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1 g2boojum 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
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12     <title>GLEP 11 -- Web Application Installation</title>
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25     [<b><a href="http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0011.txt">GLEP Source</a></b>]
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27     <div class="document">
28     <table class="rfc2822 field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
29     <col class="field-name" />
30     <col class="field-body" />
31     <tbody valign="top">
32     <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">GLEP:</th><td class="field-body">11</td>
33     </tr>
34     <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Title:</th><td class="field-body">Web Application Installation</td>
35     </tr>
36 robbat2 1.3 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Version:</th><td class="field-body">1.3</td>
37 g2boojum 1.1 </tr>
38 robbat2 1.3 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Last-Modified:</th><td class="field-body"><a class="reference" href="http://www.gentoo.org/cgi-bin/viewcvs.cgi/xml/htdocs/proj/en/glep/glep-0011.txt?cvsroot=gentoo">2003/08/13 17:02:43</a></td>
39 g2boojum 1.1 </tr>
40     <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Author:</th><td class="field-body">Troy Dack &lt;tad&#32;&#97;t&#32;gentoo.org&gt;</td>
41     </tr>
42     <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Discussions-To:</th><td class="field-body"><a class="reference" href="mailto:gentoo-dev&#64;gentoo.org?subject=PEP%2011">gentoo-dev&#32;&#97;t&#32;gentoo.org</a></td>
43     </tr>
44     <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Status:</th><td class="field-body">Draft</td>
45     </tr>
46     <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Type:</th><td class="field-body">Standards Track</td>
47     </tr>
48     <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Content-Type:</th><td class="field-body"><a class="reference" href="glep-0002.html">text/x-rst</a></td>
49     </tr>
50     <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Created:</th><td class="field-body">02 August 2003</td>
51     </tr>
52 g2boojum 1.2 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Post-History:</th><td class="field-body">07 Aug 2003, 12 Aug 2003</td>
53 g2boojum 1.1 </tr>
54     </tbody>
55     </table>
56     <hr />
57     <div class="contents topic" id="contents">
58     <p class="topic-title"><a name="contents">Contents</a></p>
59     <ul class="simple">
60 g2boojum 1.2 <li><a class="reference" href="#credits" id="id7" name="id7">Credits</a></li>
61     <li><a class="reference" href="#definitions" id="id8" name="id8">Definitions</a></li>
62     <li><a class="reference" href="#conventions" id="id9" name="id9">Conventions</a></li>
63     <li><a class="reference" href="#abstract" id="id10" name="id10">Abstract</a></li>
64     <li><a class="reference" href="#motivation" id="id11" name="id11">Motivation</a></li>
65     <li><a class="reference" href="#rationale" id="id12" name="id12">Rationale</a></li>
66     <li><a class="reference" href="#implementation" id="id13" name="id13">Implementation</a><ul>
67     <li><a class="reference" href="#web-server" id="id14" name="id14">1. Web Server</a><ul>
68     <li><a class="reference" href="#default-document-root" id="id15" name="id15">1.1 Default Document Root</a></li>
69     <li><a class="reference" href="#apache-2" id="id16" name="id16">1.2 Apache 2</a></li>
70 g2boojum 1.1 </ul>
71     </li>
72 g2boojum 1.2 <li><a class="reference" href="#application-installation" id="id17" name="id17">2. Application Installation</a><ul>
73     <li><a class="reference" href="#application-slots" id="id18" name="id18">2.1 Application SLOTs</a></li>
74     <li><a class="reference" href="#installation-paths" id="id19" name="id19">2.2 Installation Paths</a></li>
75 g2boojum 1.1 </ul>
76     </li>
77 g2boojum 1.2 <li><a class="reference" href="#virtual-host-support" id="id20" name="id20">3. Virtual Host Support</a><ul>
78     <li><a class="reference" href="#new-vhost-use-flag" id="id21" name="id21">3.1 New &quot;vhost&quot; USE Flag</a></li>
