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Note that GLEP59-61 are independantly useful, even without GLEP58.

1 cardoe 1.1 GLEP: 59
2     Title: Manifest2 hash policies and security implications
3 robbat2 1.6 Version: $Revision: 1.5 $
4     Last-Modified: $Date: 2010/01/31 07:55:45 $
5 cardoe 1.1 Author: Robin Hugh Johnson <robbat2@gentoo.org>,
6     Status: Draft
7     Type: Standards Track
8     Content-Type: text/x-rst
9     Requires: 44
10     Created: October 2006
11 robbat2 1.4 Updated: November 2007, June 2008, July 2008, October 2008, January 2010
12 cardoe 1.1 Updates: 44
13 robbat2 1.5 Post-History: December 2009, January 2010
14 cardoe 1.1
15     Abstract
16     ========
17     While Manifest2 format allows multiple hashes, the question of which
18     checksums should be present, why, and the security implications of such
19     have never been resolved. This GLEP covers all of these issues, and
20     makes recommendations as to how to handle checksums both now, and in
21     future.
22    
23     Motivation
24     ==========
25     This GLEP is being written as part of the work on signing the Portage
26     tree, but is only tangentially related to the actual signing of
27     Manifests. Checksums present one possible weak point in the overall
28     security of the tree - and a comprehensive security plan is needed.
29    
30 robbat2 1.6 This GLEP is not mandatory for the tree-signing specification, but
31     instead aims to improve the security of the hashes used in Manifest2.
32     As such, it is also able to stand on it's own.
33    
34 cardoe 1.1 Specification
35     =============
36     The bad news
37     ------------
38     First of all, I'd like to cover the bad news in checksum security.
39     A much discussed point, as been the simple question: What is the
40     security of multiple independent checksums on the same data?
41     The most common position (and indeed the one previously held by myself),
42     is that multiple checksums would be an increase in security, but we
43     could not provably quantify the amount of security this added.
44     The really bad news, is that this position is completely and utterly
45     wrong. Many of you will be aghast at this. There is extremely little
46 robbat2 1.5 added security in multiple checksums as noted by Joux [J04]. For any set
47     of checksums, the actual strength lies in that of the strongest
48     checksum.
49    
50     Wang et al [W04] extended Joux's [J04] work on SHA-0 to cover MD4, MD5,
51     HAVAL-128 and RIPEMD families of hashes.
52 cardoe 1.1
53     How fast can MD5 be broken?
54     ---------------------------
55 robbat2 1.5 For a general collision, not a pre-image attack, since the announcement
56     by Wang et al [W04], the time required to break MD5 has been massively
57     reduced. Originally at 1 hour on a near-supercomputer (IBM P690) and
58     estimated at 64 hours with a Pentium-3 1.7Ghz. This has gone down to
59     less than in two years, to 17 seconds [K06a].
60 cardoe 1.1
61     08/2004 - 1 hour, IBM pSeries 690 (32x 1.7Ghz POWER4+) = 54.4 GHz-Hours
62     03/2005 - 8 hours, Pentium-M 1.6Ghz = 12.8 Ghz-Hours
63     11/2005 - 5 hours, Pentium-4 1.7Ghz = 8.5 Ghz-Hours
64     03/2006 - 1 minute, Pentium-4 3.2Ghz = .05 Ghz-Hours
65     04/2006 - 17 seconds, Pentium-4 3.2Ghz = .01 Ghz-Hours
66    
67     If we accept a factor of 800x as a sample of how much faster a checksum
68     may be broken over the course of 2 years (MD5 using the above data is
69     >2000x), then existing checksums do not stand a significant chance of
70     survival in the future. We should thus accept that whatever checksums we
71     are using today, will be broken in the near future, and plan as best as
72 robbat2 1.5 possible. (A brief review [H04] of the SHA1 attacks indicates an
73 cardoe 1.1 improvement of ~600x in the same timespan).
74    
75     And for those that claim implementation of these procedures is not yet
76     feasible, see [K06b] for an application that can produce two
77 robbat2 1.5 self-extracting EXE files, with identical MD5s, and whatever payload you
78     want.
79 cardoe 1.1
80     The good news
81     -------------
82 robbat2 1.5 Of the checksums presently used by Manifest2 (SHA1, SHA256, RIPEMD160),
83     one stands close to being completely broken: SHA1; and another is
84     significantly weakened: RIPEMD160. The SHA2 series has suffered some
85     attacks, but still remains reasonably solid [G07],[K08].
86 cardoe 1.1
87     To reduce the potential for future problems and any single checksum
88     break leading to a rapid decrease in security, we should incorporate the
89     strongest hash available from each family of checksums, and be prepared
90     to retire old checksums actively, unless there is a overriding reason to
91 robbat2 1.5 keep a specific checksum, such as part of a migration plan.
92 cardoe 1.1
93     What should be done
94     -------------------
95     Portage should always try to verify all supported hashes that are
96     available in a Manifest2, starting with the strongest ones as maintained
97     by a preference list. Over time, the weaker checksums should be removed
98     from Manifest2 files, once all old Portage installations have had
99     sufficient time to upgrade. We should be prepared to add stronger
100     checksums wherever possible, and to remove those that have been
101     defeated.
