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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.8 2005/02/14 09:26:19 swift Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.22 2007/06/09 12:40:12 jkt Exp $ -->
4 4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6 6
7<guide link="xorg-config.xml"> 7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
8 8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 10
11<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.7</version> 25<version>1.16</version>
26<date>2005-02-07</date> 26<date>2007-06-09</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47</p> 47</p>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51screen, interacting with the user through mouse and keyboard and other basic yet 51screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
68<title>The X.org Project</title> 68<title>The X.org Project</title>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X11 system. 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87
87<chapter> 88<chapter>
88<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
89<section> 90<section>
90<title>Using emerge</title> 91<title>Using emerge</title>
91<body> 92<body>
94Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 95Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
95need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 96need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
96though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 97though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
97</p> 98</p>
98 99
100<p>
101Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the
102<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
103</p>
104
105<p>
106The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that
107you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have.
108The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for
109ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI
110respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c>
111rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this
112driver means no 3d acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> driver for ATI
113cards supports full 3D acceleration on older Radeons but doesn't work at all
114with the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in
115this case list of them should be separated with spaces.
116</p>
117
118<p>
119The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
120drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
121<c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine.
122</p>
123
124<p>
125Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
126the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
127</p>
128
129<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
130<comment>(For mouse and keyboard support)</comment>
131INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse"
132<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
133VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
134<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
135VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx"
136</pre>
137
138<p>
139More instructions on how to configure Nvidia and ATI cards can be found in
140<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in
141<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
142which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
143</p>
144
145<note>
146If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
147xorg-x11</c>, check all the options available and choose those which
148apply to your system. In different versions of Xorg and on different
149architectures displaying these variables can be done with <c>emerge -pv
150xorg-server</c> command rather than the one above. The example is for x86
151architecture and xorg-x11-7.0.
152</note>
153
154<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
155# <i>emerge -pv xorg-x11</i>
156
157These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
158
159Calculating dependencies... done!
160[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-x11-7.0-r1 USE="-3dfx" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard
161mouse -acecad -aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300
162-elographics -evdev -fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -magictouch
163-microtouch -mutouch -palmax -penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957
164-ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom" VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus
165-cyrix -dummy -fbdev -fglrx -glint -i128 -i740 -i810 -imstt -mach64 -mga
166-neomagic -nsc -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion
167-sis -sisusb -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0
168kB
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
173</p>
174
99<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 175<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
100# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 176# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i>
101</pre> 177</pre>
102 178
103<p> 179<p>
104When the installation is finished, you might need to reinitialise some 180When the installation is finished, you might need to re-initialise some
105environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 181environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
106by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. This doesn't harm your system 182by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
107in any way.
108</p> 183</p>
109 184
110<pre caption="Reinitialising the environment variables"> 185<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
111# <i>env-update</i> 186# <i>env-update</i>
112# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 187# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
113</pre> 188</pre>
114 189
115</body> 190</body>
167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 242<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 243# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
169</pre> 244</pre>
170 245
171<p> 246<p>
172If all goes well, you should see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed 247If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
173window manager called <c>twm</c>, probably the smallest window manager 248your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. If you received errors
174available. Try moving your mouse and see if your keyboard and such is working. 249about "/dev/mouse", try changing your mouse device to <c>/dev/input/mice</c> in
175In the next section we will optimize our <path>xorg.conf</path> so it fits your 250the "InputDevice" section of <path>xorg.conf</path>. You might not be able to
176hardware. Now go into one of the terminals you see on your screen and type in
177<c>exit</c> (or press Ctrl-D) until Xorg shuts down. If you are unable to
178use your mouse to focus the terminals, you can also press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to
179kill the X server.
180</p>
181
182<p>
183If <c>twm</c> doesn't load, don't worry - it will once you'll start the X server
184through the regular <c>startx</c> command. Verify if your mouse works correctly
185and if the resolution is good. You might not be able to deduce the exact
186resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You can exit any time 251deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You
187by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. 252can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
188</p> 253</p>
189 254
190</body> 255</body>
191</section> 256</section>
192<section> 257<section>
201 266
202<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf"> 267<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
203# <i>xorgconfig</i> 268# <i>xorgconfig</i>
204</pre> 269</pre>
205 270
271<p>
272Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
273attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
274final tweaking.
