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Revision 1.5 Revision 1.14
1GLEP: 42 1GLEP: 42
2Title: Critical News Reporting 2Title: Critical News Reporting
3Version: $Revision: 1.5 $ 3Version: $Revision: 1.14 $
4Author: Ciaran McCreesh <ciaranm@gentoo.org> 4Author: Ciaran McCreesh <ciaranm@gentoo.org>,
5 Stephen Bennett <spb@gentoo.org>,
6 Zach Medico <zmedico@gentoo.org>
5Last-Modified: $Date: 2005/12/13 03:21:59 $ 7Last-Modified: $Date: 2010/02/22 11:38:26 $
6Status: Draft 8Status: Final
7Type: Standards Track 9Type: Standards Track
8Content-Type: text/x-rst 10Content-Type: text/x-rst
9Created: 31-Oct-2005 11Created: 31-Oct-2005
10Post-History: 1-Nov-2005, 5-Nov-2005, 7-Nov-2005, 11-Dec-2005, 13-Dec-2005 12Post-History: 1-Nov-2005, 5-Nov-2005, 7-Nov-2005, 11-Dec-2005, 13-Dec-2005, 18-Dec-2005, 5-Jan-2006, 2-Mar-2006, 6-Mar-2006, 12-Jun-2006, 5-Sep-2006
11 13
12Abstract 14Abstract
13======== 15========
14 16
15This GLEP proposes a new way of informing users about important updates and news 17This GLEP proposes a new way of informing users about important updates and news
16regarding tree-related items. 18related to the tree.
17 19
18Motivation 20Motivation
19========== 21==========
20 22
21Although most package updates are clean and require little user action, 23Although most package updates are clean and require little user action,
22occasionally an upgrade requires user intervention during the upgrade process. 24occasionally an upgrade requires user intervention. Recent examples of the
23Recent examples of the latter include the ``gcc-3.4`` stabilisation on ``x86`` 25latter include the ``gcc-3.4`` stabilisation on ``x86`` and the ``mysql-4.1``
24and the ``mysql-4.1`` database format changes. 26database format changes.
25 27
26There are currently several ways of delivering important news items to our 28There are currently several ways of delivering important news items to our
27users, none of them particularly effective: 29users, none of them particularly effective:
28 30
29* Gentoo Weekly News 31* Gentoo Weekly News
32* The main Gentoo website 34* The main Gentoo website
33* RSS feeds of Gentoo news 35* RSS feeds of Gentoo news
34* ``einfo`` and ``ewarn`` messages in ``pkg_setup`` or ``pkg_postinst`` 36* ``einfo`` and ``ewarn`` messages in ``pkg_setup`` or ``pkg_postinst``
35 37
36A more reliable way of getting news of critical updates out to users is required 38A more reliable way of getting news of critical updates out to users is required
37to avoid repeats of the various recent upgrade debacles. This GLEP proposes a 39to avoid repeats of various prior upgrade debacles. This GLEP proposes a
38solution based around pushing news items out to the user via the ``rsync`` tree. 40solution based around pushing news items out to the user via the ``rsync`` tree.
39 41
40.. Important:: This GLEP does not seek to replace or modify ``einfo`` messages 42.. Important:: This GLEP does not seek to replace or modify ``einfo`` messages
41 which are displayed post-install. That is a separate issue which is handled 43 which are displayed post-install. That is a separate issue which is handled
42 by ``elog`` [#bug-11359]_. 44 by ``elog`` [#bug-11359]_.
52 given ample warning to plan difficult upgrades and changes, rather than only 54 given ample warning to plan difficult upgrades and changes, rather than only
53 being told just before action is necessary. 55 being told just before action is necessary.
54 56
55No user subscription required 57No user subscription required
56 It has already been demonstrated [#forums-apache2]_ that many users do not 58 It has already been demonstrated [#forums-apache2]_ that many users do not
57 read the ``gentoo-announce`` mailing list or ``RSS`` feeds. A solution which 59 read the ``gentoo-announce`` mailing list or ``RSS`` feeds. A solution that
58 requires subscription has no advantage over current methods. 60 requires subscription has no advantage over current methods.
59 61
60No user monitoring required 62No user monitoring required
61 It has already been demonstrated [#forums-apache2]_ that many users do not 63 It has already been demonstrated [#forums-apache2]_ that many users do not
62 read news items posted to the Gentoo website, or do not read news items 64 read news items posted to the Gentoo website, or do not read news items
134 informing the user that there are unread news items. 136 informing the user that there are unread news items.