79     <li><a class="reference" href="#vhost-configuration-tool" id="id22" name="id22">3.2 VHost Configuration Tool</a></li>
80 robbat2 1.3 <li><a class="reference" href="#single-host-installation" id="id23" name="id23">3.3 Single Host Installation</a></li>
81     <li><a class="reference" href="#virtual-host-installation" id="id24" name="id24">3.4 Virtual Host Installation</a></li>
82     <li><a class="reference" href="#configuration-files" id="id25" name="id25">3.5 Configuration Files</a></li>
83 g2boojum 1.1 </ul>
84     </li>
85 robbat2 1.3 <li><a class="reference" href="#application-permissions" id="id26" name="id26">4. Application Permissions</a></li>
86 g2boojum 1.1 </ul>
87     </li>
88 g2boojum 1.2 <li><a class="reference" href="#backwards-compatibility" id="id27" name="id27">Backwards Compatibility</a></li>
89     <li><a class="reference" href="#references" id="id28" name="id28">References</a></li>
90     <li><a class="reference" href="#copyright" id="id29" name="id29">Copyright</a></li>
91 g2boojum 1.1 </ul>
92     </div>
93     <div class="section" id="credits">
94 g2boojum 1.2 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7" name="credits">Credits</a></h1>
95 g2boojum 1.1 <p>Based on comments posted to gentoo-dev mailing list <a class="footnote-reference" href="#webapppost1" id="id1" name="id1">[1]</a>
96     <a class="footnote-reference" href="#webapppost2" id="id2" name="id2">[2]</a> <a class="footnote-reference" href="#webapppost3" id="id3" name="id3">[3]</a> by:</p>
97     <blockquote>
98 g2boojum 1.2 Stuart Herbert &lt;stuart at gentoo.org&gt;, Max Kalika &lt;max at gentoo.org&gt;,
99     Robin H.Johnson &lt;robbat2 at gentoo.org&gt; and others</blockquote>
100 g2boojum 1.1 </div>
101     <div class="section" id="definitions">
102 g2boojum 1.2 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8" name="definitions">Definitions</a></h1>
103 g2boojum 1.1 <blockquote>
104     <dl>
105     <dt><em>Web Application</em></dt>
106     <dd>an application that requires a web server to function and interacts with
107     the user via a browser</dd>
108     <dt><em>Web Application Instance</em></dt>
109     <dd>An apparent install of the Web Application that is served up via the
110     webserver. There may be any number of instances per Web Application.
111     This is a major use for web applications. Our Gentoo Zope setup
112     already provides instances and can be used for some concepts on this
113     matter.</dd>
114     <dt><em>Web Application Setup Program</em></dt>
115     <dd>A script similar in function to zope-config that sets up instances.</dd>
116     <dt><em>Document Root</em></dt>
117     <dd>a location in the file system that forms the main document tree visible from
118     the web</dd>
119     </dl>
120     </blockquote>
121     </div>
122     <div class="section" id="conventions">
123 g2boojum 1.2 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9" name="conventions">Conventions</a></h1>
124 g2boojum 1.1 <blockquote>
125     <p>When describing the location of a directory in the file system it
126     wil be shown <em>with</em> a trailing slash, eg:</p>
127     <pre class="literal-block">
128     /foo/bar/
129     </pre>
130     <p>When describing the location of a specific file (irrespective of any
131     file extention) it will shown <em>with out</em> a trailing slash, eg:</p>
132     <pre class="literal-block">
133     /foo/blah
134     </pre>
135     </blockquote>
136     </div>
137     <div class="section" id="abstract">
138 g2boojum 1.2 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id10" name="abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
139 g2boojum 1.1 <p>To define where and how web based applications should be installed by Gentoo.</p>
140     </div>
141     <div class="section" id="motivation">
142 g2boojum 1.2 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11" name="motivation">Motivation</a></h1>
143 g2boojum 1.1 <p>Currently there is no standard defined regarding the installation of web
144     based applicaitons in Gentoo. This leads to ebuild authors creating a
145     variety of methods to determine:</p>
146     <blockquote>
147     <ul class="simple">
