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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.8 2005/02/14 09:26:19 swift Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.41 2010/10/12 23:13:18 nightmorph Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide>
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.7</version> 25<version>3</version>
26<date>2005-02-07</date> 26<date>2010-10-12</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47</p> 47</p>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51screen, interacting with the user through mouse and keyboard and other basic yet 51screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
68<title>The X.org Project</title> 68<title>The X.org Project</title>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X11 system. 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87
87<chapter> 88<chapter>
88<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
89<section> 90<section>
90<title>Using emerge</title> 91<body>
92
93<p>
94Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97are built and installed.
98</p>
99
91<body> 100</body>
101</section>
102<section>
103<title>Input driver support</title>
104<body>
92 105
106<p>
107By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
93<p> 111</p>
94Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 112
95need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 113<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
96though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 114Device Drivers ---&gt;
115 Input device support ---&gt;
116 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117</pre>
118
119</body>
120</section>
121<section>
122<title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123<body>
124
125<p>
126Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130<b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131</p>
132
133<p>
134First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135Xorg video driver you're using.
136</p>
137
138<pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Graphics support ---&gt;
141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143
144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145 Console display driver support ---&gt;
146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147</pre>
148
149<p>
150Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151Intel, nVidia, and ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152your card below.
153</p>
154
155<p>
156For Intel cards:
157</p>
158
159<pre caption="Intel settings">
160Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166 i915 driver
167 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168</pre>
169
170<p>
171For nVidia cards:
172</p>
173
174<pre caption="nVidia settings">
175<comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176Device Drivers ---&gt;
177 Graphics support ---&gt;
178 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179
180<comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181Device Drivers ---&gt;
182 Staging drivers ---&gt;
183 [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185</pre>
186
187<p>
188For newer ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c>. Once you have installed
190<c>radeon-ucode</c>, configure your kernel as shown:
191</p>
192
193<pre caption="ATI settings">
194<comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
195Device Drivers ---&gt;
196 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
197 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
198 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
199 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
200 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
201 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
202 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
203 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
204 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
205 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
206 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
207
208<comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
209Device Drivers ---&gt;
210 Graphics support ---&gt;
211 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
212 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
213 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
214</pre>
215
216<note>
217Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
218package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
219and ATI Radeon modesetting.
220</note>
221
222<p>
223Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
224<path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
225</p>
226
227</body>
228</section>
229<section>
230<title>make.conf configuration</title>
231<body>
232
233<p>
234Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
235in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
236</p>
237
238<p>
239The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
240that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
241The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
242for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
243drivers.
244</p>
245
246<note>
247You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and ATI, <c>nvidia</c> and
248<c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
249beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
250link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
251link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
252drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
253</note>
254
255<p>
256The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
257integrated graphics chipsets.
258</p>
259
260<note>
261<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
262space.
263</note>
264
265<p>
266The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
267drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
268<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
269devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
270<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
271</p>
272
273<p>
274Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
275the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
276</p>
277
278<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
279<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
280INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
281<comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
282VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
283<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
284VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
285</pre>
286
287<p>
288If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
289xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
290your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
291touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
292</p>
293
294<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
295# <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
296
297These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
298
299Calculating dependencies... done!
300[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.8 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
301-acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
302-virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
303VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
304(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
305-nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -radeonhd -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage
306-siliconmotion -sis -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb)
307(-sunleo) (-suntcx) -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox
308-vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)" 0 kB
309</pre>
310
311<p>
312After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
97</p> 313</p>
98 314
99<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 315<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
100# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 316# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
101</pre> 317</pre>
102 318
319<note>
320You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
321lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
322<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
323packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
324many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
325</note>
326
103<p> 327<p>
104When the installation is finished, you might need to reinitialise some 328When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
105environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 329environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
106by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. This doesn't harm your system 330by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
107in any way.
108</p> 331</p>
109 332
110<pre caption="Reinitialising the environment variables"> 333<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
111# <i>env-update</i> 334# <i>env-update</i>
112# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 335# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
113</pre> 336</pre>
114 337
338<p>
339Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
340automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
341environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
342just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
343link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
344</p>
345
346<pre caption="Starting HAL">
347# <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
348# <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
349</pre>
350
115</body> 351</body>
116</section> 352</section>
117</chapter> 353</chapter>
354
118<chapter> 355<chapter>
119<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 356<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
357<section id="using_hal">
358<title>Using HAL</title>
359<body>
360
361<p>
362The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
363Xorg's configuration files.
364</p>
365
366<p>
367You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
368<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
369</p>
370
371<p>
372If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
373keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
374configuration files.
375</p>
376
377<p>
378By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
379devices such as keyboards and mice.
380</p>
381
382<p>
383HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
384files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
385that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
386<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
387</p>
388
389<impo>
390Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
391you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
392location.