135 137
1366. The news item is handled by the user's choice of news item reader. See `News 1386. The news item is handled by the user's choice of news item reader. See `News
137 Item Clients`_. 139 Item Clients`_.
138 140
141Required Portage Enhancements
142-----------------------------
143
144The following extensions to Portage are required:
145
146* Every repository (including overlays) will require a unique identifier. It is
147 assumed that an identifier will be a string consisting of characters from
148 ``a`` to ``z``, ``A`` to ``Z``, ``0`` to ``9``, ``+`` (plus), ``-`` (hyphen)
149 ``_`` (underscore).
150
151* Portage must provide a way for external programs to obtain a list of all
152 repository identifiers for a given system. It is assumed that this will be in
153 the form of a ``portageq`` command (e.g. ``portageq get_repo_ids``).
154
155* Portage must provide a way for external programs to obtain the base path for
156 a repository with a given ID. It is assumed that this will be in the form of
157 a ``portageq`` command (e.g. ``portageq get_repo_root gentoo-x86``).
158
159* Portage must extend ``portageq has_version`` to support restrictions to a
160 given repository ID.
161
162* Portage must extend ``portageq`` to implement a command which returns whether
163 or not the profile used for a given repository ID is exactly the given profile
164 (e.g. ``portageq profile_used default-linux/sparc/sparc64/2004.3
165 gentoo-x86``).
166
167These extensions are assumed during the following specification.
168
139News Item Identities 169News Item Identities
140-------------------- 170--------------------
141 171
142Each news item will have a unique identifier. This identifier will be in the 172Each news item will have a unique identifier. This identifier will be in the
143form ``yyyy-mm-dd-short-name``, where ``yyyy`` is the year (e.g. ``2005``), 173form ``yyyy-mm-dd-short-name``, where ``yyyy`` is the year (e.g. ``2005``),
144``mm`` is the month (``01`` through ``12``) and dd is the day of the month 174``mm`` is the month (``01`` through ``12``) and dd is the day of the month
145(``01`` through ``31``). The ``short-name`` is a very short name describing the 175(``01`` through ``31``). The ``short-name`` is a very short name describing the
146news item (e.g. ``yoursql-updates``), consisting only of the characters ``a-z``, 176news item (e.g. ``yoursql-updates``), consisting only of the characters ``a-z``,
147``0-9``, ``+`` (plus), ``:`` (colon) and ``-`` (hyphen). 177``0-9``, ``+`` (plus), ``-`` (hyphen) and ``_`` (underscore).
148 178
149News Item Directories 179News Item Directories
150--------------------- 180---------------------
151 181
152Each news item will be represented by a directory whose name is the same as the 182Each news item will be represented by a directory whose name is the same as the
154 184
155The directory will contain a file named ``yyyy-mm-dd-short-name.en.txt``, which 185The directory will contain a file named ``yyyy-mm-dd-short-name.en.txt``, which
156contains the text of the news item, in English, in the format described below. 186contains the text of the news item, in English, in the format described below.
157 187
158If a news item is translated, other files named ``yyyy-mm-dd-short-name.xx.txt`` 188If a news item is translated, other files named ``yyyy-mm-dd-short-name.xx.txt``
159(where ``xx`` is the ISO 639 [#iso-639]_ two letter country code) will also be 189(where ``xx`` is the ISO 639 [#iso-639]_ two letter country code, and the date
160provided. However, only the English version of a news item is authoritative. 190remains the same as the original news item) will also be provided. However, only
161This anglocentricity is justified by precedent [#glep-34]_. 191the English version of a news item is authoritative. This anglocentricity is
192justified by precedent [#glep-34]_.
162 193
163News Item Files 194News Item Files
164--------------- 195---------------
165 196
166A news item file is a text file, encoded using UTF-8 [#rfc-3629]_ for 197A news item file is a text file, encoded using UTF-8 [#rfc-3629]_ for
167compatibility with and for the same reasons as existing Gentoo documentation 198compatibility with and for the same reasons as existing Gentoo documentation
168[#docs-policy]_ and the tree [#glep-31]_. 199[#docs-policy]_ and the tree [#glep-31]_.
