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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.8 2005/02/14 09:26:19 swift Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.33 2009/12/17 04:37:10 nightmorph Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide>
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
13</author> 10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.7</version> 25<version>1.23</version>
26<date>2005-02-07</date> 26<date>2009-12-08</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47</p> 47</p>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51screen, interacting with the user through mouse and keyboard and other basic yet 51screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
68<title>The X.org Project</title> 68<title>The X.org Project</title>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X11 system. 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87
87<chapter> 88<chapter>
88<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
89<section> 90<section>
90<title>Using emerge</title> 91<title>Kernel configuration</title>
92<body>
93
94<p>
95By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
96activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
97configuration. (Read the
98<uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel Configuration Guide</uri> if you
99don't know how to setup your kernel.)
100</p>
101
102<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
103Device Drivers ---&gt;
104 Input device support ---&gt;
105 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
106</pre>
107
91<body> 108</body>
109</section>
110<section>
111<title>make.conf configuration</title>
112<body>
92 113
114<p>
115Before you install Xorg, you have to configure two important variables in the
116<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
93<p> 117</p>
94Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 118
95need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 119<p>
96though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 120The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
121that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you
122have. The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or
123<c>fglrx</c> for ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia
124and ATI respectively. If you would like to use the open source nVidia driver,
125use <c>nv</c> rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that
126using this driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and
127<c>radeonhd</c> drivers are available for ATI cards, and are more or less the
128equal of the proprietary <c>fglrx</c> driver. The <c>intel</c> driver may be
129used for desktops or laptops with common Intel integrated graphics chipsets.
130<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in this case list of them
131should be separated with spaces.
132</p>
133
134<p>
135The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
136drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
137<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
138devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
139<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
140</p>
141
142<p>
143Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
144the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
145</p>
146
147<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
148<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
149INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
150<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
151VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
152<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
153VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
154</pre>
155
156<note>
157More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in the
158<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in the
159<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
160which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
161</note>
162
163<p>
164If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
165xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
166your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
167touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
168</p>
169
170<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
171# <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
172
173These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
174
175Calculating dependencies... done!
176[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.6.3.901-r2 USE="hal nptl xorg -debug
177-dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -tslib" 0 kB
178[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.6 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
179-acecad -aiptek -citron -elographics -fpit -hyperpen -joystick -keyboard -mouse
180-mutouch -penmount -tslib -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
181VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
182(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) (-imstt) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic
183(-newport) -nv -nvidia -r128 -radeonhd -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage
184-siliconmotion -sis -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb)
185(-sunleo) (-suntcx) -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l (-vermilion) -vesa -via
186-virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)" 0 kB
187</pre>
188
189<p>
190After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
97</p> 191</p>
98 192
99<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 193<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
100# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 194# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
101</pre> 195</pre>
102 196
197<note>
198You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
199lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
200<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
201packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
202many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
203</note>
204
103<p> 205<p>
104When the installation is finished, you might need to reinitialise some 206When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
105environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 207environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
106by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. This doesn't harm your system 208by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
107in any way.
108</p> 209</p>
109 210
110<pre caption="Reinitialising the environment variables"> 211<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
111# <i>env-update</i> 212# <i>env-update</i>
112# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 213# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
113</pre> 214</pre>
114 215
115</body> 216</body>
116</section> 217</section>
117</chapter> 218</chapter>
219
118<chapter> 220<chapter>
119<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 221<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
120<section> 222<section>
223<title>Using HAL</title>
224<body>
225
226<p>
227Recent X server versions are designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to
228manually configure Xorg's configuration files.
229</p>
230
231<p>
232You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
233<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
234</p>
235
236<p>
237If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
238keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
239configuration files.
240</p>
241
242<p>
243By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
244devices such as keyboards and mice.
245</p>
246
247<p>
248HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
249files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
250that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
251<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
252</p>
253
254<impo>
255Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
256you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
257location.
258</impo>
259
260<p>
261For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
262the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
263</p>
264
265<pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
266# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
267# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
268</pre>
269
270<p>
271There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
272may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
273management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
274<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
275</p>
276
277<p>
278You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
279liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
280functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
281</p>
282
283<p>
284One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
285Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
286etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
287</p>
288
289<p>
290Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
291can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
292<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
293line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
294</p>
295
296<pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
297<comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
298# <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
299<comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
300&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
301<comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
302&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
303 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
304 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
305 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
306 string="Linux"&gt;
307 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
308 &lt;/match&gt;
309 &lt;/match&gt;
310</pre>
311
312<p>
313There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
314useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
315tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
316key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
317way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
318</p>
319
320<p>
321Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
322If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
323manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
324</p>
325
326</body>
327</section>
328<section>
121<title>The xorg.conf File</title> 329<title>The xorg.conf file</title>
122<body> 330<body>
123 331
332<note>
333Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It
334really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your
335configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working
336configuration, then read on.
