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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.8 2005/02/14 09:26:19 swift Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.50 2012/07/24 12:12:51 swift Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide>
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.7</version> 25<version>12</version>
26<date>2005-02-07</date> 26<date>2012-07-24</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47</p> 47</p>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51screen, interacting with the user through mouse and keyboard and other basic yet 51screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
68<title>The X.org Project</title> 68<title>The X.org Project</title>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X11 system. 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87
87<chapter> 88<chapter>
88<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
89<section> 90<section>
90<title>Using emerge</title> 91<body>
92
93<p>
94Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96prepare <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97are built and installed.
98</p>
99
91<body> 100</body>
101</section>
102<section>
103<title>Input driver support</title>
104<body>
92 105
106<p>
107By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
93<p> 111</p>
94Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 112
95need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 113<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
96though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 114Device Drivers ---&gt;
115 Input device support ---&gt;
116 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117</pre>
118
119</body>
120</section>
121<section>
122<title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123<body>
124
125<p>
126Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130<b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131</p>
132
133<p>
134First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135Xorg video driver you're using.
136</p>
137
138<pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Graphics support ---&gt;
141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143
144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145 Console display driver support ---&gt;
146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147</pre>
148
149<p>
150Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152your card below.
153</p>
154
155<p>
156For Intel cards:
157</p>
158
159<pre caption="Intel settings">
160Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 8xx/9xx/G3x/G4x/HD Graphics
166 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
167</pre>
168
169<p>
170For nVidia cards:
171</p>
172
173<pre caption="nVidia settings">
174Device Drivers ---&gt;
175 Graphics support ---&gt;
176 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
177 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
178</pre>
179
180<p>
181For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
182up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c> or
183<c>linux-firmware</c>. Once you have installed one of these packages,
184configure your kernel as shown:
185</p>
186
187<pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
188<comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
189Device Drivers ---&gt;
190 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
191 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
192 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
193 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
194 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen:</comment>
195 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
196 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
197 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
198 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
199 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
200 <comment># Radeon HD 6000/7300 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
201 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO2_me.bin
202 radeon/SUMO2_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_me.bin radeon/SUMO_pfp.bin
203 radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
204 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-7600 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
205 (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
206 radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
207 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin radeon/CAYMAN_mc.bin radeon/CAYMAN_me.bin
208 radeon/CAYMAN_pfp.bin radeon/CAYMAN_rlc.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin
209 radeon/TURKS_me.bin radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
210 <comment># Radeon HD 7500/7600 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
211 (radeon/ARUBA_me.bin radeon/ARUBA_pfp.bin radeon/ARUBA_rlc.bin)
212 External firmware blobs
213 <comment># Radeon HD 7700-7900 aka. Southern Islands:</comment>
214 (radeon/PITCAIRN_ce.bin radeon/PITCAIRN_mc.bin radeon/PITCAIRN_me.bin
215 radeon/PITCAIRN_pfp.bin radeon/PITCAIRN_rlc.bin radeon/TAHITI_ce.bin
216 radeon/TAHITI_mc.bin radeon/TAHITI_me.bin radeon/TAHITI_pfp.bin
217 radeon/TAHITI_rlc.bin radeon/VERDE_ce.bin radeon/VERDE_mc.bin
218 radeon/VERDE_me.bin radeon/VERDE_pfp.bin radeon/VERDE_rlc.bin)
219 External firmware blobs
220 <comment># all:</comment>
221 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
222
223<comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
224Device Drivers ---&gt;
225 Graphics support ---&gt;
226 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
227 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
228 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
229</pre>
230
231<note>
232Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
233package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
234and ATI Radeon modesetting.
235</note>
236
237<p>
238Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
239<path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> in the next section.
240</p>
241
242</body>
243</section>
244<section>
245<title>make.conf configuration</title>
246<body>
247
248<p>
249Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
250in the <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
251</p>
252
253<p>
254The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
255that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
256The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
257for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
258drivers.