169 200
170News items should be signed with a detached GPG signature: :: 201News items must be signed with a detached GPG signature.::
171 202
172 gpg --armour --detach-sign ????-??-??-*.??.txt 203 gpg --armour --detach-sign ????-??-??-*.??.txt
204
205This GLEP does not specify the type or strength of signature to be used, nor
206does it discuss how, if at all, a centralised keychain will be provided. These
207issues should be handled as part of the signing policy discussions.
173 208
174A news item file's content will consist of an RFC 822 style header [#rfc-822]_ 209A news item file's content will consist of an RFC 822 style header [#rfc-822]_
175followed by the main body of the message as plain text. This GLEP defines 210followed by the main body of the message as plain text. This GLEP defines
176various optional and mandatory headers. Future GLEPs may propose new headers — 211various optional and mandatory headers. Future GLEPs may propose new headers —
177tools handling these news items must ignore any unrecognised header. 212tools handling these news items must ignore any unrecognised header.
194 229
195``Content-Type:`` 230``Content-Type:``
196 Must be ``text/plain``. Mandatory. 231 Must be ``text/plain``. Mandatory.
197 232
198``Posted:`` 233``Posted:``
199 Date of posting, in ``dd-mmm-yyyy`` format (e.g. 14-Aug-2001) for 234 Date of posting, in ``yyyy-mm-dd`` format (e.g. 2005-12-18) for
200 compatibility with GLEP 1 [#glep-1]_. UTC time in ``hh-mm-ss +0000`` format 235 compatibility with GLEP 45 [#glep-45]_. Translations should use the date
201 may also be included. Mandatory. 236 of the original news item. Mandatory.
202 237
203``Revision:`` 238``Revision:``
204 Initially 1. Incremented every time a non-trivial change is made. Changes 239 Initially 1. Should be incremented every time a change is made to the news
205 which require a re-read of the news item should instead use a new news item 240 item. Changes that require a re-read of the news item (i.e., most changes
241 that are not spelling or formatting related) should instead use a new news
206 file. Mandatory. 242 item. Mandatory.
207 243
208``News-Item-Format:`` 244``News-Item-Format:``
209 Must be ``1.0``. Future revisions to the format may increment the minor 245 Must be ``1.0``. Future revisions to the format may increment the minor
210 number for backwards-compatible changes, or the major number for major 246 number for backwards-compatible changes, or the major number for major
211 changes. 247 changes.
212 248
213The following headers are used for filtering: 249The following headers are used for filtering:
214 250
215``Display-If-Installed:`` 251``Display-If-Installed:``
216 A dependency atom or simple package name (for example, 252 A dependency atom (for example, ``<dev-lang/php-5_alpha`` or
217 ``<dev-lang/php-5_alpha`` or ``net-www/apache``). If the user has the 253 ``net-www/apache``). If the user has the package specified installed from
218 package specified installed, the news item should be displayed. 254 the repository from which the news item was obtained, the news item should
255 be displayed.
219 256
220``Display-If-Keyword:`` 257``Display-If-Keyword:``
221 A keyword [#glep-22]_ name, for example ``mips`` or ``x86-fbsd``. If the 258 A keyword [#glep-22]_ name, for example ``mips`` or ``x86-fbsd``. If the
222 user is on the keyword in question, the news item should be displayed. 259 user is on the keyword in question, the news item should be displayed.
223 260
224``Display-If-Profile:`` 261``Display-If-Profile:``
225 A profile path, for example ``default-linux/sparc/sparc64/server``. Standard 262 A profile path, for example ``default-linux/sparc/sparc64/server``. If the
226 shell GLOB wildcards may be used. If the user is using the exact profile in 263 user is using the exact profile in question, the news item should be
227 question, the news item should be displayed. This header may be used to 264 displayed. This header may be used to replace ``deprecated`` files in the
228 replace ``deprecated`` files in the future. 265 future.
229 266
230.. Note:: When performing package moves, developers must also update any 267.. Note:: When performing package moves, developers must also update any
231 relevant ``Display-If-Installed`` headers in news files. 268 relevant ``Display-If-Installed`` headers in news files.
