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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.8 2005/02/14 09:26:19 swift Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.46 2011/08/23 14:43:41 swift Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide>
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.7</version> 25<version>8</version>
26<date>2005-02-07</date> 26<date>2011-08-23</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47</p> 47</p>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51screen, interacting with the user through mouse and keyboard and other basic yet 51screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
68<title>The X.org Project</title> 68<title>The X.org Project</title>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X11 system. 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87
87<chapter> 88<chapter>
88<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
89<section> 90<section>
90<title>Using emerge</title> 91<body>
92
93<p>
94Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97are built and installed.
98</p>
99
91<body> 100</body>
101</section>
102<section>
103<title>Input driver support</title>
104<body>
92 105
106<p>
107By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
93<p> 111</p>
94Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 112
95need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 113<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
96though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 114Device Drivers ---&gt;
115 Input device support ---&gt;
116 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117</pre>
118
119</body>
120</section>
121<section>
122<title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123<body>
124
125<p>
126Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130<b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131</p>
132
133<p>
134First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135Xorg video driver you're using.
136</p>
137
138<pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Graphics support ---&gt;
141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143
144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145 Console display driver support ---&gt;
146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147</pre>
148
149<p>
150Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152your card below.
153</p>
154
155<p>
156For Intel cards:
157</p>
158
159<pre caption="Intel settings">
160Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166 i915 driver
167 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168</pre>
169
170<p>
171For nVidia cards:
172</p>
173
174<pre caption="nVidia settings">
175<comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176Device Drivers ---&gt;
177 Graphics support ---&gt;
178 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179
180<comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181Device Drivers ---&gt;
182 Staging drivers ---&gt;
183 [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185</pre>
186
187<p>
188For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c> or
190<c>linux-firmware</c>. Once you have installed one of these packages,
191configure your kernel as shown:
192</p>
193
194<pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
195<comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
196Device Drivers ---&gt;
197 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
198 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
199 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
200 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
201 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
202 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
203 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
204 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
205 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
206 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
207 <comment># Radeon HD 6000 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
208 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin SUMO2_me.bin SUMO2_pfp.bin
209 SUMO_me.bin SUMO_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
210 <comment># Radeon HD 6200/6300 aka. Ontario/Zacate:</comment>
211 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External
212 firmware blobs
213 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
214 (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
215 radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
216 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin CAYMAN_mc.bin
217 CAYMAN_me.bin CAYMAN_pfp.bin CAYMAN_rlc.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin
218 radeon/TURKS_me.bin radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
219 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
220
221<comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
222Device Drivers ---&gt;
223 Graphics support ---&gt;
224 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
225 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
226 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
227</pre>
228
229<note>
230Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
231package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
232and ATI Radeon modesetting.
233</note>
234
235<p>
236Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
237<path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
238</p>
239
240</body>
241</section>
242<section>
243<title>make.conf configuration</title>
244<body>
245
246<p>
247Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
248in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
249</p>
250
251<p>
252The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
253that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
254The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
255for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
256drivers.
257</p>
258
259<note>
260You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
261and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
262beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
263link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
264link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
265drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
266</note>
267
268<p>
269The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
270integrated graphics chipsets.
271</p>
272
273<note>
274<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
275space.
276</note>
277
278<p>
279The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
280drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
281<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
282devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
283<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
284</p>
285
286<p>
287Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
288the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
289</p>
290
291<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
292<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
293INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
294<comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
295VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
296<comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
297VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
298</pre>
299
300<p>
301If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
302xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
303your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
304touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
305</p>
306
307<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
308# <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
309
310These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
311
312Calculating dependencies... done!
313[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
314-acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
315-virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
316VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
317(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
318-nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
319-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
320-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
3210 kB
322</pre>
323
324<p>
325After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
97</p> 326</p>
98 327
99<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 328<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
329<comment>(Make sure udev is in your USE flags)</comment>
330# <i>echo "x11-base/xorg-server udev" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
331<comment>(Install Xorg)</comment>
100# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 332# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
101</pre> 333</pre>
102 334
335<note>
336You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
337lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
338<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
339packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
340many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
341</note>
342
103<p> 343<p>
104When the installation is finished, you might need to reinitialise some 344When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
105environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 345environment variables before you continue:
106by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. This doesn't harm your system
107in any way.
108</p> 346</p>
109 347
110<pre caption="Reinitialising the environment variables"> 348<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
111# <i>env-update</i> 349# <i>env-update</i>
112# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 350# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
113</pre> 351</pre>
114 352
115</body> 353</body>
116</section> 354</section>
117</chapter> 355</chapter>
356
118<chapter> 357<chapter>
119<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 358<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
120<section> 359<section>
121<title>The xorg.conf File</title>
122<body>
123
124<p>
125The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it
126resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example
127configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to
128create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need
129of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
130</p>
131
132<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
133# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
134</pre>
135
136<p>
137Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
138with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
139</p>
140
141</body> 360<body>
142</section> 361
362<p>
363The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
364Xorg's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as
365displays, keyboards, and mice.