259</p>
260
261<note>
262You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
263and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
264beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
265link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
266link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
267drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
268</note>
269
270<p>
271The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
272integrated graphics chipsets.
273</p>
274
275<note>
276<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
277space.
278</note>
279
280<p>
281The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
282drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
283<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
284devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
285<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
286</p>
287
288<p>
289Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
290the <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> file:
291</p>
292
293<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
294<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
295INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
296<comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
297VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
298<comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
299VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
300</pre>
301
302<p>
303If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
304xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
305your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
306touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
307</p>
308
309<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
310# <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
311
312These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
313
314Calculating dependencies... done!
315[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
316-acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
317-virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
318VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
319(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
320-nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
321-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
322-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
3230 kB
324</pre>
325
326<p>
327After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
97</p> 328</p>
98 329
99<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 330<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
331<comment>(Make sure udev is in your USE flags)</comment>
332# <i>echo "x11-base/xorg-server udev" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
333<comment>(Install Xorg)</comment>
100# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 334# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
101</pre> 335</pre>
102 336
337<note>
338You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
339lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
340<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
341packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
342many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
343</note>
344
103<p> 345<p>
104When the installation is finished, you might need to reinitialise some 346When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
105environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 347environment variables before you continue:
106by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. This doesn't harm your system
107in any way.
108</p> 348</p>
109 349
110<pre caption="Reinitialising the environment variables"> 350<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
111# <i>env-update</i> 351# <i>env-update</i>
112# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 352# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
113</pre> 353</pre>
114 354
115</body> 355</body>
116</section> 356</section>
117</chapter> 357</chapter>
358
118<chapter> 359<chapter>
119<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 360<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
120<section> 361<section>
121<title>The xorg.conf File</title>
122<body>
123
124<p>
125The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it
126resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example
127configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to
128create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need
129of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
130</p>
131
132<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
133# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
134</pre>
135
136<p>
137Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
138with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
139</p>
140
141</body> 362<body>
142</section> 363
364<p>
365The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
366Xorg's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as
367displays, keyboards, and mice.
368</p>
369
370<p>
371You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without editing
372any configuration files. If Xorg won't start, or there's some other problem,
373then you'll need to manually configure Xorg as shown in the next section.
374</p>
375
376</body>
143<section> 377</section>
144<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
145<body>
146
147<p>
148Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
149will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
150running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
151resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
152working) Xorg configuration file.
153</p>
154
155<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
156# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
157</pre>
158
159<p>
160Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
161probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
162manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
163will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
164for you to test. So let's test :)
165</p>
166
167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172If all goes well, you should see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed
173window manager called <c>twm</c>, probably the smallest window manager
174available. Try moving your mouse and see if your keyboard and such is working.
175In the next section we will optimize our <path>xorg.conf</path> so it fits your
176hardware. Now go into one of the terminals you see on your screen and type in
177<c>exit</c> (or press Ctrl-D) until Xorg shuts down. If you are unable to
178use your mouse to focus the terminals, you can also press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to
179kill the X server.
180</p>
181
182<p>
183If <c>twm</c> doesn't load, don't worry - it will once you'll start the X server
184through the regular <c>startx</c> command. Verify if your mouse works correctly
185and if the resolution is good. You might not be able to deduce the exact
186resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You can exit any time
187by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
188</p>
189
190</body>
191</section> 378<section>
379<title>The xorg.conf.d directory</title>
380<body>
381
382<note>
383Configuring files in <path>xorg.conf.d</path> should be seen as a "last resort"
384option. It really desirable to run without any special configuration if
385possible. If you still can't get a working configuration, then read on.
386</note>
387
388<p>
389The configuration files of Xorg are stored in
390<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. Each file is given a unique name and ends in
391<path>.conf</path>. If the filenames start with a number, then Xorg will read
392the files in numeric order. <path>10-evdev.conf</path> will be read before
393<path>20-synaptics.conf</path>, and so on. You don't <e>have</e> to give them
394numbers, but it may help you organize them.