232 269
233The algorithm used to determine whether a news item is 'relevant' is as 270The algorithm used to determine whether a news item is 'relevant' is as
262 299
263Hyperlinks may be used to refer to further information (for example, an upgrade 300Hyperlinks may be used to refer to further information (for example, an upgrade
264guide). However, the main body of the news item should be descriptive and not 301guide). However, the main body of the news item should be descriptive and not
265simply a "read this link" text. It is assumed that the user will have access to 302simply a "read this link" text. It is assumed that the user will have access to
266a web browser *somewhere*, but not necessarily on the box which is being 303a web browser *somewhere*, but not necessarily on the box which is being
267administrated — this will be the case on may servers and routers, for example. 304administrated — this will be the case on many servers and routers, for example.
268 305
269Example News Item 306Example News Item
270''''''''''''''''' 307'''''''''''''''''
271 308
272`This hypothetical news item`__ could be used for an upgrade to the 309`This hypothetical news item`__ could be used for an upgrade to the
287posted to the ``gentoo-dev`` mailing list and ``Cc:``\ed to ``pr@gentoo.org`` 324posted to the ``gentoo-dev`` mailing list and ``Cc:``\ed to ``pr@gentoo.org``
288(exceptions may be made in exceptional circumstances). Any complaints — for 325(exceptions may be made in exceptional circumstances). Any complaints — for
289example regarding wording, clarity or accuracy — **must** be addressed before 326example regarding wording, clarity or accuracy — **must** be addressed before
290the news item goes live. 327the news item goes live.
291 328
292.. Note:: A previous draft of this GLEP allowed news items to be sent to
293 ``gentoo-core`` instead of ``gentoo-dev``. It is possible that a situation
294 may arise where this will be necessary (for example, a security update which
295 must break backwards compatibility and which cannot be revealed to the public
296 before a given date).
297
298News items must only be for **important** changes that may cause serious upgrade 329News items must only be for **important** changes that may cause serious upgrade
299or compatibility problems. Ordinary upgrade messages and non-critical news items 330or compatibility problems. Ordinary upgrade messages and non-critical news items
300should remain in ``einfo`` notices. The importance of the message to its 331should remain in ``einfo`` notices. The importance of the message to its
301intended audience should be justified with the proposal. 332intended audience should be justified with the proposal.
302 333
320 351
321.. Note:: A previous draft of this GLEP instead used the main ``gentoo-x86`` 352.. Note:: A previous draft of this GLEP instead used the main ``gentoo-x86``
322 tree. This was changed following advice from Infrastructure 353 tree. This was changed following advice from Infrastructure
323 [#ramereth-repo]_. Both solutions have the same end result. 354 [#ramereth-repo]_. Both solutions have the same end result.
324 355
325This repository will contain directories named ``yyyy/mm/``, where ``yyyy`` is 356This repository will contain directories named ``yyyy/``, where ``yyyy`` is
326the current year and ``mm`` is the current month number (01 for January through
32712 for December). This separation will help keep news items more manageable. 357the current year. This separation will help keep news items more manageable.
328 358
329The contents of this repository will automatically be merged with the main rsync 359The contents of this repository will automatically be merged with the main rsync
330tree, placing the items in a ``metadata/news/`` directory. The method used for 360tree, placing the items in a ``metadata/news/`` directory. The method used for
331merging these items is beyond the scope of this GLEP — a similar setup is 361merging these items and the frequency at which it will occur is beyond the scope
332already used for merging GLSAs into the rsync tree. 362of this GLEP; a similar setup is already used for merging GLSAs into the rsync
363tree.
333 364
334The main rsync tree will **not** use the ``yyyy/mm/`` subdirectory layout. 365The main rsync tree will **not** use the ``yyyy/`` subdirectory layout. The
366news item directories will all be immediately under the ``metadata/news/``
367directory.
335 368
336Client Side 369Client Side
337''''''''''' 370'''''''''''
338 371
339Whenever relevant unread news items are found, the package manager will create a 372Whenever relevant unread news items are found, the package manager will create a
340file named ``/var/lib/gentoo/news/news-magic-chicken.unread`` (if it does not 373file named ``/var/lib/gentoo/news/news-${repoid}.unread`` (if it does not
341already exist) and append the news item identifier (eg 374already exist) and append the news item identifier (eg
342``2005-11-01-yoursql-updates``) on a new line. 375``2005-11-01-yoursql-updates``) on a new line.
343 376
344.. Note:: Future changes to Portage involving support for multiple repositories 377All news item related files should be root owned and in the ``portage`` group
345 may introduce repository names. In this case, the ``magic-chicken`` part of the 378with the group write (and, for directories, execute) bits set. News files should
346 filename should be replaced by a string representation of the repository 379be world readable.