366</p>
367
368<p>
369You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without editing
370any configuration files. If Xorg won't start, or there's some other problem,
371then you'll need to manually configure Xorg as shown in the next section.
372</p>
373
374</body>
143<section> 375</section>
144<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
145<body>
146
147<p>
148Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
149will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
150running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
151resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
152working) Xorg configuration file.
153</p>
154
155<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
156# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
157</pre>
158
159<p>
160Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
161probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
162manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
163will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
164for you to test. So let's test :)
165</p>
166
167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172If all goes well, you should see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed
173window manager called <c>twm</c>, probably the smallest window manager
174available. Try moving your mouse and see if your keyboard and such is working.
175In the next section we will optimize our <path>xorg.conf</path> so it fits your
176hardware. Now go into one of the terminals you see on your screen and type in
177<c>exit</c> (or press Ctrl-D) until Xorg shuts down. If you are unable to
178use your mouse to focus the terminals, you can also press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to
179kill the X server.
180</p>
181
182<p>
183If <c>twm</c> doesn't load, don't worry - it will once you'll start the X server
184through the regular <c>startx</c> command. Verify if your mouse works correctly
185and if the resolution is good. You might not be able to deduce the exact
186resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You can exit any time
187by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
188</p>
189
190</body>
191</section> 376<section>
377<title>The xorg.conf.d directory</title>
378<body>
379
380<note>
381Configuring files in <path>xorg.conf.d</path> should be seen as a "last resort"
382option. It really desirable to run without any special configuration if
383possible. If you still can't get a working configuration, then read on.
384</note>
385
386<p>
387The configuration files of Xorg are stored in
388<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. Each file is given a unique name and ends in
389<path>.conf</path>. If the filenames start with a number, then Xorg will read
390the files in numeric order. <path>10-evdev.conf</path> will be read before
391<path>20-synaptics.conf</path>, and so on. You don't <e>have</e> to give them
392numbers, but it may help you organize them.
393</p>
394
395<note>
396Xorg provides example configurations in
397<path>/usr/share/doc/xorg-server-${version}/xorg.conf.example.bz2</path>. You
398can use these to create your own configuration files in
399<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. The examples are heavily commented, but if
400you are in need of more documentation regarding the syntax, read <c>man
401xorg.conf</c>. Other examples can be found in the <uri
402link="#resources">Resources</uri> chapter at the end of this guide.
403</note>
404
405</body>
192<section> 406</section>
193<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 407<section id="using_startx">
194<body> 408<title>Using startx</title>
195
196<p>
197Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
198information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
199your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
200</p>
201
202<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
203# <i>xorgconfig</i>
204</pre>
205
206</body> 409<body>
207</section>
208</chapter>
209<chapter>
210<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
211<section>
212<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
213<body>
214 410
215<p>
216Let us first copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
217<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> so we won't have to continuously run <c>Xorg
218-config</c> -- typing <c>startx</c> is far more easy :)
219</p> 411<p>
220 412Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
221<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 413that executes an <e>X session</e>; that is, it starts the X server and some
222# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 414graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
223</pre> 415using the following logic:
224
225<p>
226Now run <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. It will use the freshly copied
227file as its configuration file. To finish the X session, type in <c>exit</c> or
228Ctrl-D in the upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the
229Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -
230something that you might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
231</p>
232
233<pre caption="Starting X">
234# <i>startx</i>
235</pre>
236
237</body>
238</section>
239<section>
240<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
241<body>
242
243<p>
244If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
245sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section
246which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By
247default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the
248case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the
249second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
250</p>
251
252<p>
253What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
254<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
255For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
256section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
257look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also
258use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
259<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
260</p>
261
262<warn>
263Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor-related variables
264without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
265incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
266worst.
267</warn>
268
269<p>
270Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
271<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
272<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by
273default. Don't mind the given strings - they are examples and will most likely
274differ from the settings on your system.
275</p>
276
277<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
278Section "Screen"
279 Identifier "Default Screen"
280 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]"
281 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
282 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
283 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
284 SubSection "Display"
285 Depth 24
286 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i>
287 EndSubSection
288EndSection
289</pre>
290
291<p>
292Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :)
293</p>
294
295</body>
296</section>
297<section>
298<title>Configuring your Keyboard</title>
299<body>
300
301<p>
302To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
303section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
304point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
305for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
306</p>
307
308<pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
309Section "InputDevice"
310 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
311 Driver "keyboard"
312 Option "CoreKeyboard"
313 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
314 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
315 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
316EndSection
317</pre>
318
319</body>
320</section>
321<section>
322<title>Configuring your Mouse</title>
323<body>
324
325<p>
326If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
327by the kernel at all. PS/2 mice are (device-wise) seen as
328<path>/dev/psaux</path>. Other mice (like USBs) are seen as
329<path>/dev/input</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path>). In either case you
330can check if the devices do represent your mouse by checking the output of those
331files when you move your mouse. To end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>.