393</impo>
394
395<p>
396For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
397the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
398</p>
399
400<pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
401# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
402# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
403</pre>
404
405<p>
406There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
407may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
408management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
409<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
410</p>
411
412<impo>
413Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
414need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
415</impo>
416
417<p>
418You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
419liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
420functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
421</p>
422
423<p>
424One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
425Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
426etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
427</p>
428
429<p>
430Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
431can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
432<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
433line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
434</p>
435
436<pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
437<comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
438# <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
439<comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
440&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
441<comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
442&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
443 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
444 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
445 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
446 string="Linux"&gt;
447 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
448 &lt;/match&gt;
449 &lt;/match&gt;
450</pre>
451
452<p>
453Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
454changes.
455</p>
456
457<p>
458There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
459useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
460tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
461key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
462way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
463</p>
464
465<p>
466Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
467If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
468manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
469</p>
470
471</body>
120<section> 472</section>
473<section>
121<title>The xorg.conf File</title> 474<title>The xorg.conf file</title>
122<body> 475<body>
123 476
477<note>
478Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It
479really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your
480configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working
481configuration, then read on.
482</note>
483
124<p> 484<p>
125The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it 485The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides
126resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example 486in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as
127configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to 487<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own
128create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need 488configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more
129of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page: 489documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
130</p> 490</p>
131 491
132<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page"> 492<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
133# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i> 493$ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
134</pre>
135
136<p>
137Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
138with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
139</p> 494</pre>
140 495
141</body> 496</body>
142</section>
143<section> 497</section>
498<section>
144<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 499<title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
145<body> 500<body>
146 501
147<p> 502<p>
148Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 503Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
149will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 504will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
150running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the 505running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
151resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully 506resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
152working) Xorg configuration file. 507working) Xorg configuration file.
153</p> 508</p>
154 509
155<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 510<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
156# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 511# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
157</pre> 512</pre>
159<p> 514<p>
160Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 515Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
161probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 516probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
162manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 517manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
163will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 518will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
164for you to test. So let's test :) 519for you to test. So let's test. :)
165</p> 520</p>
166 521
167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 522<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 523# <i>X -retro -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
169</pre> 524</pre>
170 525
171<p>
172If all goes well, you should see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed
173window manager called <c>twm</c>, probably the smallest window manager
174available. Try moving your mouse and see if your keyboard and such is working.
175In the next section we will optimize our <path>xorg.conf</path> so it fits your
176hardware. Now go into one of the terminals you see on your screen and type in
177<c>exit</c> (or press Ctrl-D) until Xorg shuts down. If you are unable to
178use your mouse to focus the terminals, you can also press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to
179kill the X server.
180</p> 526<p>
181 527If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
528your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
529to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
530You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
182<p> 531</p>
183If <c>twm</c> doesn't load, don't worry - it will once you'll start the X server
184through the regular <c>startx</c> command. Verify if your mouse works correctly
185and if the resolution is good. You might not be able to deduce the exact
186resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You can exit any time
187by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
188</p>
189 532
190</body> 533</body>
191</section>
192<section> 534</section>
193<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
194<body>
195
196<p>
197Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
198information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
199your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
200</p>
201
202<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
203# <i>xorgconfig</i>
204</pre>
205
206</body>
207</section>
208</chapter>
209<chapter>
210<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
211<section> 535<section>
212<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title> 536<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
213<body> 537<body>
214 538
215<p> 539<p>
216Let us first copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 540Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
217<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> so we won't have to continuously run <c>Xorg 541<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
218-config</c> -- typing <c>startx</c> is far more easy :) 542<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
219</p> 543</p>
220 544
221<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 545<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
222# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 546# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
223</pre> 547</pre>
224 548
225<p> 549</body>
226Now run <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. It will use the freshly copied 550</section>
227file as its configuration file. To finish the X session, type in <c>exit</c> or 551<section id="using_startx">
228Ctrl-D in the upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the 552<title>Using startx</title>
229Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully - 553<body>
230something that you might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 554
231</p> 555<p>
556Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
557that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X server and some
558graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
559using the following logic:
560</p>
561
562<ul>
563 <li>
564 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
565 execute the commands listed there.
566 </li>
567 <li>
568 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
569 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
570 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
571 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
572 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
573 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
574 and set the default X session to <uri
575 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>.
576 </li>
577</ul>
232 578
233<pre caption="Starting X"> 579<pre caption="Starting X">
234# <i>startx</i> 580$ <i>startx</i>
581</pre>
582
583<p>
584You can kill the X session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This
585will, however, make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always
586want.
235</pre> 587</p>
236 588
589<p>
590If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
591Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
592<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
593</p>
594
595<p>
596Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few xterm
597windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working correctly.
598Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm xterm</c> as
599root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once you've setup a
600proper desktop environment.
601</p>
602
237</body> 603</body>
238</section> 604</section>
605</chapter>
606
607<chapter>
608<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
239<section> 609<section>
240<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 610<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
241<body> 611<body>
242 612
243<p> 613<p>
244If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 614If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
245sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 615sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
246which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By 616the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server
247default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 617will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If
248case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 618this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in
249second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 619the second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
250</p> 620</p>
251 621
252<p> 622<p>
253What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 623What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
254<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions. 624<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
255For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e> 625For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
256section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to 626section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
257look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also 627look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
258use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
259<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
260</p> 628</p>
261 629
262<warn> 630<warn>
263Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor-related variables 631Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
264without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting 632without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
265incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at 633incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
266worst. 634worst.
