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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.8 2005/02/14 09:26:19 swift Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.44 2011/03/02 08:16:43 nightmorph Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide>
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.7</version> 25<version>6</version>
26<date>2005-02-07</date> 26<date>2011-03-02</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47</p> 47</p>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51screen, interacting with the user through mouse and keyboard and other basic yet 51screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
68<title>The X.org Project</title> 68<title>The X.org Project</title>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X11 system. 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87
87<chapter> 88<chapter>
88<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
89<section> 90<section>
90<title>Using emerge</title> 91<body>
92
93<p>
94Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97are built and installed.
98</p>
99
91<body> 100</body>
101</section>
102<section>
103<title>Input driver support</title>
104<body>
92 105
106<p>
107By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
93<p> 111</p>
94Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 112
95need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 113<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
96though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 114Device Drivers ---&gt;
115 Input device support ---&gt;
116 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117</pre>
118
119</body>
120</section>
121<section>
122<title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123<body>
124
125<p>
126Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130<b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131</p>
132
133<p>
134First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135Xorg video driver you're using.
136</p>
137
138<pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Graphics support ---&gt;
141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143
144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145 Console display driver support ---&gt;
146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147</pre>
148
149<p>
150Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151Intel, nVidia, and ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152your card below.
153</p>
154
155<p>
156For Intel cards:
157</p>
158
159<pre caption="Intel settings">
160Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166 i915 driver
167 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168</pre>
169
170<p>
171For nVidia cards:
172</p>
173
174<pre caption="nVidia settings">
175<comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176Device Drivers ---&gt;
177 Graphics support ---&gt;
178 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179
180<comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181Device Drivers ---&gt;
182 Staging drivers ---&gt;
183 [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185</pre>
186
187<p>
188For newer ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c>. Once you have installed
190<c>radeon-ucode</c>, configure your kernel as shown:
191</p>
192
193<pre caption="ATI settings">
194<comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
195Device Drivers ---&gt;
196 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
197 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
198 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
199 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
200 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
201 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
202 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
203 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
204 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
205 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
206 <comment># Radeon HD 6200/6300 aka. Ontario/Zacate:</comment>
207 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External
208 firmware blobs
209 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
210 (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
211 radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
212 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin radeon/TURKS_me.bin
213 radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
214 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
215
216<comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
217Device Drivers ---&gt;
218 Graphics support ---&gt;
219 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
220 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
221 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
222</pre>
223
224<note>
225Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
226package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
227and ATI Radeon modesetting.
228</note>
229
230<p>
231Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
232<path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
233</p>
234
235</body>
236</section>
237<section>
238<title>make.conf configuration</title>
239<body>
240
241<p>
242Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
243in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
244</p>
245
246<p>
247The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
248that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
249The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
250for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
251drivers.
252</p>
253
254<note>
255You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and ATI, <c>nvidia</c> and
256<c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
257beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
258link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
259link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
260drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
261</note>
262
263<p>
264The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
265integrated graphics chipsets.
266</p>
267
268<note>
269<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
270space.
271</note>
272
273<p>
274The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
275drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
276<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
277devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
278<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
279</p>
280
281<p>
282Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
283the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
284</p>
285
286<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
287<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
288INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
289<comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
290VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
291<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
292VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
293</pre>
294
295<p>
296If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
297xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
298your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
299touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
300</p>
301
302<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
303# <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
304
305These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
306
307Calculating dependencies... done!
308[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
309-acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
310-virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
311VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
312(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
313-nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
314-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
315-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
3160 kB
317</pre>
318
319<p>
320After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
97</p> 321</p>
98 322
99<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 323<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
100# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 324# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
101</pre> 325</pre>
102 326
327<note>
328You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
329lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
330<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
331packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
332many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
333</note>
334
103<p> 335<p>
104When the installation is finished, you might need to reinitialise some 336When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
105environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 337environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
106by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. This doesn't harm your system 338by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
107in any way.
108</p> 339</p>
109 340
110<pre caption="Reinitialising the environment variables"> 341<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
111# <i>env-update</i> 342# <i>env-update</i>
112# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 343# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
113</pre> 344</pre>
114 345
346<p>
347Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
348automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
349environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
350just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
351link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
352</p>
353
354<pre caption="Starting HAL">
355# <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
356# <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
357</pre>
358
115</body> 359</body>
116</section> 360</section>
117</chapter> 361</chapter>
362
118<chapter> 363<chapter>
119<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 364<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
365<section id="using_hal">
366<title>Using HAL</title>
367<body>
368
369<p>
370The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
371Xorg's configuration files.
372</p>
373
374<p>
375You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
376<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
377</p>
378
379<p>
380If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
381keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
382configuration files.
383</p>
384
385<p>
386By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
387devices such as keyboards and mice.
388</p>
389
390<p>
391HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
392files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
393that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
394<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
395</p>
396
397<impo>
398Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
399you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
400location.