337</note>
338
124<p> 339<p>
125The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it 340The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides
126resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example 341in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as
127configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to 342<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own
128create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need 343configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more
129of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page: 344documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
130</p> 345</p>
131 346
132<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page"> 347<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
133# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i> 348$ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
134</pre>
135
136<p>
137Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
138with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
139</p> 349</pre>
140 350
141</body> 351</body>
142</section>
143<section> 352</section>
353<section>
144<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 354<title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
145<body> 355<body>
146 356
147<p> 357<p>
148Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 358Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
149will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 359will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
150running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the 360running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
151resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully 361resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
152working) Xorg configuration file. 362working) Xorg configuration file.
153</p> 363</p>
154 364
155<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 365<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
156# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 366# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
157</pre> 367</pre>
159<p> 369<p>
160Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 370Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
161probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 371probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
162manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 372manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
163will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 373will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
164for you to test. So let's test :) 374for you to test. So let's test. :)
165</p> 375</p>
166 376
167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 377<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 378# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
169</pre> 379</pre>
170 380
171<p> 381<p>
172If all goes well, you should see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed 382If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
173window manager called <c>twm</c>, probably the smallest window manager 383your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
174available. Try moving your mouse and see if your keyboard and such is working. 384to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
175In the next section we will optimize our <path>xorg.conf</path> so it fits your 385You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
176hardware. Now go into one of the terminals you see on your screen and type in
177<c>exit</c> (or press Ctrl-D) until Xorg shuts down. If you are unable to
178use your mouse to focus the terminals, you can also press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to
179kill the X server.
180</p>
181
182<p> 386</p>
183If <c>twm</c> doesn't load, don't worry - it will once you'll start the X server
184through the regular <c>startx</c> command. Verify if your mouse works correctly
185and if the resolution is good. You might not be able to deduce the exact
186resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You can exit any time
187by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
188</p>
189 387
190</body> 388</body>
191</section>
192<section> 389</section>
193<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
194<body>
195
196<p>
197Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
198information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
199your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
200</p>
201
202<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
203# <i>xorgconfig</i>
204</pre>
205
206</body>
207</section>
208</chapter>
209<chapter>
210<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
211<section> 390<section>
212<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title> 391<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
213<body> 392<body>
214 393
215<p> 394<p>
216Let us first copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 395Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
217<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> so we won't have to continuously run <c>Xorg 396<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
218-config</c> -- typing <c>startx</c> is far more easy :) 397<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
219</p> 398</p>
220 399
221<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 400<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
222# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 401# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
223</pre> 402</pre>
224 403
225<p> 404</body>
226Now run <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. It will use the freshly copied 405</section>
227file as its configuration file. To finish the X session, type in <c>exit</c> or 406<section id="using_startx">
228Ctrl-D in the upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the 407<title>Using startx</title>
229Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully - 408<body>
230something that you might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 409
231</p> 410<p>
411Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
412that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
413graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
414using the following logic:
415</p>
416
417<ul>
418 <li>
419 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
420 execute the commands listed there.
421 </li>
422 <li>
423 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
424 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
425 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
426 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users on
427 the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
428 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
429 and set the default X session to Xfce4.
430 </li>
431 <li>
432 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
433 usually <c>twm</c>.
434 </li>
435</ul>
232 436
233<pre caption="Starting X"> 437<pre caption="Starting X">
234# <i>startx</i> 438# <i>startx</i>
235</pre> 439</pre>
236 440
441<p>
442If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
443<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
444upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
445combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
446might not always want.
447</p>
448
237</body> 449</body>
238</section> 450</section>
451</chapter>
452
453<chapter>
454<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
239<section> 455<section>
240<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 456<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
241<body> 457<body>
242 458
243<p> 459<p>
244If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 460If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
245sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 461sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
246which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By 462the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server
247default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 463will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If
248case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 464this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in
249second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 465the second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
250</p> 466</p>
251 467
252<p> 468<p>
253What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 469What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
254<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions. 470<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
255For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e> 471For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
256section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to 472section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
257look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also 473look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
258use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
259<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
260</p> 474</p>
261 475
262<warn> 476<warn>
263Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor-related variables 477Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
264without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting 478without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
265incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at 479incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
266worst. 480worst.