332</p>
333
334<pre caption="Checking the device files">
335# <i>cat /dev/input</i>
336<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
337</pre>
338
339<p>
340If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
341</p>
342
343<p>
344If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
345<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
346options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used - most users
347will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
348mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
349</p>
350
351<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
352Section "InputDevice"
353 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
354 Driver "mouse"
355 Option "CorePointer"
356 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"</i>
357 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
358 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
359EndSection
360</pre>
361
362<p>
363Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now
364(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this
365ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop
366environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :)
367</p>
368
369</body>
370</section>
371</chapter>
372<chapter>
373<title>Resources</title>
374<section>
375<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
376<body>
377
378<p>
379First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference
380about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a
381terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
382</p>
383
384<p>
385A second point of resources on your system is the
386<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s
387for individual graphical chipsets.
388</p>
389
390<p>
391There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
392list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
393for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the
394configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
395same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about
396<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
397</p> 416</p>
398 417
399<ul> 418<ul>
400 <li> 419 <li>
401 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree 420 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
402 Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri> 421 execute the commands listed there.
403 </li> 422 </li>
404 <li> 423 <li>
405 <uri 424 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
406 link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An 425 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
407 Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser 426 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
427 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
428 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
429 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
430 and set the default X session to <uri
431 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
432 after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
408 </li> 433 </li>
409</ul> 434</ul>
410 435
436<pre caption="Starting X">
437$ <i>startx</i>
438</pre>
439
440<p>
441If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
442Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
443<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
444</p>
445
446<p>
447Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few
448<c>xterm</c> windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working
449correctly. Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm
450xterm</c> as root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once
451you've setup a proper desktop environment.
452</p>
453
454</body>
455</section>
456</chapter>
457
458<chapter>
459<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
460<section>
461<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
462<body>
463
464<p>
465If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
466sections in your <path>xorg.conf.d</path> configuration. First of all, you have
467the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions that your X server will
468run at. This section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the case,
469Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the second
470section, <e>Monitor</e>.
471</p>
472
473<p>
474Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
475<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</path> we add the
476<c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our X server starts at 1440x900 by default.
477The <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
478monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
479need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
480argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
481<c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
482</p>
483
484<pre caption="Changing the Monitor section">
485# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
486
487Section "Device"
488 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
489 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
490EndSection
491Section "Monitor"
492 Identifier "DVI screen"
493 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
494EndSection
495</pre>
496
497<p>
498Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
499</p>
500
501</body>
502</section>
503<section>
504<title>Multiple monitors</title>
505<body>
506
507<p>
508You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>.
509All you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
510position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
511shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
512right-hand screen:
513</p>
514
515<pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors">
516# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
517
518Section "Device"
519 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
520 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
521 Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
522EndSection
523Section "Monitor"
524 Identifier "DVI screen"
525EndSection
526Section "Monitor"
527 Identifier "VGA screen"
528 Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
529EndSection
530</pre>
531
532</body>
533</section>
534<section>
535<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
536<body>
537
538<p>
539To setup X to use an international keyboard, you just have to create the
540appropriate config file in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. This example
541features a Czech keyboard layout:
542</p>
543
544<pre caption="Using an international keyboard">
545# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf</i>
546
547Section "InputClass"
548 Identifier "keyboard-all"
549 Driver "evdev"
550 Option "XkbLayout" "us,cz"
551 Option "XkbModel" "logitech_g15"
552 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
553 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp:switch,grp_led:scroll,compose:rwin,terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
554 Option "XkbVariant" ",qwerty"
555 MatchIsKeyboard "on"
556EndSection
557</pre>
558
559<p>
560The "terminate" command (<c>terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp</c>) lets you kill the X
561session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This will, however,
562make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. It can be
563useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when you're
564configuring and tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your
565desktop with this key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you
566end them this way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
567</p>
568
569</body>
570</section>
571<section>
572<title>Finishing up</title>
573<body>
574
575<p>
576Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
577(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
578useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or Xfce, but
579that's not part of this guide. Information on installing these desktop
580environments can be found in our <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo
581Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>.
582</p>
583
584</body>
585</section>
586</chapter>
587
588<chapter id="resources">
589<title>Resources</title>
590<section>
591<title>Creating and editing config files</title>
592<body>
593
594<p>
595First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
596complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
597to have them open on a terminal when you edit your configuration files!
598</p>
599
600<p>
601There are also many online resources on editing config files in
602<path>/etc/X11/</path>. We only list few of them here; be sure to <uri
603link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> for more.
604</p>
605
606</body>
607</section>
608<section>
609<title>Other resources</title>
610<body>
611
612<p>
613More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
614environments and applications can be found in the <uri
615link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
616section of our documentation.
617</p>
618
619<p>
620If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.9 from an earlier version, then be
621sure to read the <uri
622link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.9-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
623guide</uri>.
624</p>
625
626<p>
627X.org provides many <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQs</uri> on their
628website, in addition to their other documentation.
629</p>
630
411</body> 631</body>
412</section> 632</section>
413</chapter> 633</chapter>
414</guide> 634</guide>

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