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1 g2boojum 1.1 GLEP: 42
2     Title: Critical News Reporting
3 g2boojum 1.12 Version: $Revision: 1.11 $
4 g2boojum 1.11 Author: Ciaran McCreesh <ciaranm@gentoo.org>,
5     Stephen Bennett <spb@gentoo.org>,
6     Zach Medico <zmedico@gentoo.org>
7 g2boojum 1.12 Last-Modified: $Date: 2006/09/05 20:33:04 $
8 g2boojum 1.1 Status: Draft
9     Type: Standards Track
10     Content-Type: text/x-rst
11 ciaranm 1.3 Created: 31-Oct-2005
12 g2boojum 1.12 Post-History: 1-Nov-2005, 5-Nov-2005, 7-Nov-2005, 11-Dec-2005, 13-Dec-2005, 18-Dec-2005, 5-Jan-2006, 2-Mar-2006, 6-Mar-2006, 12-Jun-2006, 5-Sep-2006
13 g2boojum 1.1
14     Abstract
15     ========
16    
17     This GLEP proposes a new way of informing users about important updates and news
18 ciaranm 1.8 related to the tree.
19 g2boojum 1.1
20     Motivation
21     ==========
22    
23 ciaranm 1.4 Although most package updates are clean and require little user action,
24 ciaranm 1.8 occasionally an upgrade requires user intervention. Recent examples of the
25     latter include the ``gcc-3.4`` stabilisation on ``x86`` and the ``mysql-4.1``
26     database format changes.
27 ciaranm 1.4
28     There are currently several ways of delivering important news items to our
29     users, none of them particularly effective:
30 g2boojum 1.1
31     * Gentoo Weekly News
32 ciaranm 1.4 * The ``gentoo-announce``, ``gentoo-user`` and ``gentoo-dev`` mailing lists
33 g2boojum 1.1 * The Gentoo Forums
34     * The main Gentoo website
35     * RSS feeds of Gentoo news
36 ciaranm 1.5 * ``einfo`` and ``ewarn`` messages in ``pkg_setup`` or ``pkg_postinst``
37 g2boojum 1.1
38     A more reliable way of getting news of critical updates out to users is required
39 ciaranm 1.8 to avoid repeats of various prior upgrade debacles. This GLEP proposes a
40 g2boojum 1.1 solution based around pushing news items out to the user via the ``rsync`` tree.
41    
42 ciaranm 1.4 .. Important:: This GLEP does not seek to replace or modify ``einfo`` messages
43     which are displayed post-install. That is a separate issue which is handled
44     by ``elog`` [#bug-11359]_.
45    
46 g2boojum 1.1 Requirements
47     ============
48    
49     An adequate solution must meet all of the following requirements:
50    
51     Preemptive
52 ciaranm 1.4 Users should be told of changes *before* they break a system, not after the
53     damage has already been done. Ideally, the system administrator would be
54     given ample warning to plan difficult upgrades and changes, rather than only
55     being told just before action is necessary.
56 g2boojum 1.1
57     No user subscription required
58 ciaranm 1.4 It has already been demonstrated [#forums-apache2]_ that many users do not
59 ciaranm 1.8 read the ``gentoo-announce`` mailing list or ``RSS`` feeds. A solution that
60 g2boojum 1.1 requires subscription has no advantage over current methods.
61    
62     No user monitoring required
63 ciaranm 1.4 It has already been demonstrated [#forums-apache2]_ that many users do not
64 g2boojum 1.1 read news items posted to the Gentoo website, or do not read news items
65     until it is too late. A solution that relies upon active monitoring of a
66     particular source has no advantage over current methods.
67    
68     Relevant
69     System administrators who do not use a particular package should not have to
70     read news items which affect purely that package. Some news items may be of
71     relevance to most or all users, but those that are not should not be forced
72     upon users unnecessarily.
73    
74     Lightweight
75     It is not reasonable to expect all users to have an MTA, web browser, email
76     client, cron daemon or text processing suite available on their system.
77 ciaranm 1.4 Users must not be forced to install unreasonable extra software to be able
78     to read news items.