401</impo>
402
403<p>
404For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
405the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
406</p>
407
408<pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
409# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
410# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
411</pre>
412
413<p>
414There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
415may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
416management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
417<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
418</p>
419
420<impo>
421Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
422need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
423</impo>
424
425<p>
426You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
427liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
428functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
429</p>
430
431<p>
432One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
433Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
434etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
435</p>
436
437<p>
438Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
439can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
440<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
441line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
442</p>
443
444<pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
445<comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
446# <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
447<comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
448&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
449<comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
450&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
451 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
452 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
453 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
454 string="Linux"&gt;
455 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
456 &lt;/match&gt;
457 &lt;/match&gt;
458</pre>
459
460<p>
461Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
462changes.
463</p>
464
465<p>
466There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
467useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
468tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
469key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
470way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
471</p>
472
473<p>
474Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
475If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
476manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
477</p>
478
479</body>
120<section> 480</section>
481<section>
121<title>The xorg.conf File</title> 482<title>The xorg.conf file</title>
122<body> 483<body>
123 484
485<note>
486Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It
487really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your
488configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working
489configuration, then read on.
490</note>
491
124<p> 492<p>
125The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it 493The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides
126resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example 494in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as
127configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to 495<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own
128create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need 496configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more
129of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page: 497documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
130</p> 498</p>
131 499
132<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page"> 500<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
133# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i> 501$ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
134</pre>
135
136<p>
137Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
138with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
139</p> 502</pre>
140 503
141</body> 504</body>
142</section>
143<section> 505</section>
506<section>
144<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 507<title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
145<body> 508<body>
146 509
147<p> 510<p>
148Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 511Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
149will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 512will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
150running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the 513running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
151resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully 514resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
152working) Xorg configuration file. 515working) Xorg configuration file.
153</p> 516</p>
154 517
155<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 518<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
156# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 519# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
157</pre> 520</pre>
159<p> 522<p>
160Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 523Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
161probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 524probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
162manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 525manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
163will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 526will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
164for you to test. So let's test :) 527for you to test. So let's test. :)
165</p> 528</p>
166 529
167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 530<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 531# <i>X -retro -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
169</pre> 532</pre>
170 533
171<p>
172If all goes well, you should see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed
173window manager called <c>twm</c>, probably the smallest window manager
174available. Try moving your mouse and see if your keyboard and such is working.
175In the next section we will optimize our <path>xorg.conf</path> so it fits your
176hardware. Now go into one of the terminals you see on your screen and type in
177<c>exit</c> (or press Ctrl-D) until Xorg shuts down. If you are unable to
178use your mouse to focus the terminals, you can also press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to
179kill the X server.
180</p> 534<p>
181 535If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
536your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
537to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
538You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
182<p> 539</p>
183If <c>twm</c> doesn't load, don't worry - it will once you'll start the X server
184through the regular <c>startx</c> command. Verify if your mouse works correctly
185and if the resolution is good. You might not be able to deduce the exact
186resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You can exit any time
187by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
188</p>
189 540
190</body> 541</body>
191</section>
192<section> 542</section>
193<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
194<body>
195
196<p>
197Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
198information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
199your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
200</p>
201
202<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
203# <i>xorgconfig</i>
204</pre>
205
206</body>
207</section>
208</chapter>
209<chapter>
210<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
211<section> 543<section>
212<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title> 544<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
213<body> 545<body>
214 546
215<p> 547<p>
216Let us first copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 548Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
217<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> so we won't have to continuously run <c>Xorg 549<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
218-config</c> -- typing <c>startx</c> is far more easy :) 550<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
219</p> 551</p>
220 552
221<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 553<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
222# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 554# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
223</pre> 555</pre>
224 556
225<p> 557</body>
226Now run <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. It will use the freshly copied 558</section>
227file as its configuration file. To finish the X session, type in <c>exit</c> or 559<section id="using_startx">
228Ctrl-D in the upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the 560<title>Using startx</title>
229Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully - 561<body>
230something that you might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 562
231</p> 563<p>
564Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
565that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X server and some
566graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
567using the following logic:
568</p>
569
570<ul>
571 <li>
572 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
573 execute the commands listed there.
574 </li>
575 <li>
576 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
577 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
578 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
579 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
580 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
581 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
582 and set the default X session to <uri
583 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
584 after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
585 </li>
586</ul>
232 587
233<pre caption="Starting X"> 588<pre caption="Starting X">
234# <i>startx</i> 589$ <i>startx</i>
590</pre>
591
592<p>
593You can kill the X session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This
594will, however, make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always
595want.
235</pre> 596</p>
236 597
598<p>
599If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
600Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
601<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
602</p>
603
604<p>
605Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few xterm
606windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working correctly.
607Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm xterm</c> as
608root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once you've setup a
609proper desktop environment.
610</p>
611
237</body> 612</body>
238</section> 613</section>
614</chapter>
615
616<chapter>
617<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
239<section> 618<section>
240<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 619<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
241<body> 620<body>
242 621
243<p> 622<p>
244If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 623If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
245sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 624sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
246which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By 625the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server
247default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 626will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If
248case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 627this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in
249second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 628the second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
250</p> 629</p>
251 630
252<p> 631<p>
253What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 632What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
254<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions. 633<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
255For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e> 634For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
256section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to 635section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
257look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also 636look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
258use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
259<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
260</p> 637</p>
261 638
262<warn> 639<warn>
263Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor-related variables 640Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
264without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting 641without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
265incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at 642incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
266worst. 643worst.