148     <li>where the application should be installed</li>
149     <li>what user and permissions the application should be given</li>
150     <li>where any configuration files related to the application should be
151     installed.</li>
152     </ul>
153     </blockquote>
154     <p>Due to a lack of standard install method configuration files are at
155     risk of being overwritten during upgrade, potentially causing system
156     administrators down tine as they have to reconfigure web applications
157     after an upgrade.</p>
158     </div>
159     <div class="section" id="rationale">
160 g2boojum 1.2 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id12" name="rationale">Rationale</a></h1>
161 g2boojum 1.1 <p>A discussion on the gentoo-dev mailing list <a class="footnote-reference" href="#webapppost1" id="id4" name="id4">[1]</a> raised the
162     following points regarding how Gentoo handles the installation of web based
163     applications:</p>
164     <blockquote>
165     <ol class="arabic">
166     <li><p class="first">Gentoo installed web applications (eg: horde, phpbb, cacti,
167     phpmysql) should not be installed in the Document Root of a web server.</p>
168     </li>
169     <li><p class="first">Web applications should not have their configuration files installed
170     under the Document Root of a web server.</p>
171     <blockquote>
172     <ol class="lowerroman simple">
173 g2boojum 1.2 <li>Web Application must be slotted by their full version numbers to
174 g2boojum 1.1 further avoid downtime when true configuration changes are required.</li>
175     </ol>
176     </blockquote>
177     </li>
178     <li><p class="first">Web applications should not be owned by the same user as the web server.</p>
179     </li>
180     <li><p class="first">It should be easily possible to have multiple instances of a web
181     application without any duplication of source files.</p>
182     </li>
183     <li><p class="first">It should be immediately apparent how to control instances of a web
184     application.</p>
185     </li>
186     </ol>
187     </blockquote>
188     </div>
189     <div class="section" id="implementation">
190 g2boojum 1.2 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id13" name="implementation">Implementation</a></h1>
191     <p>Max Kalika &lt;max at gentoo.org&gt; stated that he has a preliminary eclass that
192 g2boojum 1.1 implements a good deal of this GLEP.</p>
193 g2boojum 1.2 <p>Stuart Herbert &lt;stuart at gentoo.org&gt; has committed:</p>
194 g2boojum 1.1 <pre class="literal-block">
195     webapp-apache.eclass
196     </pre>
197     <p>to CVS, this is a stop-gap measure whilst this GLEP is being finalised.</p>
198     <div class="section" id="web-server">
199 g2boojum 1.2 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id14" name="web-server">1. Web Server</a></h2>
200     <p>A common default web server should be selected. Selection of a default web
201     server will help to reduce the number of bugs that are reported.</p>
202     <p>Given the popularity of the Apache web server it is suggested that Apache be
203     selected as the Gentoo default web server.</p>
204     <p>The Virtual Host Configuration tool (see below) will transparently support
205     different web servers, thus enabling web applications to be installed on a
206     Gentoo system irrespective of the installed web server.</p>
207 g2boojum 1.1 <div class="section" id="default-document-root">
208 g2boojum 1.2 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id15" name="default-document-root">1.1 Default Document Root</a></h3>
209     <p>The current default Document Root for Gentoo is /home/httpd/, this is
210     unsuitable for a couple of reasons:</p>
211     <blockquote>
212     <ul class="simple">
213     <li>/home/ may be exported via nfs to numerous other hosts, it is not
214     acceptable to share publically accessible files with numerous hosts.</li>
215     <li>there is a potential (all be it small) for a user name clash</li>
216     </ul>
217     </blockquote>
218 g2boojum 1.1 <p>To ensure the greatest flexibility when installing applications the following
219     <em>Document Root</em> locations are to be used:</p>
220     <blockquote>
221     <ul>