79 g2boojum 1.1
80     No privacy violations
81     Users of the solution should not be required to provide information about
82     their systems (for example, IP addresses or installed packages).
83    
84     Multiple delivery method support
85     Some users may wish to view news items via email, some via a terminal and
86     some via a web browser. A solution should either support all of these
87 ciaranm 1.4 methods or (better still) make it simple to write clients for displaying
88 g2boojum 1.1 news items in different ways.
89    
90     The following characteristics would be desirable:
91    
92     Internationalisable
93     Being able to provide messages in multiple languages may be beneficial.
94    
95     Quality control
96     There should be some way to ensure that badly written or irrelevant messages
97 ciaranm 1.4 are not sent out, for example by inexperienced developers or those whose
98     English language skills are below par.
99 g2boojum 1.1
100     Simple for developers
101     Posting news items should be as simple as is reasonably possible.
102    
103     Simple for users
104     Reading relevant news items should be as simple as is reasonably possible.
105    
106     Compatibility with existing and future news sources
107     A news system would ideally be able to be integrated with existing news
108     sources (for example, Forums, GWN, the main Gentoo website) without
109     excessive difficulty. Similarly, easy interoperation with any future news
110     sources should not be precluded.
111    
112     Specification
113     =============
114    
115     Overview
116     --------
117    
118     News items are published and delivered to users as follows:
119    
120 ciaranm 1.4 1. A news item is written. The format to be used is described below.
121    
122 g2boojum 1.1 2. The news item is reviewed, following the process described in
123     `News Item Quality Control`_.
124 ciaranm 1.4
125 g2boojum 1.1 3. The news item is committed to a CVS (or Subversion [#glep-36]_) repository.
126     From here, it is merged with the rsync tree. This is described in `News Item
127     Distribution`_.
128 ciaranm 1.4
129     4. Users fetch the news item when they sync. This ensures that the news items in
130 g2boojum 1.1 question are pushed to the user before the user accidentally makes an
131     unwanted change. No changes to the existing rsync process are required by
132     this GLEP.
133 ciaranm 1.4
134     5. The package manager filters the news item and, if it is relevant, marks the
135     news item for reading. The package manager should also display a notice
136     informing the user that there are unread news items.
137    
138     6. The news item is handled by the user's choice of news item reader. See `News
139 g2boojum 1.1 Item Clients`_.
140    
141 ciaranm 1.6 Required Portage Enhancements
142     -----------------------------
143    
144     The following extensions to Portage are required:
145    
146     * Every repository (including overlays) will require a unique identifier. It is
147     assumed that an identifier will be a string consisting of characters from
148 ciaranm 1.7 ``a`` to ``z``, ``A`` to ``Z``, ``0`` to ``9``, ``+`` (plus), ``-`` (hyphen)
149     ``_`` (underscore).
150 ciaranm 1.6
151     * Portage must provide a way for external programs to obtain a list of all
152     repository identifiers for a given system. It is assumed that this will be in
153     the form of a ``portageq`` command (e.g. ``portageq get_repo_ids``).
154    
155     * Portage must provide a way for external programs to obtain the base path for
156     a repository with a given ID. It is assumed that this will be in the form of
157     a ``portageq`` command (e.g. ``portageq get_repo_root gentoo-x86``).
158    
159     * Portage must extend ``portageq has_version`` to support restrictions to a
160     given repository ID.
161    
162     * Portage must extend ``portageq`` to implement a command which returns whether
163 ciaranm 1.9 or not the profile used for a given repository ID is exactly the given profile
164     (e.g. ``portageq profile_used default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2004.3
165     gentoo-x86``).
166 ciaranm 1.6
167     These extensions are assumed during the following specification.
168    
169 ciaranm 1.4 News Item Identities
170     --------------------
171    
172     Each news item will have a unique identifier. This identifier will be in the
173     form ``yyyy-mm-dd-short-name``, where ``yyyy`` is the year (e.g. ``2005``),
174     ``mm`` is the month (``01`` through ``12``) and dd is the day of the month
175     (``01`` through ``31``). The ``short-name`` is a very short name describing the
176     news item (e.g. ``yoursql-updates``), consisting only of the characters ``a-z``,
177 ciaranm 1.7 ``0-9``, ``+`` (plus), ``-`` (hyphen) and ``_`` (underscore).