395</p>
396
397<note>
398Xorg provides example configurations in
399<path>/usr/share/doc/xorg-server-${version}/xorg.conf.example.bz2</path>. You
400can use these to create your own configuration files in
401<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. The examples are heavily commented, but if
402you are in need of more documentation regarding the syntax, read <c>man
403xorg.conf</c>. Other examples can be found in the <uri
404link="#resources">Resources</uri> chapter at the end of this guide.
405</note>
406
407</body>
192<section> 408</section>
193<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 409<section id="using_startx">
194<body> 410<title>Using startx</title>
195
196<p>
197Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
198information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
199your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
200</p>
201
202<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
203# <i>xorgconfig</i>
204</pre>
205
206</body> 411<body>
207</section>
208</chapter>
209<chapter>
210<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
211<section>
212<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
213<body>
214 412
215<p>
216Let us first copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
217<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> so we won't have to continuously run <c>Xorg
218-config</c> -- typing <c>startx</c> is far more easy :)
219</p> 413<p>
220 414Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
221<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 415that executes an <e>X session</e>; that is, it starts the X server and some
222# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 416graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
223</pre> 417using the following logic:
224
225<p>
226Now run <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. It will use the freshly copied
227file as its configuration file. To finish the X session, type in <c>exit</c> or
228Ctrl-D in the upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the
229Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -
230something that you might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
231</p>
232
233<pre caption="Starting X">
234# <i>startx</i>
235</pre>
236
237</body>
238</section>
239<section>
240<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
241<body>
242
243<p>
244If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
245sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section
246which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By
247default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the
248case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the
249second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
250</p>
251
252<p>
253What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
254<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
255For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
256section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
257look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also
258use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
259<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
260</p>
261
262<warn>
263Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor-related variables
264without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
265incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
266worst.
267</warn>
268
269<p>
270Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
271<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
272<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by
273default. Don't mind the given strings - they are examples and will most likely
274differ from the settings on your system.
275</p>
276
277<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
278Section "Screen"
279 Identifier "Default Screen"
280 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]"
281 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
282 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
283 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
284 SubSection "Display"
285 Depth 24
286 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i>
287 EndSubSection
288EndSection
289</pre>
290
291<p>
292Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :)
293</p>
294
295</body>
296</section>
297<section>
298<title>Configuring your Keyboard</title>
299<body>
300
301<p>
302To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
303section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
304point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
305for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
306</p>
307
308<pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
309Section "InputDevice"
310 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
311 Driver "keyboard"
312 Option "CoreKeyboard"
313 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
314 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
315 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
316EndSection
317</pre>
318
319</body>
320</section>
321<section>
322<title>Configuring your Mouse</title>
323<body>
324
325<p>
326If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
327by the kernel at all. PS/2 mice are (device-wise) seen as
328<path>/dev/psaux</path>. Other mice (like USBs) are seen as
329<path>/dev/input</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path>). In either case you
330can check if the devices do represent your mouse by checking the output of those
331files when you move your mouse. To end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>.
332</p>
333
334<pre caption="Checking the device files">
335# <i>cat /dev/input</i>
336<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
337</pre>
338
339<p>
340If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
341</p>
342
343<p>
344If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
345<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
346options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used - most users
347will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
348mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
349</p>
350
351<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
352Section "InputDevice"
353 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
354 Driver "mouse"
355 Option "CorePointer"
356 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"</i>
357 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
358 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
359EndSection
360</pre>
361
362<p>
363Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now
364(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this
365ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop
366environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :)
367</p>
368
369</body>
370</section>
371</chapter>
372<chapter>
373<title>Resources</title>
374<section>
375<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
376<body>
377
378<p>
379First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference
380about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a
381terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
382</p>
383
384<p>
385A second point of resources on your system is the
386<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s
387for individual graphical chipsets.
388</p>
389
390<p>
391There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
392list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
393for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the
394configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
395same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about
396<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
397</p> 418</p>
398 419
399<ul> 420<ul>
400 <li> 421 <li>
401 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree 422 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
402 Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri> 423 execute the commands listed there.
