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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.48 2011/09/02 19:07:12 swift Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.50 2012/07/24 12:12:51 swift Exp $ -->
4 4
5<guide> 5<guide>
6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7 7
8<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift"/> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author> 10</author>
11<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/> 12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>10</version> 25<version>12</version>
26<date>2011-09-02</date> 26<date>2012-07-24</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87 87
88<chapter> 88<chapter>
89<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
90<section> 90<section>
91<body> 91<body>
92 92
93<p> 93<p>
94Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First, 94Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll 95we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages 96prepare <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97are built and installed. 97are built and installed.
98</p> 98</p>
99 99
100</body> 100</body>
101</section> 101</section>
102<section> 102<section>
103<title>Input driver support</title> 103<title>Input driver support</title>
104<body> 104<body>
105 105
106<p> 106<p>
107By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to 107By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel 108activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel 109configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel. 110Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
111</p> 111</p>
150Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card. 150Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for 151Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152your card below. 152your card below.
153</p> 153</p>
154 154
155<p> 155<p>
156For Intel cards: 156For Intel cards:
157</p> 157</p>
158 158
159<pre caption="Intel settings"> 159<pre caption="Intel settings">
160Device Drivers ---&gt; 160Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt; 161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt; 162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support 163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt; 164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver) 165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 8xx/9xx/G3x/G4x/HD Graphics
166 i915 driver
167 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default 166 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168</pre> 167</pre>
169 168
170<p> 169<p>
171For nVidia cards: 170For nVidia cards:
172</p> 171</p>
173 172
174<pre caption="nVidia settings"> 173<pre caption="nVidia settings">
175<comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176Device Drivers ---&gt; 174Device Drivers ---&gt;
177 Graphics support ---&gt; 175 Graphics support ---&gt;
178 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt; 176 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
179
180<comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181Device Drivers ---&gt;
182 Staging drivers ---&gt;
183 [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards 177 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185</pre> 178</pre>
186 179
187<p> 180<p>
188For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and 181For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c> or 182up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c> or
190<c>linux-firmware</c>. Once you have installed one of these packages, 183<c>linux-firmware</c>. Once you have installed one of these packages,
191configure your kernel as shown: 184configure your kernel as shown:
192</p> 185</p>
193 186
194<pre caption="AMD/ATI settings"> 187<pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
195<comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment> 188<comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
196Device Drivers ---&gt; 189Device Drivers ---&gt;
197 Generic Driver Options ---&gt; 190 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
198 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary 191 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
199 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment> 192 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
200 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs 193 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
201 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment> 194 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen:</comment>
202 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin 195 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
203 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin 196 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
204 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin 197 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
205 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin 198 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
206 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs 199 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
207 <comment># Radeon HD 6000 series Fusion APUs:</comment> 200 <comment># Radeon HD 6000/7300 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
208 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO2_me.bin 201 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO2_me.bin
209 radeon/SUMO2_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_me.bin radeon/SUMO_pfp.bin 202 radeon/SUMO2_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_me.bin radeon/SUMO_pfp.bin
210 radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs 203 radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
211 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment> 204 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-7600 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
212 (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin 205 (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
213 radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin 206 radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
214 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin radeon/CAYMAN_mc.bin radeon/CAYMAN_me.bin 207 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin radeon/CAYMAN_mc.bin radeon/CAYMAN_me.bin
215 radeon/CAYMAN_pfp.bin radeon/CAYMAN_rlc.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin 208 radeon/CAYMAN_pfp.bin radeon/CAYMAN_rlc.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin
216 radeon/TURKS_me.bin radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs 209 radeon/TURKS_me.bin radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
210 <comment># Radeon HD 7500/7600 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
211 (radeon/ARUBA_me.bin radeon/ARUBA_pfp.bin radeon/ARUBA_rlc.bin)
212 External firmware blobs
213 <comment># Radeon HD 7700-7900 aka. Southern Islands:</comment>
214 (radeon/PITCAIRN_ce.bin radeon/PITCAIRN_mc.bin radeon/PITCAIRN_me.bin
215 radeon/PITCAIRN_pfp.bin radeon/PITCAIRN_rlc.bin radeon/TAHITI_ce.bin
216 radeon/TAHITI_mc.bin radeon/TAHITI_me.bin radeon/TAHITI_pfp.bin
217 radeon/TAHITI_rlc.bin radeon/VERDE_ce.bin radeon/VERDE_mc.bin
218 radeon/VERDE_me.bin radeon/VERDE_pfp.bin radeon/VERDE_rlc.bin)
219 External firmware blobs
220 <comment># all:</comment>
217 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory 221 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
218 222
219<comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment> 223<comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
220Device Drivers ---&gt; 224Device Drivers ---&gt;
221 Graphics support ---&gt; 225 Graphics support ---&gt;
222 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt; 226 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
223 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon 227 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
224 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default 228 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
225</pre> 229</pre>
226 230
227<note> 231<note>
228Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c> 232Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
229package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager 233package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
230and ATI Radeon modesetting. 234and ATI Radeon modesetting.
231</note> 235</note>
232 236
233<p> 237<p>
234Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing 238Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
235<path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section. 239<path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> in the next section.
236</p> 240</p>
237 241
238</body> 242</body>
239</section> 243</section>
240<section> 244<section>
241<title>make.conf configuration</title> 245<title>make.conf configuration</title>
242<body> 246<body>
243 247
244<p> 248<p>
245Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables 249Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
246in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg. 250in the <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
247</p> 251</p>
248 252
249<p> 253<p>
250The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers 254The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
251that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have. 255that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
252The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c> 256The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
253for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source 257for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
254drivers. 258drivers.
255</p> 259</p>
256 260
257<note> 261<note>
258You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c> 262You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
259and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is 263and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
260beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri 264beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
261link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri 265link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
271<note> 275<note>
272<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a 276<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
273space. 277space.
274</note> 278</note>
275 279
276<p> 280<p>
277The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which 281The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
278drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to 282drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
279<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input 283<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
280devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to 284devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
281<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>. 285<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
282</p> 286</p>
283 287
284<p> 288<p>
285Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to 289Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
286the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file: 290the <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> file:
287</p> 291</p>
288 292
289<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries"> 293<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
290<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment> 294<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
291INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics" 295INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
292<comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment> 296<comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
293VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau" 297VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
294<comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment> 298<comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
295VIDEO_CARDS="radeon" 299VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
296</pre> 300</pre>
297 301
298<p> 302<p>
299If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv 303If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
300xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to 304xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
301your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics 305your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics

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