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1 hollow 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 hollow 1.7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/proj/en/vps/vserver-howto.xml,v 1.6 2007/01/21 14:12:12 hollow Exp $ -->
3 hollow 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 hollow 1.3 <guide link="/proj/en/vps/vserver-howto.xml">
6 hollow 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux-VServer Howto</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="hollow@gentoo.org">Benedikt Boehm</mail>
10     </author>
11     <author title="Editor">
12     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
13     </author>
14    
15     <abstract>
16     In this Howto you will learn to setup a basic virtual server using the
17     Linux-VServer Technology
18     </abstract>
19    
20     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
21     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
22     <license/>
23    
24 hollow 1.7 <version>1.9</version>
25     <date>2007-02-10</date>
26 hollow 1.1
27     <chapter>
28     <title>Introduction</title>
29     <section>
30     <title>The Linux-VServer Concept</title>
31     <body>
32    
33     <p>
34     The basic concept of the Linux-VServer solution is to separate the user-space
35     environment into distinct units (sometimes called Virtual Private Servers) in
36     such a way that each VPS looks and feels like a real server to the processes
37     contained within.
38     </p>
39    
40     </body>
41     </section>
42     <section>
43     <title>Terms used in this Howto</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <table>
47     <tr>
48     <th>Term</th>
49     <th>Description</th>
50     </tr>
51     <tr>
52     <th>Linux-VServer, VServer</th>
53     <ti>
54     Linux-VServer is the official name of the project and used in this Howto
55     the same way
56     </ti>
57     </tr>
58     <tr>
59     <th>virtual server, vserver, guest system</th>
60     <ti>
61     All these are interchangable and refer to one instance of a server (i.e.
62     one virtual server)
63     </ti>
64     </tr>
65     <tr>
66     <th>host system, host</th>
67     <ti>
68     The physical machine running your Gentoo Linux will host all virtual
69     servers
70     </ti>
71     </tr>
72     <tr>
73     <th>util-vserver</th>
74     <ti>
75     The <c>util-vserver</c> package contains all programs necessary for
76     maintaining your virtual servers
77     </ti>
78     </tr>
79     </table>
80    
81     </body>
82     </section>
83     </chapter>
84    
85     <chapter>
86     <title>Host configuration</title>
87     <section>
88     <title>Install a VServer kernel</title>
89     <body>
90    
91     <pre caption="Install vserver-sources">
92     # <i>emerge vserver-sources</i>
93     </pre>
94    
95     <p>
96     After the vserver-sources are installed it's time to configure them using
97 hollow 1.5 <c>make menuconfig</c>.. Below is a common configuration for 2.1.1 and above. If
98     you are using 2.0.x some configuration options may not be present.
99 hollow 1.1 </p>
100    
101     <pre caption="Configure vserver-sources">
102     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux-&lt;KERNELVERSION&gt;-vserver-&lt;VSERVERVERSION&gt;</i>
103     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
104    
105     Linux VServer ---&gt;
106 hollow 1.5 <comment>(Do not enable the legacy options)</comment>
107 hollow 1.1 [ ] Enable Legacy Kernel API
108 hollow 1.5 [ ] Enable Legacy Networking Kernel API
109     <comment>(Read help text)</comment>
110     [ ] Remap Source IP Address
111     [*] Enable COW Immutable Link Breaking
112     [ ] Enable Virtualized Guest Time
113 hollow 1.1 [*] Enable Proc Security
114     [*] Enable Hard CPU Limits
115 hollow 1.5 [*] Avoid idle CPUs by skipping Time
116     [*] Limit the IDLE task
117     Persistent Inode Tagging (UID24/GID24) ---&gt;
118 hollow 1.1 [ ] Tag NFSD User Auth and Files
119 hollow 1.5 [*] Enable Inode Tag Propagation
120     [*] Honor Privacy Aspects of Guests
121     [ ] VServer Debugging Code
122 hollow 1.1 </pre>
123    
124     <note>
125     If you are using reiserfs as filesystem on the partition where guest images are
126     stored, you will need to enable extended attributes for reiserfs in your
127     kernel config and additionally add the <c>attrs</c> option in
128     <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
129     </note>
130    
131     <pre caption="Configure reiserfs options">
132     File systems --->
133     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
134     [*] ReiserFS extended attributes
135     </pre>
136    
137     <pre caption="Example fstab with extended attributes">
138 hollow 1.2 /dev/hdb1 /vservers reiserfs noatime,attrs 0 0
139 hollow 1.1 </pre>
140    
141     <p>
142     After you've built and installed the kernel, update your boot loader and
143     finally reboot to see if the kernel boots correctly.
144     </p>
145    
146     <pre caption="Install the kernel">
147     <comment>(Building the kernel)</comment>
148     # <i>make</i>
149     <comment>(Installing)</comment>
150     # <i>make modules_install</i>
151     # <i>cp arch/&lt;arch&gt;/boot/bzImage /boot/kernel-&lt;KERNELVERSION&gt;-vserver-&lt;VSERVERVERSION&gt;</i>
152     <comment>(Edit bootloader config file as required and)</comment>
153     # <i>reboot</i>
154     </pre>
155    
156     </body>
157     </section>
158     <section>
159     <title>Setup host environment</title>
160     <body>
161    
162     <p>
163     To maintain your virtual servers you need the util-vserver package which
164 hollow 1.5 contains all necessary programs and many useful features.
