available and choose those which
147apply to your system. In different versions of Xorg and on different
148architectures displaying these variables can be done with <c>emerge -pv
149xorg-server</c> command rather than the one above. The example is for x86
150architecture and xorg-x11-7.0.
151</note>
152
153<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
154# <i>emerge -pv xorg-x11</i>
155
156These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
157
158Calculating dependencies... done!
159[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-x11-7.0-r1 USE="-3dfx" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard
160mouse -acecad -aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300
161-elographics -evdev -fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -magictouch
162-microtouch -mutouch -palmax -penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957
163-ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus
164-cyrix -dummy -fbdev -fglrx -glint -i128 -i740 -i810 -imstt -mach64 -mga
165-neomagic -nsc -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion
166-sis -sisusb -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0
167kB
168</pre>
169
170<p>
171After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
172</p>
173
99<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 174<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
100# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 175# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i>
101</pre> 176</pre>
102 177
103<p> 178<p>
104When the installation is finished, you might need to reinitialise some 179When the installation is finished, you might need to re-initialise some
105environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 180environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
106by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. This doesn't harm your system 181by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
107in any way.
108</p> 182</p>
109 183
110<pre caption="Reinitialising the environment variables"> 184<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
111# <i>env-update</i> 185# <i>env-update</i>
112# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 186# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
113</pre> 187</pre>
114 188
115</body> 189</body>
167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 241<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 242# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
169</pre> 243</pre>
170 244
171<p> 245<p>
172If all goes well, you should see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed 246If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
173window manager called <c>twm</c>, probably the smallest window manager 247your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
174available. Try moving your mouse and see if your keyboard and such is working. 248to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
175In the next section we will optimize our <path>xorg.conf</path> so it fits your 249You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
176hardware. Now go into one of the terminals you see on your screen and type in
177<c>exit</c> (or press Ctrl-D) until Xorg shuts down. If you are unable to
178use your mouse to focus the terminals, you can also press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to
179kill the X server.
180</p>
181
182<p>
183If <c>twm</c> doesn't load, don't worry - it will once you'll start the X server
184through the regular <c>startx</c> command. Verify if your mouse works correctly
185and if the resolution is good. You might not be able to deduce the exact
186resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You can exit any time
187by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
188</p> 250</p>
189 251
190</body> 252</body>
191</section> 253</section>
192<section> 254<section>
201 263
202<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf"> 264<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
203# <i>xorgconfig</i> 265# <i>xorgconfig</i>
204</pre> 266</pre>
205 267
268<p>
269Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
270attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
271final tweaking.
272</p>
273
274<pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
275# <i>xorgcfg</i>
276<comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
277# <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
278</pre>
279
280</body>
281</section>
282<section>
283<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
284<body>
285
286<p>
287Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
288<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
289<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :)
290</p>
291
292<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
293# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
294</pre>
295
296</body>
297</section>
298<section id="using_startx">
299<title>Using startx</title>
300<body>
301
302<p>
303Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
304that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
305graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
306using the following logic:
307</p>
308
309<ul>
310 <li>
311 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
312 execute the commands listed there.
313 </li>
314 <li>
315 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
316 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
317 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
318 to make it a default for all the users on the system).
319 </li>
320<li>
321 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
322 usually <c>twm</c>.
323 </li>
324</ul>
325
326<pre caption="Starting X">
327# <i>startx</i>
328</pre>
329
330<p>
331If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
332<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
333upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
334combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
335might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
336</p>
337
206</body> 338</body>
207</section> 339</section>
208</chapter> 340</chapter>
209<chapter> 341<chapter>
210<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 342<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
211<section> 343<section>
212<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
213<body>
214
215<p>
216Let us first copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
217<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> so we won't have to continuously run <c>Xorg
218-config</c> -- typing <c>startx</c> is far more easy :)
219</p>
220
221<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
222# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
223</pre>
224
225<p>
226Now run <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. It will use the freshly copied
227file as its configuration file. To finish the X session, type in <c>exit</c> or
228Ctrl-D in the upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the
229Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -
230something that you might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
231</p>
232
233<pre caption="Starting X">
234# <i>startx</i>
235</pre>
236
237</body>
238</section>
239<section>
240<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 344<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
241<body> 345<body>
242 346
243<p> 347<p>
244If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 348If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
245sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 349sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section
246which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By 350which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By
247default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 351default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the
248case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 352case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the
249second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 353second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
250</p> 354</p>
251 355
258use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as 362use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
259<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>. 363<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
260</p> 364</p>
261 365
262<warn> 366<warn>
263Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor-related variables 367Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
264without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting 368without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
265incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at 369incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
266worst. 370worst.
267</warn> 371</warn>
268 372
269<p> 373<p>
270Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 374Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
271<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 375<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
272<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 376<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by
273default. Don't mind the given strings - they are examples and will most likely 377default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
274differ from the settings on your system. 378differ from the settings on your system.
275</p> 379</p>
276 380
277<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 381<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
278Section "Screen" 382Section "Screen"
322<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 426<title>Configuring your Mouse</title>
323<body> 427<body>
324 428
325<p> 429<p>
326If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected 430If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
327by the kernel at all. PS/2 mice are (device-wise) seen as 431by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
328<path>/dev/psaux</path>. Other mice (like USBs) are seen as
329<path>/dev/input</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path>). In either case you 432<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
330can check if the devices do represent your mouse by checking the output of those 433use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
331files when you move your mouse. To end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>. 434case you can check if the devices do represent
435your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
436will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
437<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
332</p> 438</p>
333 439
334<pre caption="Checking the device files"> 440<pre caption="Checking the device files">
335# <i>cat /dev/input</i> 441# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
336<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment> 442<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
337</pre> 443</pre>
338 444
339<p> 445<p>
340If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded. 446If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
341</p> 447</p>
342 448
343<p> 449<p>
344If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 450If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
345<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other 451<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
346options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used - most users 452options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
347will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the 453users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
348mousewheel (if applicable) to be used). 454mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
349</p> 455</p>
350 456
351<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg"> 457<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
352Section "InputDevice" 458Section "InputDevice"
353 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse" 459 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
354 Driver "mouse" 460 Driver "mouse"
355 Option "CorePointer" 461 Option "CorePointer"
356 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"</i> 462 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
357 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i> 463 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
358 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i> 464 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
359EndSection 465EndSection
360</pre> 466</pre>
361 467
408 </li> 514 </li>
409</ul> 515</ul>
410 516
411</body> 517</body>
412</section> 518</section>
519<section>
520<title>Other resources</title>
521<body>
522
523<p>
524If you want to update your system from the old monolithic Xorg to the newer,
525modular Xorg 7, you should refer to the <uri
526link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/modular-x-howto.xml">Migrating to Modular X
527HOWTO</uri>.
528</p>
529
530<p>
531More information about configuring different packages to work in X environment
532can be found in the <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop
533Documentation Resources</uri> section of our documentation.
534</p>
535
536</body>
537</section>
413</chapter> 538</chapter>
414</guide> 539</guide>

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