222     <li><p class="first">For single host installations:</p>
223     <pre class="literal-block">
224 g2boojum 1.2 /var/www/localhost/
225 g2boojum 1.1 </pre>
226     </li>
227 g2boojum 1.2 <li><p class="first">For multiple virtual host installations:</p>
228 g2boojum 1.1 <pre class="literal-block">
229 g2boojum 1.2 /var/www/&lt;fully qualified domain name&gt;/
230    
231 g2boojum 1.1 eg:
232 g2boojum 1.2 /var/www/www.gentoo.org/
233 g2boojum 1.1 </pre>
234     </li>
235     </ul>
236     </blockquote>
237 g2boojum 1.2 <p>Additionally the chosen location ( /var/www/ ) appears to be becoming a defacto
238     standard for Linux distributions.</p>
239 g2boojum 1.1 </div>
240     <div class="section" id="apache-2">
241 g2boojum 1.2 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id16" name="apache-2">1.2 Apache 2</a></h3>
242     <p>All web application .ebuilds will honour any USE flags that are intended to
243 g2boojum 1.1 add support for Apache 2 as well as supporting Apache 1 installations.</p>
244     </div>
245     </div>
246 g2boojum 1.2 <div class="section" id="application-installation">
247     <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id17" name="application-installation">2. Application Installation</a></h2>
248     <p>The current accepted standard Document Root in Gentoo is /home/httpd. The
249     discussion suggest that this is not the best location to install web based
250     applications.</p>
251     <div class="section" id="application-slots">
252     <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id18" name="application-slots">2.1 Application SLOTs</a></h3>
253     <p>All ebuilds are to set the SLOT variable as follows:</p>
254 g2boojum 1.1 <pre class="literal-block">
255 g2boojum 1.2 SLOT=&quot;${PV}&quot;
256 g2boojum 1.1 </pre>
257 g2boojum 1.2 <p>Setting the SLOT variable as shown will enable different versions of the same
258     web application to be served concurrently by one server.</p>
259 g2boojum 1.1 </div>
260 g2boojum 1.2 <div class="section" id="installation-paths">
261     <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id19" name="installation-paths">2.2 Installation Paths</a></h3>
262 g2boojum 1.1 <p>Web applications should be installed outside of the Document Root using the following
263     defaults:</p>
264     <blockquote>
265     <ul>
266     <li><p class="first">for files to be served to clients:</p>
267     <pre class="literal-block">
268 g2boojum 1.2 /usr/share/webapps/${PF}/htdocs/
269 g2boojum 1.1
270 g2boojum 1.2 /usr/share/webapps/${PF}/cgi-bin/
271 g2boojum 1.1 </pre>
272     </li>
273 g2boojum 1.2 <li><p class="first">install <em>site default</em> configuration files in:</p>
274 g2boojum 1.1 <pre class="literal-block">
275     /etc/webapps/${PF}/
276     </pre>
277     </li>
278     <li><p class="first">for documentation files (not served to clients):</p>
279     <pre class="literal-block">
280     /usr/share/doc/${PF}/
281     </pre>
282     </li>
283     </ul>
284     </blockquote>
285 g2boojum 1.2 </div>
286     </div>
287     <div class="section" id="virtual-host-support">
288     <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id20" name="virtual-host-support">3. Virtual Host Support</a></h2>
289     <p>The ability to easily configure and administer multiple virtual hosts is a
290     must.</p>
291     <div class="section" id="new-vhost-use-flag">
292     <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id21" name="new-vhost-use-flag">3.1 New &quot;vhost&quot; USE Flag</a></h3>
293     <p>To enable support for multiple virtual host installations a new USE flag is
294     to be added to Portage. The use flag will be:</p>
295     <pre class="literal-block">
296     vhost
297     </pre>
298     <p>When <em>vhost</em> is _set_ the installation location and configuration for the web
299     application will be effected, see below for more details.</p>
300     </div>
301     <div class="section" id="vhost-configuration-tool">
302     <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id22" name="vhost-configuration-tool">3.2 VHost Configuration Tool</a></h3>
303     <p>To assist administration of multiple virtual hosts a &quot;VHost Configuration Tool&quot;
304     needs to be developed and implemented. Initial discussion regarding the VHost