267</warn> 481</warn>
268 482
269<p> 483<p>
270Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 484Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
271<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 485<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
272<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 486<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1440x900 by
273default. Don't mind the given strings - they are examples and will most likely 487default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
274differ from the settings on your system. 488differ from the settings on your system.
275</p> 489</p>
276 490
277<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 491<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
278Section "Screen" 492Section "Screen"
279 Identifier "Default Screen" 493 Identifier "Default Screen"
280 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]" 494 Device "RadeonHD 4550"
281 Monitor "Generic Monitor" 495 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
282 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i> 496 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
283 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment> 497 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
284 SubSection "Display" 498 SubSection "Display"
285 Depth 24 499 Depth 24
286 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i> 500 <i>Modes "1440x900"</i>
287 EndSubSection 501 EndSubSection
288EndSection 502EndSection
289</pre> 503</pre>
290 504
291<p> 505<p>
292Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :) 506Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want. :)
293</p> 507</p>
294 508
295</body> 509</body>
296</section>
297<section> 510</section>
511<section>
298<title>Configuring your Keyboard</title> 512<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
299<body>
300
301<p>
302To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
303section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
304point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
305for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
306</p>
307
308<pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
309Section "InputDevice"
310 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
311 Driver "keyboard"
312 Option "CoreKeyboard"
313 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
314 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
315 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
316EndSection
317</pre>
318
319</body> 513<body>
320</section> 514
515<p>
516To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
517<path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
518<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
519</p>
520
521<pre caption="Using an existing config file">
522# <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
523</pre>
524
525<p>
526Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the
527Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain
528(<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>).
529</p>
530
531<p>
532When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure
533that HAL picks up your configuration file changes.
534</p>
535
536</body>
321<section> 537</section>
322<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 538<section>
539<title>Finishing up</title>
323<body> 540<body>
324 541
325<p>
326If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
327by the kernel at all. PS/2 mice are (device-wise) seen as
328<path>/dev/psaux</path>. Other mice (like USBs) are seen as
329<path>/dev/input</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path>). In either case you
330can check if the devices do represent your mouse by checking the output of those
331files when you move your mouse. To end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>.
332</p> 542<p>
333
334<pre caption="Checking the device files">
335# <i>cat /dev/input</i>
336<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
337</pre>
338
339<p>
340If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
341</p>
342
343<p>
344If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
345<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
346options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used - most users
347will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
348mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
349</p>
350
351<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
352Section "InputDevice"
353 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
354 Driver "mouse"
355 Option "CorePointer"
356 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"</i>
357 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
358 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
359EndSection
360</pre>
361
362<p>
363Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now 543Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
364(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 544(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this
365ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 545ugly lightweight window manager (twm) and use a high-feature one (or even a
366environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :) 546desktop environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide.
367</p> 547</p>
368 548
369</body> 549</body>
370</section> 550</section>
371</chapter> 551</chapter>
552
372<chapter> 553<chapter>
373<title>Resources</title> 554<title>Resources</title>
374<section> 555<section>
375<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 556<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
376<body> 557<body>
377 558
378<p> 559<p>
379First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference 560First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
380about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a 561complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
381terminal near you when you edit your configuration file! 562to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration
382</p> 563files!
383
384<p> 564</p>
385A second point of resources on your system is the 565
386<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s 566<p>
387for individual graphical chipsets. 567Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
568to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
569<path>xorg.conf</path>.
570</p>
571
572<p>
573You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
574on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
388</p> 575</p>
389 576
390<p> 577<p>
391There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 578There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
392list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 579list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
393for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the 580for more.
394configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the 581</p>
395same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about 582
396<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well. 583</body>
584</section>
585<section>
586<title>Other resources</title>
587<body>
588
397</p> 589<p>
590More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
591environments and applications can be found in the <uri
592link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
593section of our documentation.
594</p>
398 595
399<ul> 596<p>
400 <li> 597If you're upgrading to xorg-server-1.6 from an earlier version, then be sure to
401 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree 598read the <uri
402 Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri> 599link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.6-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
403 </li> 600guide</uri>.
404 <li> 601</p>
405 <uri
406 link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
407 Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
408 </li>
409</ul>
410 602
411</body> 603</body>
412</section> 604</section>
413</chapter> 605</chapter>
414</guide> 606</guide>

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