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31 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">GLEP:</th><td class="field-body">44</td>
32 </tr>
33 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Title:</th><td class="field-body">Manifest2 format</td>
34 </tr>
35 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Version:</th><td class="field-body">1.2</td>
36 </tr>
37 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Last-Modified:</th><td class="field-body"><a class="reference" href="http://www.gentoo.org/cgi-bin/viewcvs/xml/htdocs/proj/en/glep/glep-0044.txt?cvsroot=gentoo">2005/12/06 16:19:37</a></td>
38 </tr>
39 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Author:</th><td class="field-body">Marius Mauch &lt;genone&#32;&#97;t&#32;gentoo.org&gt;,</td>
40 </tr>
41 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Status:</th><td class="field-body">Draft</td>
42 </tr>
43 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Type:</th><td class="field-body">Standards Track</td>
44 </tr>
45 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Content-Type:</th><td class="field-body"><a class="reference" href="http://www.python.org/peps/glep-0012.html">text/x-rst</a></td>
46 </tr>
47 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Created:</th><td class="field-body">04-Dec-2005</td>
48 </tr>
49 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Post-History:</th><td class="field-body">06-Dec-2005, 23-Jan-2006</td>
50 </tr>
51 </tbody>
52 </table>
53 <hr />
54 <div class="contents topic" id="contents">
55 <p class="topic-title first"><a name="contents">Contents</a></p>
56 <ul class="simple">
57 <li><a class="reference" href="#abstract" id="id6" name="id6">Abstract</a></li>
58 <li><a class="reference" href="#motivation" id="id7" name="id7">Motivation</a></li>
59 <li><a class="reference" href="#specification" id="id8" name="id8">Specification</a><ul>
60 <li><a class="reference" href="#compability-entries" id="id9" name="id9">Compability Entries</a></li>
61 <li><a class="reference" href="#scope" id="id10" name="id10">Scope</a></li>
62 </ul>
63 </li>
64 <li><a class="reference" href="#rationale" id="id11" name="id11">Rationale</a><ul>
65 <li><a class="reference" href="#removal-of-digest-files" id="id12" name="id12">Removal of digest files</a></li>
66 <li><a class="reference" href="#reducing-redundancy" id="id13" name="id13">Reducing redundancy</a></li>
67 <li><a class="reference" href="#removal-of-checksum-collisions" id="id14" name="id14">Removal of checksum collisions</a></li>
68 <li><a class="reference" href="#flexible-verification-system" id="id15" name="id15">Flexible verification system</a></li>
69 </ul>
70 </li>
71 <li><a class="reference" href="#backwards-compatibility" id="id16" name="id16">Backwards Compatibility</a></li>
72 <li><a class="reference" href="#other-problems" id="id17" name="id17">Other problems</a><ul>
73 <li><a class="reference" href="#impacts-on-infrastructure" id="id18" name="id18">Impacts on infrastructure</a></li>
74 </ul>
75 </li>
76 <li><a class="reference" href="#reference-implementation" id="id19" name="id19">Reference Implementation</a></li>
77 <li><a class="reference" href="#options" id="id20" name="id20">Options</a></li>
78 <li><a class="reference" href="#credits" id="id21" name="id21">Credits</a></li>
79 <li><a class="reference" href="#references" id="id22" name="id22">References</a></li>
80 <li><a class="reference" href="#copyright" id="id23" name="id23">Copyright</a></li>
81 </ul>
82 </div>
83 <div class="section" id="abstract">
84 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6" name="abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
85 <p>This GLEP proposes a new format for the Portage Manifest and digest file system
86 by unifying both filetypes into one to improve functional and non-functional
87 aspects of the Portage Tree.</p>
88 </div>
89 <div class="section" id="motivation">
90 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7" name="motivation">Motivation</a></h1>
91 <p>Please see <a class="footnote-reference" href="#reorg-thread" id="id1" name="id1">[1]</a> for a general overview.