178 ciaranm 1.4
179     News Item Directories
180 g2boojum 1.1 ---------------------
181    
182 ciaranm 1.4 Each news item will be represented by a directory whose name is the same as the
183     news item's identifier.
184    
185     The directory will contain a file named ``yyyy-mm-dd-short-name.en.txt``, which
186     contains the text of the news item, in English, in the format described below.
187    
188     If a news item is translated, other files named ``yyyy-mm-dd-short-name.xx.txt``
189 ciaranm 1.8 (where ``xx`` is the ISO 639 [#iso-639]_ two letter country code, and the date
190     remains the same as the original news item) will also be provided. However, only
191     the English version of a news item is authoritative. This anglocentricity is
192     justified by precedent [#glep-34]_.
193 ciaranm 1.4
194     News Item Files
195     ---------------
196    
197     A news item file is a text file, encoded using UTF-8 [#rfc-3629]_ for
198     compatibility with and for the same reasons as existing Gentoo documentation
199     [#docs-policy]_ and the tree [#glep-31]_.
200 g2boojum 1.1
201 ciaranm 1.7 News items must be signed with a detached GPG signature.::
202 ciaranm 1.4
203     gpg --armour --detach-sign ????-??-??-*.??.txt
204    
205 ciaranm 1.7 This GLEP does not specify the type or strength of signature to be used, nor
206     does it discuss how, if at all, a centralised keychain will be provided. These
207     issues should be handled as part of the signing policy discussions.
208    
209 ciaranm 1.4 A news item file's content will consist of an RFC 822 style header [#rfc-822]_
210 g2boojum 1.1 followed by the main body of the message as plain text. This GLEP defines
211 ciaranm 1.4 various optional and mandatory headers. Future GLEPs may propose new headers —
212 g2boojum 1.1 tools handling these news items must ignore any unrecognised header.
213    
214     News Item Headers
215     '''''''''''''''''
216    
217     The following headers describe the purpose and format of the news item:
218    
219     ``Title:``
220     A short (maximum 44 characters) descriptive title. Mandatory.
221 ciaranm 1.4
222 g2boojum 1.1 ``Author:``
223     Author's name and email address, in the form ``Real Name <email@address>``.
224 ciaranm 1.4 Mandatory; multiple author headers may be specified if appropriate.
225    
226 g2boojum 1.1 ``Translator:``
227 ciaranm 1.4 For translated news items, the translator's name and email address. Multiple
228     translator headers may be specified if appropriate.
229    
230 g2boojum 1.1 ``Content-Type:``
231     Must be ``text/plain``. Mandatory.
232 ciaranm 1.4
233 g2boojum 1.1 ``Posted:``
234 ciaranm 1.6 Date of posting, in ``yyyy-mm-dd`` format (e.g. 2005-12-18) for
235 ciaranm 1.8 compatibility with GLEP 45 [#glep-45]_. Translations should use the date
236     of the original news item. Mandatory.
237 ciaranm 1.4
238     ``Revision:``
239 ciaranm 1.7 Initially 1. Should be incremented every time a change is made to the news
240     item. Changes that require a re-read of the news item (i.e., most changes
241     that are not spelling or formatting related) should instead use a new news
242     item. Mandatory.
243 ciaranm 1.4
244 g2boojum 1.1 ``News-Item-Format:``
245     Must be ``1.0``. Future revisions to the format may increment the minor
246     number for backwards-compatible changes, or the major number for major
247     changes.
248    
249 ciaranm 1.4 The following headers are used for filtering:
250 g2boojum 1.1
251     ``Display-If-Installed:``
252 ciaranm 1.7 A dependency atom (for example, ``<dev-lang/php-5_alpha`` or
253     ``net-www/apache``). If the user has the package specified installed from
254     the repository from which the news item was obtained, the news item should
255     be displayed.
256 g2boojum 1.1
257     ``Display-If-Keyword:``
258 ciaranm 1.4 A keyword [#glep-22]_ name, for example ``mips`` or ``x86-fbsd``. If the
259     user is on the keyword in question, the news item should be displayed.