275</p>
276
277<pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
278# <i>xorgcfg</i>
279<comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
280# <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
281</pre>
282
283</body>
284</section>
285<section>
286<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
287<body>
288
289<p>
290Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
291<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
292<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :)
293</p>
294
295<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
296# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
297</pre>
298
299</body>
300</section>
301<section id="using_startx">
302<title>Using startx</title>
303<body>
304
305<p>
306Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
307that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
308graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
309using the following logic:
310</p>
311
312<ul>
313 <li>
314 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
315 execute the commands listed there.
316 </li>
317 <li>
318 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
319 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
320 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
321 to make it a default for all the users on the system).
322 </li>
323<li>
324 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
325 usually <c>twm</c>.
326 </li>
327</ul>
328
329<pre caption="Starting X">
330# <i>startx</i>
331</pre>
332
333<p>
334If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
335<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
336upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
337combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
338might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
339</p>
340
206</body> 341</body>
207</section> 342</section>
208</chapter> 343</chapter>
209<chapter> 344<chapter>
210<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 345<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
211<section> 346<section>
212<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
213<body>
214
215<p>
216Let us first copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
217<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> so we won't have to continuously run <c>Xorg
218-config</c> -- typing <c>startx</c> is far more easy :)
219</p>
220
221<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
222# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
223</pre>
224
225<p>
226Now run <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. It will use the freshly copied
227file as its configuration file. To finish the X session, type in <c>exit</c> or
228Ctrl-D in the upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the
229Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -
230something that you might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
231</p>
232
233<pre caption="Starting X">
234# <i>startx</i>
235</pre>
236
237</body>
238</section>
239<section>
240<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 347<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
241<body> 348<body>
242 349
243<p> 350<p>
244If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 351If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
245sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 352sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section
246which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By 353which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By
247default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 354default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the
248case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 355case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the
249second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 356second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
250</p> 357</p>
251 358
258use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as 365use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
259<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>. 366<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
260</p> 367</p>
261 368
262<warn> 369<warn>
263Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor-related variables 370Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
264without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting 371without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
265incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at 372incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
266worst. 373worst.
267</warn> 374</warn>
268 375
269<p> 376<p>
270Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 377Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
271<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 378<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
272<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 379<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by
273default. Don't mind the given strings - they are examples and will most likely 380default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
274differ from the settings on your system. 381differ from the settings on your system.
275</p> 382</p>
276 383
277<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 384<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
278Section "Screen" 385Section "Screen"
322<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 429<title>Configuring your Mouse</title>
323<body> 430<body>
324 431
325<p> 432<p>
326If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected 433If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
327by the kernel at all. PS/2 mice are (device-wise) seen as 434by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
328<path>/dev/psaux</path>. Other mice (like USBs) are seen as
329<path>/dev/input</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path>). In either case you 435<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
330can check if the devices do represent your mouse by checking the output of those 436use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
331files when you move your mouse. To end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>. 437case you can check if the devices do represent
438your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
439will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
440<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
332</p> 441</p>
333 442
334<pre caption="Checking the device files"> 443<pre caption="Checking the device files">
335# <i>cat /dev/input</i> 444# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
336<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment> 445<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
337</pre> 446</pre>
338 447
339<p> 448<p>
340If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded. 449If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
341</p> 450</p>
342 451
343<p> 452<p>
344If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 453If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
345<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other 454<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
346options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used - most users 455options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
347will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the 456users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
348mousewheel (if applicable) to be used). 457mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
349</p> 458</p>
350 459
351<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg"> 460<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
352Section "InputDevice" 461Section "InputDevice"
353 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse" 462 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
354 Driver "mouse" 463 Driver "mouse"
355 Option "CorePointer" 464 Option "CorePointer"
356 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"</i> 465 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
357 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i> 466 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
358 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i> 467 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
359EndSection 468EndSection
360</pre> 469</pre>
361 470
408 </li> 517 </li>
409</ul> 518</ul>
410 519
411</body> 520</body>
412</section> 521</section>
522<section>
523<title>Other resources</title>
524<body>
525
526<p>
527If you want to update your system from the old monolithic Xorg to the newer,
528modular Xorg 7, you should refer to the <uri
529link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/modular-x-howto.xml">Migrating to Modular X
530HOWTO</uri>.
531</p>
532
533<p>
534More information about configuring different packages to work in X environment
535can be found in the <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop
536Documentation Resources</uri> section of our documentation.
537</p>
538
539</body>
540</section>
413</chapter> 541</chapter>
414</guide> 542</guide>

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