267</warn> 635</warn>
268 636
269<p> 637<p>
270Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 638Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
271<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 639<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our
272<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 640X server starts at 1440x900 by default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are
273default. Don't mind the given strings - they are examples and will most likely 641examples and will most likely differ from the settings on your system. However,
274differ from the settings on your system. 642the <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
643monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
644need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
645argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
646<c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
275</p> 647</p>
276 648
277<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 649<pre caption="Changing the Monitor section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
278Section "Screen" 650Section "Device"
279 Identifier "Default Screen" 651 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
280 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]" 652 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
281 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
282 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
283 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
284 SubSection "Display"
285 Depth 24
286 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i>
287 EndSubSection
288EndSection 653EndSection
289</pre> 654Section "Monitor"
290 655 Identifier "DVI screen"
291<p> 656 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
292Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :)
293</p>
294
295</body>
296</section>
297<section>
298<title>Configuring your Keyboard</title>
299<body>
300
301<p>
302To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
303section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
304point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
305for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
306</p>
307
308<pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
309Section "InputDevice"
310 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
311 Driver "keyboard"
312 Option "CoreKeyboard"
313 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
314 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
315 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
316EndSection 657EndSection
317</pre> 658</pre>
318 659
660<p>
661Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
662</p>
663
319</body> 664</body>
320</section>
321<section> 665</section>
322<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 666<section>
667<title>Multiple monitors</title>
323<body> 668<body>
324 669
325<p>
326If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
327by the kernel at all. PS/2 mice are (device-wise) seen as
328<path>/dev/psaux</path>. Other mice (like USBs) are seen as
329<path>/dev/input</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path>). In either case you
330can check if the devices do represent your mouse by checking the output of those
331files when you move your mouse. To end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>.
332</p> 670<p>
333 671You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>. All
334<pre caption="Checking the device files"> 672you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
335# <i>cat /dev/input</i> 673position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
336<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment> 674shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
337</pre> 675right-hand screen:
338
339<p> 676</p>
340If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
341</p>
342 677
343<p> 678<pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors in xorg.conf">
344If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
345<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
346options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used - most users
347will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
348mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
349</p>
350
351<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
352Section "InputDevice" 679Section "Device"
353 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse" 680 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
354 Driver "mouse" 681 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
355 Option "CorePointer" 682 Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
356 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"</i>
357 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
358 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
359EndSection 683EndSection
360</pre>
361 684
685Section "Monitor"
686 Identifier "DVI screen"
687EndSection
688
689Section "Monitor"
690 Identifier "VGA screen"
691 Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
692EndSection
693</pre>
694
695</body>
696</section>
697<section>
698<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
699<body>
700
701<p>
702To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
703<path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
704<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
362<p> 705</p>
706
707<pre caption="Using an existing config file">
708# <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2 > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
709</pre>
710
711<p>
712Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the
713Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain
714(<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>).
715</p>
716
717<p>
718When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure
719that HAL picks up your configuration file changes.
720</p>
721
722</body>
723</section>
724<section>
725<title>Finishing up</title>
726<body>
727
728<p>
363Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now 729Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
364(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 730(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
365ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 731useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or
366environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :) 732Xfce, but that's not part of this guide.
367</p> 733</p>
368 734
369</body> 735</body>
370</section> 736</section>
371</chapter> 737</chapter>
738
372<chapter> 739<chapter>
373<title>Resources</title> 740<title>Resources</title>
374<section> 741<section>
375<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 742<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
376<body> 743<body>
377 744
378<p> 745<p>
379First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference 746First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
380about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a 747complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
381terminal near you when you edit your configuration file! 748to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration
382</p> 749files!
383
384<p> 750</p>
385A second point of resources on your system is the 751
386<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s 752<p>
387for individual graphical chipsets. 753Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
754to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
755<path>xorg.conf</path>.
756</p>
757
758<p>
759You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
760on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
388</p> 761</p>
389 762
390<p> 763<p>
391There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 764There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
392list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 765list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
393for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the 766for more.
394configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the 767</p>
395same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about 768
396<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well. 769</body>
770</section>
771<section>
772<title>Other resources</title>
773<body>
774
397</p> 775<p>
776More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
777environments and applications can be found in the <uri
778link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
779section of our documentation.
780</p>
398 781
399<ul> 782<p>
400 <li> 783If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.8 from an earlier version, then be
401 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree 784sure to read the <uri
402 Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri> 785link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.8-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
403 </li> 786guide</uri>.
404 <li> 787</p>
405 <uri
406 link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
407 Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
408 </li>
409</ul>
410 788
411</body> 789</body>
412</section> 790</section>
413</chapter> 791</chapter>
414</guide> 792</guide>

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