347 name. Thus, news item clients should use a wildcard rather than hardcoding
348 the ``magic-chicken`` string.
349 380
350Notification that new relevant news items will be displayed via the 381Notification that new relevant news items will be displayed via the
351``emerge`` tool in a similar way to the existing "configuration files need 382``emerge`` tool in a similar way to the existing "configuration files need
352updating" messages: 383updating" messages:
353 384
359Checks for new news messages should be displayed: 390Checks for new news messages should be displayed:
360 391
361* After an ``emerge sync`` 392* After an ``emerge sync``
362* After an ``emerge --pretend`` 393* After an ``emerge --pretend``
363* Before an ``emerge <target>`` (which may also include a red warning message) 394* Before an ``emerge <target>`` (which may also include a red warning message)
364* Before an ``emerge --ask <target>`` sequence 395
396The package manager does not need to know how to launch the user's choice of
397news client. This is consistent with the way configuration file updates are
398handled.
365 399
366The package manager may use a timestamp check file to avoid having to process 400The package manager may use a timestamp check file to avoid having to process
367news items unnecessarily. 401news items unnecessarily.
368 402
369The package manager must keep track of news items that have already been added 403The package manager must keep track of news items that have already been added
370to the unread list to avoid repeatedly marking a deleted news item. This could 404to the unread list to avoid repeatedly marking a deleted news item. This could
371be handled via a ``news-magic-chicken.skip`` file, but implementation is not 405be handled via a ``news-${repoid}.skip`` file containing the IDs of news items
372specified by this GLEP. 406that have already been added to a ``news-${repoid}.unread`` file, but this
407method is not required by this GLEP.
373 408
374Users who really don't care about news items can use ``rsync_excludes`` to 409Users who really don't care about news items can use ``rsync_excludes`` to
375filter out the ``metadata/news/`` directory. 410filter out the ``metadata/news/`` directory.
376 411
377News Item Clients 412News Item Clients
379 414
380Once a news item is marked for reading, third party tools (or traditional core 415Once a news item is marked for reading, third party tools (or traditional core
381Unix tools) can be used to display and view the news files. 416Unix tools) can be used to display and view the news files.
382 417
383When a news item is read, its name should be removed from the 418When a news item is read, its name should be removed from the
384``news-magic-chicken.unread`` file. If a news client acts as an interactive 419``news-${repoid}.unread`` file. If a news client acts as an interactive reader
385reader rather than a gateway, it should then add the name to a 420rather than a gateway, it should then add the name to a ``news-${repoid}.read``
386``news-magic-chicken.read`` file in the same directory with the same file 421file in the same directory with the same file format.
387format (again, ``magic-chicken`` should be a wildcard rather than hardcoded).
388 422
389An ``eselect`` [#eselect]_ module shall be created as the 'suggested' display 423An ``eselect`` [#eselect]_ module shall be created as the 'suggested' display
390tool; other display tools (for example, a news to email forwarder, which would 424tool; other display tools (for example, a news to email forwarder, which would
391be ideal for users who sync on a ``cron``) are left as options for those who 425be ideal for users who sync on a ``cron``) are left as options for those who
392desire them. 426desire them.
415the ``news/`` directory. 449the ``news/`` directory.
416 450
417Reference Implementation 451Reference Implementation
418======================== 452========================
419 453
420Portage Code 454A reference implementation of the required package manager support can be found
421------------ 455in Paludis [#paludis]_, along with a reference newsreader implemented as an
422 456eselect module [#eselect-news]_.
423TODO
424
425Simple ``eselect`` News Client
426------------------------------
427
428TODO Removed until the exact format details are figured out.
429
430Simple News to Mail Forwarder
431-----------------------------
432
433TODO Removed until the exact format details are figured out.
434 457
435Credits 458Credits
436======= 459=======
437 460
438The idea behind notifying users of news updates via Portage comes from Stuart 461The idea behind notifying users of news updates via Portage comes from Stuart
439Herbert [#stuart-blog]_. 462Herbert [#stuart-blog]_.