260 g2boojum 1.1
261     ``Display-If-Profile:``
262 ciaranm 1.6 A profile path, for example ``default-linux/sparc/sparc64/server``. If the
263 ciaranm 1.9 user is using the exact profile in question, the news item should be
264     displayed. This header may be used to replace ``deprecated`` files in the
265     future.
266 ciaranm 1.4
267     .. Note:: When performing package moves, developers must also update any
268     relevant ``Display-If-Installed`` headers in news files.
269    
270     The algorithm used to determine whether a news item is 'relevant' is as
271     follows:
272    
273     * For each ``Display-If-`` header type which occurs at least once:
274    
275     + The news item is not relevant if none of the headers of this type are
276     successfully matched.
277    
278     * Otherwise the news item is relevant.
279    
280     In particular, if no ``Display-If-`` header is specified, a news item will be
281     relevant for all users.
282    
283     This algorithm was chosen because it makes conditions like "display this news
284     item for ``YourSQL`` users who are on ``sparc`` or ``x86-obsd`` relatively
285     simple to specify — it is believed that these kinds of condition are far more
286     likely to occur than "display this news item for people using ``YourSQL``, or
287     for people on ``sparc`` or ``x86-obsd``\" or "display these news items for
288     people who use ``YourSQL`` and who are on both ``sparc`` and ``x86-obsd``\".
289 g2boojum 1.1
290     News Item Body
291     ''''''''''''''
292    
293     The header section must be followed by a blank line, then the main body of the
294     text.
295    
296     The text body should be wrapped at 72 characters. No fancy formatting or tab
297 ciaranm 1.4 characters should be used — the news item may be being displayed directly to a
298 ciaranm 1.2 terminal. Paragraphs should be separated by a blank line.
299 g2boojum 1.1
300     Hyperlinks may be used to refer to further information (for example, an upgrade
301     guide). However, the main body of the news item should be descriptive and not
302     simply a "read this link" text. It is assumed that the user will have access to
303     a web browser *somewhere*, but not necessarily on the box which is being
304 ciaranm 1.7 administrated — this will be the case on many servers and routers, for example.
305 g2boojum 1.1
306     Example News Item
307     '''''''''''''''''
308    
309 ciaranm 1.4 `This hypothetical news item`__ could be used for an upgrade to the
310     ``YourSQL`` database format which breaks forward compatibility.
311 g2boojum 1.1
312 ciaranm 1.4 .. __: glep-0042-extras/example-news-item.txt
313 g2boojum 1.1
314     News Item Quality Control
315     -------------------------
316    
317     There have been complaints regarding the comprehensibility of some upgrade
318 ciaranm 1.4 notices and news items in the past. This is understandable — not every Gentoo
319     developer speaks English as a first language. However, for the sake of clarity,
320     professionalism and avoiding making us look like prats, it is important that any
321     language problems be corrected before inflicting a news item upon end users.
322    
323     Thus, at least 72 hours before a proposed news item is committed, it must be
324     posted to the ``gentoo-dev`` mailing list and ``Cc:``\ed to ``pr@gentoo.org``
325     (exceptions may be made in exceptional circumstances). Any complaints — for
326     example regarding wording, clarity or accuracy — **must** be addressed before
327     the news item goes live.
328    
329 g2boojum 1.1 News items must only be for **important** changes that may cause serious upgrade
330     or compatibility problems. Ordinary upgrade messages and non-critical news items
331     should remain in ``einfo`` notices. The importance of the message to its
332     intended audience should be justified with the proposal.
333    
334     .. Important:: The filtering system means that it is appropriate to send out
335     news items which are aimed at users of an uncommon package or architecture.
336     Thus, the justification should be in the form "this message is important to
337     YourSQL users because ...", not "YourSQL is important because ...".
338    
339     News Item Distribution
340     ----------------------
341    
342     Server Side
343     '''''''''''
344    
345 ciaranm 1.4 News items are to be made available via the standard rsync tree. This removes
346     any need for polling of a remote source.