92 The main long term goals of this proposal are to:</p>
93 <ul class="simple">
94 <li>Remove the tiny digest files from the tree. They are a major annoyance as on a
95 typical configuration they waste a lot of disk space and the simple transmission
96 of the names for all digest files during a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emerge</span> <span class="pre">--sync</span></tt> needs a substantial
97 amount of bandwidth.</li>
98 <li>Reduce redundancy when multiple hash functions are used</li>
99 <li>Remove potential for checksum collisions if a file is recorded in more than one
100 digest file</li>
101 <li>Difference between filetypes for a more flexible verification system</li>
102 </ul>
103 </div>
104 <div class="section" id="specification">
105 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8" name="specification">Specification</a></h1>
106 <p>The new Manifest format would change the existing format in the following ways:</p>
107 <ul>
108 <li><p class="first">Addition of a filetype specifier, currently planned are</p>
109 <ul class="simple">
110 <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AUXFILE</span></tt> for files directly used by ebuilds (e.g. patches or initscripts),
111 located in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">files/</span></tt> subdirectory</li>
112 <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">EBUILD</span></tt> for all ebuilds</li>
113 <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MISCFILE</span></tt> for files not directly used by ebuilds like <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ChangeLog</span></tt> or
114 <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">metadata.xml</span></tt> files</li>
115 <li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DISTFILE</span></tt> for release tarballs recorded in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SRC_URI</span></tt> variable of an ebuild,
116 these were previously recorded in the digest files</li>
117 </ul>
118 <p>Future portage improvements might extend this list (for example with types
119 relevant for eclasses or profiles)</p>
120 </li>
121 <li><p class="first">Only have one line per file listing all information instead of one line per
122 file and checksum type</p>
123 </li>
124 <li><p class="first">Remove the separated digest-* files in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">files/</span></tt> subdirectory</p>
125 </li>
126 </ul>
127 <p>Each line in the new format has the following format:</p>
128 <pre class="literal-block">
129 &lt;filetype&gt; &lt;filename&gt; &lt;filesize&gt; &lt;chksumtype1&gt; &lt;chksum1&gt; ... &lt;chksumtypen&gt; &lt;chksumn&gt;
130 </pre>
131 <p>However theses entries will be stored in the existing Manifest files.</p>
132 <p>An actual example for a (pure) Manifest2 file could look like this (using
133 indentation to indicate line continuation):</p>
134 <pre class="literal-block">
135 AUXFILE ldif-buffer-overflow-fix.diff 5007 RMD160 1354a6bd2687430b628b78aaf43f5c793d2f0704
136 SHA1 424e1dfca06488f605b9611160020227ecdd03ac MD5 06d23c04b3d6ddfb1431c22ecc5b28f6
137 AUXFILE procmime.patch 977 RMD160 39a51a4d654759b15d1644a79fb6e8921130df3c
138 SHA1 d76929f6dfc2179281f7ccee5789aab4e970ba9e MD5 bf4c9cd9cb7cdc6ece7d4d327910f0cf
139 EBUILD sylpheed-claws-1.0.5-r1.ebuild 3906 RMD160 cdd546c128db2dea7044437de01ec96e12b4f5bf
140 SHA1 a84b49e76961d7a9100852b64c2bfbf9b053d45e MD5 b9fe79135a475458ef1b2240ee302ebd
141 EBUILD sylpheed-claws-1.9.100.ebuild 4444 RMD160 89326038bfc694dafd22f10400a08d3f930fb2bd
142 SHA1 8895342f3f0cc6fcbdd0fdada2ad8e23ce539d23 MD5 0643de736b42d8c0e1673e86ae0b7f80
143 EBUILD sylpheed-claws-1.9.15.ebuild 4821 RMD160 ec0ff811b893084459fe5b17b8ba8d6b35a55687
144 SHA1 358278a43da244e1f4803ec4b04d6fa45c41ab4d MD5 15b5c9348ba0b0a416892588256b4cbc
145 MISCFILE ChangeLog 25770 RMD160 0e69dd7425add1560d630dd3367342418e9be776
146 SHA1 1210160f7baf0319de3b1b58dc80d7680d316d28 MD5 732cdc3b41403a115970d497a9ec257e
147 MISCFILE metadata.xml 269 RMD160 39d775de55f9963f8946feaf088aa0324770bacb
148 SHA1 4fd7b285049d0e587f89e86becf06c0fd77bae6d MD5 82e806ed62f0596fb7bef493d225712f
149 DISTFILE sylpheed-claws-1.0.5.tar.bz2 3268626 RMD160 f2708b5d69bc9a5025812511fde04eca7782e367
150 SHA1 d351d7043eef7a875df18a8c4b9464be49e2164b MD5 ef4a1a7beb407dc7c31b4799bc48f12e
151 DISTFILE sylpheed-claws-1.9.100.tar.bz2 3480063 RMD160 72fbcbcc05d966f34897efcc1c96377420dc5544
152 SHA1 47465662b5470af5711493ce4eaad764c5bf02ca MD5 863c314557f90f17c2f6d6a0ab57e6c2
153 DISTFILE sylpheed-claws-1.9.15.tar.bz2 3481018 RMD160 b01d1af2df55806a8a8275102b10e389e0d98e94
154 SHA1 a17fc64b8dcc5b56432e5beb5c826913cb3ad79e MD5 0d187526e0eca23b87ffa4981f7e1765
155 </pre>
156 <div class="section" id="compability-entries">
157 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9" name="compability-entries">Compability Entries</a></h2>
158 <p>To maintain compability with existing portage versions a transition period after
159 is the introduction of the Manifest2 format is required during which portage
160 will not only have to be capable of using existing Manifest and digest files but
161 also generate them in addition to the new entries.