267</warn> 644</warn>
268 645
269<p> 646<p>
270Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 647Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
271<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 648<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our
272<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 649X server starts at 1440x900 by default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are
273default. Don't mind the given strings - they are examples and will most likely 650examples and will most likely differ from the settings on your system. However,
274differ from the settings on your system. 651the <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
652monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
653need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
654argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
655<c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
275</p> 656</p>
276 657
277<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 658<pre caption="Changing the Monitor section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
278Section "Screen" 659Section "Device"
279 Identifier "Default Screen" 660 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
280 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]" 661 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
281 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
282 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
283 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
284 SubSection "Display"
285 Depth 24
286 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i>
287 EndSubSection
288EndSection 662EndSection
289</pre> 663Section "Monitor"
290 664 Identifier "DVI screen"
291<p> 665 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
292Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :)
293</p>
294
295</body>
296</section>
297<section>
298<title>Configuring your Keyboard</title>
299<body>
300
301<p>
302To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
303section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
304point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
305for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
306</p>
307
308<pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
309Section "InputDevice"
310 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
311 Driver "keyboard"
312 Option "CoreKeyboard"
313 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
314 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
315 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
316EndSection 666EndSection
317</pre> 667</pre>
318 668
669<p>
670Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
671</p>
672
319</body> 673</body>
320</section>
321<section> 674</section>
322<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 675<section>
676<title>Multiple monitors</title>
323<body> 677<body>
324 678
325<p>
326If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
327by the kernel at all. PS/2 mice are (device-wise) seen as
328<path>/dev/psaux</path>. Other mice (like USBs) are seen as
329<path>/dev/input</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path>). In either case you
330can check if the devices do represent your mouse by checking the output of those
331files when you move your mouse. To end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>.
332</p> 679<p>
333 680You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>. All
334<pre caption="Checking the device files"> 681you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
335# <i>cat /dev/input</i> 682position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
336<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment> 683shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
337</pre> 684right-hand screen:
338
339<p> 685</p>
340If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
341</p>
342 686
343<p> 687<pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors in xorg.conf">
344If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
345<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
346options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used - most users
347will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
348mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
349</p>
350
351<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
352Section "InputDevice" 688Section "Device"
353 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse" 689 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
354 Driver "mouse" 690 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
355 Option "CorePointer" 691 Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
356 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"</i>
357 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
358 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
359EndSection 692EndSection
360</pre>
361 693
694Section "Monitor"
695 Identifier "DVI screen"
696EndSection
697
698Section "Monitor"
699 Identifier "VGA screen"
700 Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
701EndSection
702</pre>
703
704</body>
705</section>
706<section>
707<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
708<body>
709
710<p>
711To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
712<path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
713<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
362<p> 714</p>
715
716<pre caption="Using an existing config file">
717# <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2 > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
718</pre>
719
720<p>
721Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the
722Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain
723(<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>).
724</p>
725
726<p>
727When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure
728that HAL picks up your configuration file changes.
729</p>
730
731</body>
732</section>
733<section>
734<title>Finishing up</title>
735<body>
736
737<p>
363Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now 738Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
364(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 739(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
365ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 740useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or
366environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :) 741Xfce, but that's not part of this guide.
367</p> 742</p>
368 743
369</body> 744</body>
370</section> 745</section>
371</chapter> 746</chapter>
747
372<chapter> 748<chapter>
373<title>Resources</title> 749<title>Resources</title>
374<section> 750<section>
375<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 751<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
376<body> 752<body>
377 753
378<p> 754<p>
379First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference 755First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
380about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a 756complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
381terminal near you when you edit your configuration file! 757to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration
382</p> 758files!
383
384<p> 759</p>
385A second point of resources on your system is the 760
386<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s 761<p>
387for individual graphical chipsets. 762Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
763to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
764<path>xorg.conf</path>.
765</p>
766
767<p>
768You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
769on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
388</p> 770</p>
389 771
390<p> 772<p>
391There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 773There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
392list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 774list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
393for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the 775for more.
394configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the 776</p>
395same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about 777
396<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well. 778</body>
779</section>
780<section>
781<title>Other resources</title>
782<body>
783
397</p> 784<p>
785More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
786environments and applications can be found in the <uri
787link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
788section of our documentation.
789</p>
398 790
399<ul> 791<p>
400 <li> 792If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.8 from an earlier version, then be
401 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree 793sure to read the <uri
402 Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri> 794link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.8-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
403 </li> 795guide</uri>.
404 <li> 796</p>
405 <uri
406 link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
407 Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
408 </li>
409</ul>
410 797
411</body> 798</body>
412</section> 799</section>
413</chapter> 800</chapter>
414</guide> 801</guide>

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