305     Config tool and proposed usage can be found at <a class="reference" href="http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel/10874">http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel/10874</a>.</p>
306 robbat2 1.3 <p>It's the job of the VHost Config toolset to make a local instance of the web
307 g2boojum 1.2 application run under a specific web server.</p>
308 robbat2 1.3 <p>The VHost Configuration Utility will need to be a seperate package, maintained by Gentoo.</p>
309     <p>Web Server .ebuilds will require the VHost Config tool as a dependency (DEPEND).</p>
310 g2boojum 1.2 <p><a class="reference" href="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=26293">Bug #26293</a> <a class="footnote-reference" href="#id5" id="id6" name="id6">[4]</a> will be used to track the initial progress of the VHost
311     Configuration Tool.</p>
312     <p>The vhost-config must do three main things:</p>
313     <blockquote>
314     <ul class="simple">
315     <li>creates directories (copies a skeleton directory for the most part).</li>
316     <li>create web server vhost config files.</li>
317     <li>HUP web server so it reads in the new config without stopping.</li>
318     </ul>
319     </blockquote>
320     <p>Initially the VHost Config tool should provide support for the Apache web
321     server. As the tool matures support for other web servers can be added.</p>
322     </div>
323 g2boojum 1.1 <div class="section" id="single-host-installation">
324 robbat2 1.3 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id23" name="single-host-installation">3.3 Single Host Installation</a></h3>
325 g2boojum 1.1 <p>For single host installations the .ebuild will make the required
326     configurations changes and symlinks using the VHost Config tool to ensure
327     that the web application is available to be served from:</p>
328     <pre class="literal-block">
329 g2boojum 1.2 /var/www/localhost/htdocs/${PF}/
330 g2boojum 1.1 </pre>
331 g2boojum 1.2 <p>In this case it may be feasible for the VHost Config tool to simply symlink the
332     directories from /usr/share/webapps/${PF}/ as is appropriate.</p>
333 g2boojum 1.1 </div>
334     <div class="section" id="virtual-host-installation">
335 robbat2 1.3 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id24" name="virtual-host-installation">3.4 Virtual Host Installation</a></h3>
336 g2boojum 1.1 <p>For installations that support multiple virtual hosts the .ebuild will
337     install the web application into the default location and then leave configuration
338     to the user through the VHost Config tool.</p>
339 g2boojum 1.2 <p>In this case the web application files will be copied from
340     /usr/share/webapps/${PF}/ to /var/www/&lt;FQDN&gt;/ by the VHost Config tool.</p>
341 g2boojum 1.1 </div>
342 g2boojum 1.2 <div class="section" id="configuration-files">
343 robbat2 1.3 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id25" name="configuration-files">3.5 Configuration Files</a></h3>
344     <p>As stated above web application <em>site default</em> configuration files are to be
345 g2boojum 1.2 installed into:</p>
346 g2boojum 1.1 <pre class="literal-block">
347     /etc/webapps/${PF}/
348     </pre>
349 g2boojum 1.2 <p>The files in this directory are then copied (not symlinked!) by the VHost
350     Config tool to the Document Root for each instance of the app that is installed.</p>
351 robbat2 1.3 <p>This will require the VHost Config toolset to emulate Portage's CONFIG_PROTECT
352 g2boojum 1.2 behaviour for the web applications.</p>
353 g2boojum 1.1 </div>
354     </div>
355     <div class="section" id="application-permissions">
356 robbat2 1.3 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id26" name="application-permissions">4. Application Permissions</a></h2>
357 g2boojum 1.1 <p>Installing web applications and giving the web server ownership of the files
358     is a security risk. This can possibly lead to application configuration
359     files being accessed by unwanted third parties.</p>
360     <p>All web applications should be owned by <em>root</em> unless the application
361     absolutely requires write access to its installation directories at execution