102    
103 robbat2 1.5 As soon as feasible, we should add the SHA512 and WHIRLPOOL algorithms.
104     In future, as stream-based checksums are developed (in response to the
105     development by NIST [AHS]), they should be considered and used.
106    
107     The SHA512 algorithm is available in Python 2.5, which has been a
108     dependency of Portage since approximately Python 2.1.6.13.
109    
110     The WHIRLPOOL checksum is not available within the PyCrypto library or
111     hashlib that is part of Python 2.5, but there are multiple alternative
112     Python implementations available, ranging from pure Python to C-based
113     (python-mhash).
114    
115     The existence unsupported hash is not considered to be a failure unless
116     no supported hashes are available for a given Manifest entry.
117    
118     Checksum depreciation timing
119     ----------------------------
120     For the current Portage, both SHA1 and RIPEMD160 should be immediately
121     removed, as they present no advantages over the already present SHA256.
122     SHA256 cannot be replaced immediately with SHA512, as existing Portage
123     versions need at least one supported algorithm present (SHA256 support
124     was added in June 2006), so it must be retained for some while.
125    
126     Immediately:
127     - Add WHIRLPOOL and SHA512.
128     - Remove SHA1 and RIPEMD160.
129 cardoe 1.1
130 robbat2 1.5 After the majority of Portage installations include SHA512 support:
131     - Remove SHA256.
132 cardoe 1.1
133     Backwards Compatibility
134     =======================
135     Old versions of Portage may support and expect only specific checksums.
136     This is accounted for in the checksum depreciation discussion.
137    
138     References
139     ==========
140    
141     [AHS] NIST (2007). "NIST's Plan for New Cryptographic Hash Functions",
142     (Advanced Hash Standard). http://csrc.nist.gov/pki/HashWorkshop/
143    
144     [BOBO06] Boneh, D. and Boyen, X. (2006). "On the Impossibility of
145     Efficiently Combining Collision Resistant Hash Functions"; Proceedings
146     of CRYPTO 2006, Dwork, C. (Ed.); Lecture Notes in Computer Science
147     4117, pp. 570-583. Available online from:
148     http://crypto.stanford.edu/~dabo/abstracts/hashing.html
149    
150     [H04] Hawkes, P. and Paddon, M. and Rose, G. (2004). "On Corrective
151     Patterns for the SHA-2 Family". CRYPTO 2004 Cryptology ePrint Archive,
152     Report 2004/204. Available online from:
153     http://eprint.iacr.org/2004/207.pdf
154    
155 robbat2 1.2 [J04] Joux, Antoie. (2004). "Multicollisions in Iterated Hash
156     Functions - Application to Cascaded Constructions;" Proceedings of
157     CRYPTO 2004, Franklin, M. (Ed); Lecture Notes in Computer Science
158     3152, pp. 306-316. Available online from:
159 cardoe 1.1 http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~teshrim/spring06/papers/general-attacks/multi-joux.pdf
160    
161     [K06a] Klima, V. (2006). "Tunnels in Hash Functions: MD5 Collisions
162     Within a Minute". Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2006/105.
163     Available online from: http://eprint.iacr.org/2006/105.pdf
164    
165     [K06b] Klima, V. (2006). "Note and links to high-speed MD5 collision
166     proof of concept tools". Available online from:
167     http://cryptography.hyperlink.cz/2006/trick.txt
168    
169     [K08] Klima, V. (2008). "On Collisions of Hash Functions Turbo SHA-2".
170     Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2008/003. Available online from:
171     http://eprint.iacr.org/2008/003.pdf
172    
173     [G07] Gligoroski, D. and Knapskog, S.J. (2007). "Turbo SHA-2".
174     Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2007/403. Available online from:
175     http://eprint.iacr.org/2007/403.pdf
176    
177     [W04] Wang, X. et al: "Collisions for Hash Functions MD4, MD5,
178     HAVAL-128 and RIPEMD", rump session, CRYPTO 2004, Cryptology ePrint
179     Archive, Report 2004/199, first version (August 16, 2004), second
180     version (August 17, 2004). Available online from:
181     http://eprint.iacr.org/2004/199.pdf
182    
183     Thanks to
184     =========
185     I'd like to thank the following folks, in no specific order:
186     - Ciaran McCreesh (ciaranm) - for pointing out the Joux (2004) paper,
187     and also being stubborn enough in not accepting a partial solution.
188     - Marius Mauch (genone), Zac Medico (zmedico) and Brian Harring
189     (ferringb): for being knowledgeable about the Portage Manifest2
190     codebase.
191    
192     Copyright
193     =========
194 robbat2 1.4 Copyright (c) 2006-2010 by Robin Hugh Johnson. This material may be
195 cardoe 1.1 distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the
196     Open Publication License, v1.0.
197    
198     vim: tw=72 ts=2 expandtab:

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