440 463
441Thanks to Lance Albertson, Stephen Bennett, Donnie Berkholz, Grant Goodyear, 464Thanks to Lance Albertson, Stephen Bennett, Donnie Berkholz, Grant Goodyear,
442Brian Harring, Dan Meltzer, Jason Stubbs, Paul de Vrieze and Alec Warner for 465Brian Harring, Marius Mauch, Dan Meltzer, Jason Stubbs, Paul de Vrieze and Alec
443input. Some of the ideas presented here are theirs, others go completely 466Warner for input. Some of the ideas presented here are theirs, others go
444against their suggestions. 467completely against their suggestions.
445 468
446Example Files 469Example Files
447============= 470=============
448 471
449TODO Removed until the exact format details are figured out. 472`example-news-item.txt <glep-0042-extras/example-news-item.txt>`_
473 An example news item.
450 474
451References 475References
452========== 476==========
453 477
454.. [#bug-11359] Bugzilla Bug 11359 478.. [#bug-11359] Bugzilla Bug 11359
461 http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/eselect/index.xml 485 http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/eselect/index.xml
462.. [#forums-glsa] Forums user GLSA, 486.. [#forums-glsa] Forums user GLSA,
463 http://forums.gentoo.org/profile.php?mode=viewprofile&u=55648 487 http://forums.gentoo.org/profile.php?mode=viewprofile&u=55648
464.. [#forums-apache2] Forums thread "Gentoo Apache2 Config Change Idiocy", 488.. [#forums-apache2] Forums thread "Gentoo Apache2 Config Change Idiocy",
465 http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-384368.html 489 http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-384368.html
466.. [#glep-1] GLEP 1: "GLEP Purpose and Guidelines", Grant Goodyear,
467 http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0001.html
468.. [#glep-22] GLEP 22: "New "keyword" system to incorporate various 490.. [#glep-22] GLEP 22: "New "keyword" system to incorporate various
469 userlands/kernels/archs", Grant Goodyear, 491 userlands/kernels/archs", Grant Goodyear,
470 http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0022.html 492 http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0022.html
471.. [#glep-31] GLEP 31: "Character Sets for Portage Tree Items", Ciaran 493.. [#glep-31] GLEP 31: "Character Sets for Portage Tree Items", Ciaran
472 McCreesh, 494 McCreesh,
474.. [#glep-34] GLEP 34: "Per-Category metadata.xml Files", Ciaran McCreesh, 496.. [#glep-34] GLEP 34: "Per-Category metadata.xml Files", Ciaran McCreesh,
475 http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0034.html 497 http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0034.html
476.. [#glep-36] GLEP 36: "Subversion/CVS for Gentoo Hosted Projects", Aaron 498.. [#glep-36] GLEP 36: "Subversion/CVS for Gentoo Hosted Projects", Aaron
477 Walker, 499 Walker,
478 http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0036.html 500 http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0036.html
501.. [#glep-45] GLEP 45: "GLEP date format", Henrik Brix Andersen,
502 http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0045.html
479.. [#iso-639] ISO 639 "Code for the representation of names of languages" 503.. [#iso-639] ISO 639 "Code for the representation of names of languages"
480.. [#ramereth-repo] "Re: [gentoo-dev] GLEP ??: Critical News Reporting", Lance 504.. [#ramereth-repo] "Re: [gentoo-dev] GLEP ??: Critical News Reporting", Lance
481 Albertson, 505 Albertson,
482 http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=gentoo-dev&m=113111585907703&w=2 506 http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=gentoo-dev&m=113111585907703&w=2
483.. [#rfc-822] RFC 822 "Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages" 507.. [#rfc-822] RFC 822 "Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages"
484.. [#rfc-3629] RFC 3629: "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646" 508.. [#rfc-3629] RFC 3629: "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646"
485 http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt 509 http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt
510.. [#paludis] Paludis homepage, http://paludis.berlios.de
511.. [#eselect-news] news.eselect, http://svn.berlios.de/svnroot/repos/paludis/trunk/eselect/news.eselect
486.. [#stuart-blog] "Favouring an automatic news mechanism", Stuart Herbert, 512.. [#stuart-blog] "Favouring an automatic news mechanism", Stuart Herbert,
487 http://stu.gnqs.org/diary/gentoo.php/2005/10/28/favouring_an_automatic_news_mechanism 513 http://stu.gnqs.org/diary/gentoo.php/2005/10/28/favouring_an_automatic_news_mechanism
488 514
489Copyright 515Copyright
490========= 516=========

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