347 g2boojum 1.1
348     A new repository will be created for news items. The type (CVS or Subversion),
349     location and access controls on this repository are beyond the scope of this
350     GLEP.
351    
352     .. Note:: A previous draft of this GLEP instead used the main ``gentoo-x86``
353     tree. This was changed following advice from Infrastructure
354     [#ramereth-repo]_. Both solutions have the same end result.
355    
356 ciaranm 1.4 This repository will contain directories named ``yyyy/mm/``, where ``yyyy`` is
357 g2boojum 1.1 the current year and ``mm`` is the current month number (01 for January through
358     12 for December). This separation will help keep news items more manageable.
359    
360     The contents of this repository will automatically be merged with the main rsync
361 ciaranm 1.4 tree, placing the items in a ``metadata/news/`` directory. The method used for
362 ciaranm 1.7 merging these items and the frequency at which it will occur is beyond the scope
363     of this GLEP; a similar setup is already used for merging GLSAs into the rsync
364     tree.
365    
366     The main rsync tree will **not** use the ``yyyy/mm/`` subdirectory layout. The
367     news item directories will all be immediately under the ``metadata/news/``
368     directory.
369 g2boojum 1.1
370     Client Side
371     '''''''''''
372    
373 ciaranm 1.4 Whenever relevant unread news items are found, the package manager will create a
374 ciaranm 1.7 file named ``/var/lib/gentoo/news/news-${repoid}.unread`` (if it does not
375 ciaranm 1.5 already exist) and append the news item identifier (eg
376     ``2005-11-01-yoursql-updates``) on a new line.
377 ciaranm 1.4
378 ciaranm 1.7 All news item related files should be root owned and in the ``portage`` group
379     with the group write (and, for directories, execute) bits set. News files should
380     be world readable.
381    
382 g2boojum 1.1 Notification that new relevant news items will be displayed via the
383     ``emerge`` tool in a similar way to the existing "configuration files need
384     updating" messages:
385    
386     ::
387    
388     * Important: there are 5 unread news items.
389     * Type emerge --help news to learn how to read news files.
390    
391 ciaranm 1.4 Checks for new news messages should be displayed:
392 g2boojum 1.1
393 ciaranm 1.4 * After an ``emerge sync``
394     * After an ``emerge --pretend``
395     * Before an ``emerge <target>`` (which may also include a red warning message)
396 ciaranm 1.7
397     The package manager does not need to know how to launch the user's choice of
398     news client. This is consistent with the way configuration file updates are
399     handled.
400 ciaranm 1.4
401     The package manager may use a timestamp check file to avoid having to process
402     news items unnecessarily.
403    
404     The package manager must keep track of news items that have already been added
405     to the unread list to avoid repeatedly marking a deleted news item. This could
406 ciaranm 1.7 be handled via a ``news-${repoid}.skip`` file containing the IDs of news items
407     that have already been added to a ``news-${repoid}.unread`` file, but this
408     method is not required by this GLEP.
409 g2boojum 1.1
410     Users who really don't care about news items can use ``rsync_excludes`` to
411 ciaranm 1.4 filter out the ``metadata/news/`` directory.
412 g2boojum 1.1
413     News Item Clients
414     -----------------
415    
416 ciaranm 1.4 Once a news item is marked for reading, third party tools (or traditional core
417     Unix tools) can be used to display and view the news files.
418    
419 ciaranm 1.5 When a news item is read, its name should be removed from the
420 ciaranm 1.8 ``news-${repoid}.unread`` file. If a news client acts as an interactive reader
421     rather than a gateway, it should then add the name to a ``news-${repoid}.read``
422 ciaranm 1.6 file in the same directory with the same file format.
423 ciaranm 1.4
424     An ``eselect`` [#eselect]_ module shall be created as the 'suggested' display
425     tool; other display tools (for example, a news to email forwarder, which would
426     be ideal for users who sync on a ``cron``) are left as options for those who
427     desire them.
428 g2boojum 1.1
429     News Item Removal
430     -----------------
431    
432     News items can be removed (by removing the news file from the main tree) when
433     they are no longer relevant, if they are made obsolete by a future news item or
434     after a long period of time. This is the same as the method used for ``updates``
435     entries.
436    
437     Integration with Existing Systems
438     =================================
439    
440 ciaranm 1.4 It would be simple to convert these news items into the format used for news
441 g2boojum 1.1 items on the Gentoo website or posts for the ``gentoo-announce`` mailing list.