162 Fortunately this can be accomplished by simply mixing old and new style entries
163 in one file for the Manifest files, existing portage versions will simply ignore
164 the new style entries. For the digest files there are no new entries to care
165 about.</p>
166 </div>
167 <div class="section" id="scope">
168 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id10" name="scope">Scope</a></h2>
169 <p>It is important to note that this proposal only deals with a change of the
170 format of the digest and Manifest system.</p>
171 <p>It does not expand the scope of it to cover eclasses, profiles or anything
172 else not already covered by the Manifest system, it also doesn't affect
173 the Manifest signing efforts in any way (though the implementations of both
174 might be coupled).</p>
175 <p>Also while multiple hash functions will become standard with the proposed
176 implementation they are not a specific feature of this format <a class="footnote-reference" href="#multi-hash-thread" id="id2" name="id2">[2]</a>.</p>
177 </div>
178 </div>
179 <div class="section" id="rationale">
180 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11" name="rationale">Rationale</a></h1>
181 <p>The main goals of the proposal have been listed in the <a class="reference" href="#motivation">Motivation</a>, here now
182 the explanation why they are improvements and how the proposed format will
183 accomplish them.</p>
184 <div class="section" id="removal-of-digest-files">
185 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id12" name="removal-of-digest-files">Removal of digest files</a></h2>
186 <p>Normal users that don't use a &quot;tuned&quot; filesystem for the portage tree are
187 wasting several dozen to a few hundred megabytes of disk space with the current
188 system, largely caused by the digest files.
189 This is due to the filesystem overhead present in most filesystem that
190 have a standard blocksize of four kilobytes while most digest files are under
191 one kilobyte in size, so this results in approximately a waste of three kilobytes
192 per digest file (likely even more). At the time of this writing the tree contains
193 roughly 22.000 digest files, so the overall waste caused by digest files is
194 estimated at about 70-100 megabytes.
195 Furthermore it is assumed that this will also reduce the disk space wasted by
196 the Manifest files as they now contain more content, but this hasn't been
197 verified yet.</p>
198 <p>By unifying the digest files with the Manifest these tiny files are eliminated
199 (in the long run), reducing the apparent tree size by about 20%, benefitting
200 both users and the Gentoo infrastructure.</p>
201 </div>
202 <div class="section" id="reducing-redundancy">
203 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id13" name="reducing-redundancy">Reducing redundancy</a></h2>
204 <p>When multiple hashes are used with the current system
205 both the filename and filesize are repeated for every checksum type used as each
206 checksum is standalone. However this doesn't add any functionality and is
207 therefore useless, so the new format removes this redundancy.
208 This is a theoretical improvement at this moment as only one hash function is in
209 use, but expected to change soon (see <a class="footnote-reference" href="#multi-hash-thread" id="id3" name="id3">[2]</a>).</p>
210 </div>
211 <div class="section" id="removal-of-checksum-collisions">
212 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id14" name="removal-of-checksum-collisions">Removal of checksum collisions</a></h2>
213 <p>The current system theoretically allows for a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DISTFILE</span></tt> type file to be recorded
214 in multiple digest files with different sizes and/or checksums. In such a case
215 one version of a package would report a checksum violation while another one
216 would not. This could create confusion and uncertainity among users.
217 So far this case hasn't been observed, but it can't be ruled out with the
218 existing system.