403 </li> 424 </li>
404 <li> 425 <li>
405 <uri 426 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
406 link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An 427 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
407 Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser 428 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
429 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
430 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
431 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
432 and set the default X session to <uri
433 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
434 after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
408 </li> 435 </li>
409</ul> 436</ul>
410 437
438<pre caption="Starting X">
439$ <i>startx</i>
440</pre>
441
442<p>
443If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
444Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
445<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
446</p>
447
448<p>
449Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few
450<c>xterm</c> windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working
451correctly. Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm
452xterm</c> as root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once
453you've setup a proper desktop environment.
454</p>
455
456</body>
457</section>
458</chapter>
459
460<chapter>
461<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
462<section>
463<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
464<body>
465
466<p>
467If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
468sections in your <path>xorg.conf.d</path> configuration. First of all, you have
469the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions that your X server will
470run at. This section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the case,
471Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the second
472section, <e>Monitor</e>.
473</p>
474
475<p>
476Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
477<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</path> we add the
478<c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our X server starts at 1440x900 by default.
479The <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
480monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
481need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
482argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
483<c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
484</p>
485
486<pre caption="Changing the Monitor section">
487# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
488
489Section "Device"
490 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
491 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
492EndSection
493Section "Monitor"
494 Identifier "DVI screen"
495 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
496EndSection
497</pre>
498
499<p>
500Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
501</p>
502
503</body>
504</section>
505<section>
506<title>Multiple monitors</title>
507<body>
508
509<p>
510You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>.
511All you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
512position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
513shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
514right-hand screen:
515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors">
518# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
519
520Section "Device"
521 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
522 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
523 Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
524EndSection
525Section "Monitor"
526 Identifier "DVI screen"
527EndSection
528Section "Monitor"
529 Identifier "VGA screen"
530 Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
531EndSection
532</pre>
533
534</body>
535</section>
536<section>
537<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
538<body>
539
540<p>
541To setup X to use an international keyboard, you just have to create the
542appropriate config file in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. This example
543features a Czech keyboard layout:
544</p>
545
546<pre caption="Using an international keyboard">
547# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf</i>
548
549Section "InputClass"
550 Identifier "keyboard-all"
551 Driver "evdev"
552 Option "XkbLayout" "us,cz"
553 Option "XkbModel" "logitech_g15"
554 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
555 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp:switch,grp_led:scroll,compose:rwin,terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
556 Option "XkbVariant" ",qwerty"
557 MatchIsKeyboard "on"
558EndSection
559</pre>
560
561<p>
562The "terminate" command (<c>terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp</c>) lets you kill the X
563session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This will, however,
564make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. It can be
565useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when you're
566configuring and tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your
567desktop with this key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you
568end them this way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
569</p>
570
571</body>
572</section>
573<section>
574<title>Finishing up</title>
575<body>
576
577<p>
578Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
579(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
580useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or Xfce, but
581that's not part of this guide. Information on installing these desktop
582environments can be found in our <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo
583Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>.
584</p>
585
586</body>
587</section>
588</chapter>
589
590<chapter id="resources">
591<title>Resources</title>
592<section>
593<title>Creating and editing config files</title>
594<body>
595
596<p>
597First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
598complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
599to have them open on a terminal when you edit your configuration files!
600</p>
601
602<p>
603There are also many online resources on editing config files in
604<path>/etc/X11/</path>. We only list few of them here; be sure to <uri
605link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> for more.
606</p>
607
608</body>
609</section>
610<section>
611<title>Other resources</title>
612<body>
613
614<p>
615More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
616environments and applications can be found in the <uri
617link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
618section of our documentation.
619</p>
620
621<p>
622If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.9 from an earlier version, then be
623sure to read the <uri
624link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.9-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
625guide</uri>.
626</p>
627
628<p>
629X.org provides many <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQs</uri> on their
630website, in addition to their other documentation.
631</p>
632
411</body> 633</body>
412</section> 634</section>
413</chapter> 635</chapter>
414</guide> 636</guide>

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