442    
443     There is an existing automated tool [#forums-glsa]_ for posting GLSAs to the
444     forums. A similar tool can be used for these news items.
445    
446     Backwards Compatibility
447     =======================
448    
449     Backwards compatibility is not a concern here. Existing tools will simply ignore
450     the ``news/`` directory.
451    
452     Reference Implementation
453     ========================
454    
455 spb 1.10 A reference implementation of the required package manager support can be found
456     in Paludis [#paludis]_, along with a reference newsreader implemented as an
457     eselect module [#eselect-news]_.
458 g2boojum 1.1
459     Credits
460     =======
461    
462     The idea behind notifying users of news updates via Portage comes from Stuart
463     Herbert [#stuart-blog]_.
464    
465 ciaranm 1.4 Thanks to Lance Albertson, Stephen Bennett, Donnie Berkholz, Grant Goodyear,
466 ciaranm 1.7 Brian Harring, Marius Mauch, Dan Meltzer, Jason Stubbs, Paul de Vrieze and Alec
467     Warner for input. Some of the ideas presented here are theirs, others go
468     completely against their suggestions.
469 ciaranm 1.4
470     Example Files
471     =============
472    
473 ciaranm 1.8 `example-news-item.txt <glep-0042-extras/example-news-item.txt>`_
474     An example news item.
475 g2boojum 1.1
476     References
477     ==========
478    
479 ciaranm 1.4 .. [#bug-11359] Bugzilla Bug 11359
480     "[NEW FEATURE] pkg_postinst/pkg_preinst ewarn/einfo logging",
481     https://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=11359
482 g2boojum 1.1 .. [#docs-policy] Gentoo XML Guide, Daniel Robbins et al.,
483     http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/xml-guide.xml
484     .. [#eselect] eselect modular framework for configuration and
485     administration utilities,
486     http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/eselect/index.xml
487     .. [#forums-glsa] Forums user GLSA,
488     http://forums.gentoo.org/profile.php?mode=viewprofile&u=55648
489 ciaranm 1.4 .. [#forums-apache2] Forums thread "Gentoo Apache2 Config Change Idiocy",
490 g2boojum 1.1 http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-384368.html
491     .. [#glep-22] GLEP 22: "New "keyword" system to incorporate various
492     userlands/kernels/archs", Grant Goodyear,
493     http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0022.html
494     .. [#glep-31] GLEP 31: "Character Sets for Portage Tree Items", Ciaran
495     McCreesh,
496     http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0031.html
497     .. [#glep-34] GLEP 34: "Per-Category metadata.xml Files", Ciaran McCreesh,
498     http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0034.html
499     .. [#glep-36] GLEP 36: "Subversion/CVS for Gentoo Hosted Projects", Aaron
500     Walker,
501     http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0036.html
502 ciaranm 1.6 .. [#glep-45] GLEP 45: "GLEP date format", Henrik Brix Andersen,
503     http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0045.html
504 g2boojum 1.1 .. [#iso-639] ISO 639 "Code for the representation of names of languages"
505     .. [#ramereth-repo] "Re: [gentoo-dev] GLEP ??: Critical News Reporting", Lance
506     Albertson,
507     http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=gentoo-dev&m=113111585907703&w=2
508     .. [#rfc-822] RFC 822 "Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages"
509 ciaranm 1.4 .. [#rfc-3629] RFC 3629: "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646"
510     http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt
511 spb 1.10 .. [#paludis] Paludis homepage, http://paludis.berlios.de
512     .. [#eselect-news] news.eselect, http://svn.berlios.de/svnroot/repos/paludis/trunk/eselect/news.eselect
513 g2boojum 1.1 .. [#stuart-blog] "Favouring an automatic news mechanism", Stuart Herbert,
514     http://stu.gnqs.org/diary/gentoo.php/2005/10/28/favouring_an_automatic_news_mechanism
515    
516     Copyright
517     =========
518    
519     This document has been placed in the public domain.
520    
521     .. vim: set tw=80 fileencoding=utf-8 spell spelllang=en et :

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