362     time.</p>
363     </div>
364     </div>
365     <div class="section" id="backwards-compatibility">
366 g2boojum 1.2 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id27" name="backwards-compatibility">Backwards Compatibility</a></h1>
367 g2boojum 1.1 <p>There may be some issues regarding compatibility with existing installs of
368     web applications. This is particularly true if the default Document Root is
369     moved from what is accepted as the current standard (/home/httpd).</p>
370     <dl>
371     <dt>The main issues are:</dt>
372     <dd><ul class="first last simple">
373     <li>transition of existing configuration files to the
374     /etc/webapps/${PF}/ directory.</li>
375     <li>modification/reconfiguration of applications so that they
376     are aware of the location of configuration files.</li>
377 g2boojum 1.2 <li>creating the VHost Config toolset to enable installation and
378     configuration of web applications irrespective of web server.</li>
379 g2boojum 1.1 </ul>
380     </dd>
381     </dl>
382     </div>
383     <div class="section" id="references">
384 g2boojum 1.2 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id28" name="references">References</a></h1>
385 g2boojum 1.1 <table class="footnote" frame="void" id="webapppost1" rules="none">
386     <colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
387     <tbody valign="top">
388     <tr><td class="label"><a name="webapppost1">[1]</a></td><td><em>(<a class="fn-backref" href="#id1">1</a>, <a class="fn-backref" href="#id4">2</a>)</em> <a class="reference" href="http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel/10411">http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel/10411</a></td></tr>
389     </tbody>
390     </table>
391     <table class="footnote" frame="void" id="webapppost2" rules="none">
392     <colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
393     <tbody valign="top">
394     <tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id2" name="webapppost2">[2]</a></td><td><a class="reference" href="http://news.gmane.org/onethread.php?group=gmane.linux.gentoo.devel&amp;root=%3C1059843010.5023.80.camel%40carbon.internal.lan%3E">http://news.gmane.org/onethread.php?group=gmane.linux.gentoo.devel&amp;root=%3C1059843010.5023.80.camel%40carbon.internal.lan%3E</a></td></tr>
395     </tbody>
396     </table>
397     <table class="footnote" frame="void" id="webapppost3" rules="none">
398     <colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
399     <tbody valign="top">
400     <tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id3" name="webapppost3">[3]</a></td><td><a class="reference" href="http://news.gmane.org/onethread.php?group=gmane.linux.gentoo.devel&amp;root=%3C86960000.1060038977%40valkyrie.lsit.ucsb.edu%3E">http://news.gmane.org/onethread.php?group=gmane.linux.gentoo.devel&amp;root=%3C86960000.1060038977%40valkyrie.lsit.ucsb.edu%3E</a></td></tr>
401     </tbody>
402     </table>
403 g2boojum 1.2 <table class="footnote" frame="void" id="id5" rules="none">
404     <colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
405     <tbody valign="top">
406     <tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id6" name="id5">[4]</a></td><td><a class="reference" href="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=26293">http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=26293</a></td></tr>
407     </tbody>
408     </table>
409 g2boojum 1.1 </div>
410     <div class="section" id="copyright">
411 g2boojum 1.2 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id29" name="copyright">Copyright</a></h1>
412 g2boojum 1.1 <p>This document has been placed in the public domain.</p>
413     </div>
414     </div>
415    
416     <hr class="footer"/>
417     <div class="footer">
418     <a class="reference" href="glep-0011.txt">View document source</a>.
419 robbat2 1.3 Generated on: 2003-08-13 08:25 UTC.
420 g2boojum 1.1 Generated by <a class="reference" href="http://docutils.sourceforge.net/">Docutils</a> from <a class="reference" href="http://docutils.sourceforge.net/rst.html">reStructuredText</a> source.
421     </div>
422     </body>
423     </html>

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