219 As the new format lists each file exactly once this would be no longer possible.</p>
220 </div>
221 <div class="section" id="flexible-verification-system">
222 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id15" name="flexible-verification-system">Flexible verification system</a></h2>
223 <p>Right now portage verifies the checksum of every file listed in the Manifest
224 before using any file of the package and all <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DISTFILE</span></tt> files of an ebuild
225 before using that ebuild. This is unnecessary in many cases:</p>
226 <ul class="simple">
227 <li>During the &quot;depend&quot; phase (when the ebuild metadata is generated) only
228 files of type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">EBUILD</span></tt> are used, so verifying the other types isn't
229 necessary. Theoretically it is possible for an ebuild to include other
230 files like those of type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">AUXFILE</span></tt> at this phase, but that would be a
231 major QA violation and should never occur, so it can be ignored here.
232 It is also not a security concern as the ebuild is verified before parsing
233 it, so each manipulation would show up.</li>
234 <li>Generally files of type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MISCFILE</span></tt> don't need to be verified as they are
235 only used in very specific situations, aren't executed (just parsed at most)
236 and don't affect the package build process.</li>
237 <li>Files of type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DISTFILE</span></tt> only need to be verified directly after fetching and
238 before unpacking them (which often will be one step), not every time their
239 associated ebuild is used.</li>
240 </ul>
241 </div>
242 </div>
243 <div class="section" id="backwards-compatibility">
244 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id16" name="backwards-compatibility">Backwards Compatibility</a></h1>
245 <p>Switching the Manifest system is a task that will need a long transition period
246 like most changes affecting both portage and the tree. In this case the
247 implementation will be rolled out in several phases:</p>
248 <ol class="arabic simple">
249 <li>Add support for verification of Manifest2 entries in portage</li>
250 <li>Enable generation of Manifest2 entries in addition to the current system</li>
251 <li>Ignore digests during <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">emerge</span> <span class="pre">--sync</span></tt> to get the size-benefit clientside.
252 This step may be ommitted if the following steps are expected to follow soon.</li>
253 <li>Disable generation of entries for the current system</li>
254 <li>Remove all traces of the current system from the tree (serverside)</li>
255 </ol>
256 <p>Each step has its own issues. While 1) and 2) can be implemented without any
257 compability problems all later steps have a major impact:</p>
258 <ul class="simple">
259 <li>Step 3) can only be implemented when the whole tree is Manifest2 ready
260 (ideally speaking, practically the requirement will be more like 95% coverage
261 with the expectation that for the remaining 5% either bugs will be filed after
262 step 3) is completed or they'll be updated at step 5).</li>
263 <li>Steps 4) and 5) will render all portage versions without Manifest2 support
264 basically useless (users would have to regenerate the digest and Manifest
265 for each package before being able to merge it), so this requires a almost
266 100% coverage of the userbase with Manifest2 capabale portage versions
267 (with step 1) completely implemented).</li>
268 </ul>
269 <p>Another problem is that some steps affect different targets:</p>
270 <ul class="simple">
271 <li>Steps 1) and 3) target portage versions used by users</li>
272 <li>Steps 2) and 4) target portage versions used by devs</li>
273 <li>Step 5) targets the portage tree on the cvs server</li>
274 </ul>
275 <p>While it is relatively easy to get all devs to use a new portage version this is
276 practically impossible with users as some don't update their systems regulary.
277 While six months are probably sufficient to reach a 95% coverage one year is
278 estimated to reach an almost-complete coverage. All times are relative to the
279 stable-marking of a compatible portage version.</p>
280 <p>No timeframe for implementation is presented here as it is highly dependent
281 on the completion of each step.</p>
282 <p>In summary it can be said that while a full conversion will take over a year
283 to be completed due to compability issues mentioned above some benefits of the
284 system can selectively be used as soon as step 2) is completed.</p>
285 </div>
286 <div class="section" id="other-problems">
287 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id17" name="other-problems">Other problems</a></h1>
288 <div class="section" id="impacts-on-infrastructure">
289 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id18" name="impacts-on-infrastructure">Impacts on infrastructure</a></h2>
290 <p>While one long term goal of this proposal is to reduce the size of the tree
291 and therefore make life for the Gentoo Infrastructure easier this will only
292 take effect once the implementation is rolled out completely. In the meantime
293 however it will increase the tree size due to keeping checksums in both formats.
294 It's not possible to give a usable estimate on the degree of the increase as
295 it depends on many variables such as the exact implementation timeframe,
296 propagation of Manifest2 capable portage versions among devs or the update
297 rate of the tree. It has been suggested that Manifest files that are not gpg
298 signed could be mass converted in one step, this could certainly help but only
299 to some degree (according to a recent research <a class="footnote-reference" href="#gpg-numbers" id="id4" name="id4">[3]</a> about 40% of
300 all Manifests in the tree are signed, but this number hasn't been verified).</p>
301 </div>
302 </div>
303 <div class="section" id="reference-implementation">
304 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id19" name="reference-implementation">Reference Implementation</a></h1>
305 <p>A patch for a prototype implementation of Manifest2 verification and partial
306 generation has been posted at <a class="footnote-reference" href="#manifest2-patch" id="id5" name="id5">[4]</a>, it will be reworked before
307 being considered for inclusion in portage. However it shows that adding support
308 for verification is quite simple, but generation is a bit tricky and will
309 therefore be implemented later.</p>
310 </div>
311 <div class="section" id="options">
312 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id20" name="options">Options</a></h1>
313 <p>Some things have been considered for this GLEP but aren't part of the proposal
314 yet for various reasons:</p>
315 <ul class="simple">
316 <li>timestamp field: the author has considered adding a timestamp field for
317 each entry to list the time the entry was created. However so far no practical
318 use for such a feature has been found.</li>
319 <li>convert size field into checksum: Another idea was to treat the size field
320 like any other checksum. But so far no real benefit (other than a slightly
321 more modular implementation) for this has been seen while it has several
322 drawbacks: For once, unlike checksums, the size field is definitely required
323 for all <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">DISTFILE</span></tt> files, also it would slightly increase the length of
324 each entry by adding a <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">SIZE</span></tt> keyword.</li>
325 <li>removal of the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MISCFILE</span></tt> type: It has been suggested to completely drop
326 entries of type <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">MISCFILE</span></tt>. This would result in a minor space reduction
327 (its rather unlikely to free any blocks) but completely remove the ability
328 to check these files for integrity. While they don't influence portage
329 or packages directly they can contain viable information for users, so
330 the author has the opinion that at least the option for integrity checks
331 should be kept.</li>
332 </ul>
333 </div>
334 <div class="section" id="credits">
335 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id21" name="credits">Credits</a></h1>
336 <p>Thanks to the following persons for their input on or related to this GLEP
337 (even though they might not have known it):
338 Ned Ludd (solar), Brian Harring (ferringb), Jason Stubbs (jstubbs),
339 Robin H. Johnson (robbat2), Aron Griffis (agriffis)</p>
340 <p>Also thanks to Nicholas Jones (carpaski) to make the current Manifest system
341 resistent enough to be able to handle this change without too many transition
342 problems.</p>
343 </div>
344 <div class="section" id="references">
345 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id22" name="references">References</a></h1>
346 <table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="reorg-thread" rules="none">
347 <colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
348 <tbody valign="top">
349 <tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id1" name="reorg-thread">[1]</a></td><td><a class="reference" href="http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel/21920">http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel/21920</a></td></tr>
350 </tbody>
351 </table>
352 <table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="multi-hash-thread" rules="none">
353 <colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
354 <tbody valign="top">
355 <tr><td class="label"><a name="multi-hash-thread">[2]</a></td><td><em>(<a class="fn-backref" href="#id2">1</a>, <a class="fn-backref" href="#id3">2</a>)</em> <a class="reference" href="http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel/33434">http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel/33434</a></td></tr>
356 </tbody>
357 </table>
358 <table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="gpg-numbers" rules="none">
359 <colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
360 <tbody valign="top">
361 <tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id4" name="gpg-numbers">[3]</a></td><td>gentoo-core mailing list, topic &quot;Gentoo key signing practices
362 and official Gentoo keyring&quot;, Message-ID &lt;<a class="reference" href="mailto:20051117075838.GB15734&#64;curie-int.vc.shawcable.net">20051117075838.GB15734&#64;curie-int.vc.shawcable.net</a>&gt;</td></tr>
363 </tbody>
364 </table>
365 <table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="manifest2-patch" rules="none">
366 <colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
367 <tbody valign="top">
368 <tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id5" name="manifest2-patch">[4]</a></td><td><a class="reference" href="http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.portage.devel/1374">http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.portage.devel/1374</a></td></tr>
369 </tbody>
370 </table>
371 </div>
372 <div class="section" id="copyright">
373 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id23" name="copyright">Copyright</a></h1>
374 <p>This document has been placed in the public domain.</p>
375 </div>
376
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379 <hr class="footer" />
380 <a class="reference" href="glep-0044.txt">View document source</a>.
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