165 hollow 1.1 </p>
166    
167     <pre caption="Install util-vserver">
168 hollow 1.5 # <i>emerge >=sys-cluster/util-vserver-0.30.212</i>
169 hollow 1.1 </pre>
170    
171     <p>
172     You have to run the <c>vprocunhide</c> command after every reboot in order to
173 hollow 1.5 setup <path>/proc</path> permissions correctly for vserver guests. An init
174     script has been installed by util-vserver. To use it you should add it to the
175     default runlevel:
176 hollow 1.1 </p>
177    
178 hollow 1.5 <pre caption="vprocunhide init script">
179     # <i>rc-update add vprocunhide default</i>
180     # <i>/etc/init.d/vprocunhide start</i>
181 hollow 1.1 </pre>
182    
183     </body>
184     </section>
185     </chapter>
186    
187     <chapter>
188 hollow 1.5 <title>Guest creation</title>
189 hollow 1.1 <section>
190 hollow 1.6 <title>Using vserver stage3/4</title>
191 hollow 1.1 <body>
192    
193     <p>
194 hollow 1.6 You have to download a vserver prepared stage3/4 from one of
195 hollow 1.1 <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">our mirrors</uri>. Those stages are located
196     under the <path>experimental/&lt;arch&gt;/vserver/</path> directory.
197 hollow 1.6 Since a stage3/4 contains a complete root filesystem you can use the template
198 hollow 1.5 build method of util-vserver. However, this method is only available since
199     util-vserver-0.30.211, so make sure you have the right version installed.
200 hollow 1.1 </p>
201    
202     <p>
203     You have to choose a context ID for your vserver (dynamic context IDs are
204     discouraged) as well as the necessary network device information (In this
205     example eth0 is configured with 192.168.1.253/24 and the context ID is
206     equivalent to the last two parts of the virtual servers IP).
207     </p>
208    
209     <note>
210     The context ID should be 1 &lt; ID &lt; 49152.
211     </note>
212    
213     <pre caption="Start stage3 installation">
214 hollow 1.5 # <i>vserver myguest build \</i>
215     <i>--context 1253 \</i>
216 hollow 1.1 <i>--hostname gentoo \</i>
217     <i>--interface eth0:192.168.1.253/24 \</i>
218 hollow 1.7 <i>--initstyle plain \</i>
219 hollow 1.5 <i>-m template -- \</i>
220     <i> -d gentoo \</i>
221 hollow 1.6 <i> -t /path/to/stage4-&lt;arch&gt;-&lt;version&gt;.tar.bz2</i>
222 hollow 1.1 </pre>
223    
224     <note>
225     To reflect your network settings you should change
226     <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path>, <path>/etc/conf.d/domainname</path> and
227     <path>/etc/hosts</path> inside the guest to your needs. See <uri
228     link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=8#doc_chap2_sect1">chapter
229     8.b.1</uri> and <uri
230     link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=8#doc_chap2_sect4">chapter
231     8.b.4</uri>. The rest of your virtual servers network setup will be
232     done on the host.
233     </note>
234    
235     <p>
236     You should be able to start and enter the vserver by using the commands below.
237     If you miss commands like <c>mount</c> or <c>dmesg</c> you should <c>emerge
238     util-linux</c> inside your virtual server as the vserver profile doesn't ship
239     this package by default.
240     </p>
241    
242     <pre caption="Test the virtual server">
243     # <i>vserver myguest start</i>
244     # <i>vserver-stat</i>
245     CTX PROC VSZ RSS userTIME sysTIME UPTIME NAME
246     0 90 1.4G 153.4K 14m00s11 6m45s17 2h59m59 root server
247     1252 2 3M 286 0m00s45 0m00s42 0m02s91 myguest
248     # <i>vserver myguest enter</i>
249     # <i>ps ax</i>
250     PID TTY STAT TIME COMMAND
251     1 ? S 0:00 init [3]
252     22887 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/sbin/syslog-ng
253     20496 pts/0 S 0:00 /bin/bash -login
254     20508 pts/0 R+ 0:00 ps ax
255     # <i>logout</i>
256     </pre>
257    
258     </body>
259     </section>
260     </chapter>
261    
262     <chapter>
263     <title>Maintenance made easy</title>
264     <section>
265     <title>Start guests on boot</title>
266     <body>
267    
268     <p>
269     You can start certain guests during boot. Each guest can be assigned a MARK.
270     Now everything you have to do is configure these MARKs in the guests
271 hollow 1.5 configuration and add the approriate init scripts to the default runlevel.
272 hollow 1.1 </p>
273    
274     <pre caption="Configure MARKs for each guest">
275     <comment>(Do this for every guest you want to start)</comment>
276     # <i>mkdir -p /etc/vservers/myguest/apps/init</i>
277     # <i>echo "default" > /etc/vservers/myguest/apps/init/mark</i>
278     </pre>
279    
280 hollow 1.5 <pre caption="Add init script to the default runlevel">
281     # <i>rc-update add vservers.default default</i>
282     </pre>
283 hollow 1.1
284     </body>
285     </section>
286     <section>
287     <title>Keep portage in sync</title>
288     <body>
289    
290     <p>
291     The script <c>vesync</c> will help you to keep the metadata cache and overlays
292     in sync. <c>vemerge</c> is a simple wrapper for <c>emerge</c> in guests.
293     </p>
294    
295     <pre caption="Examples">
296     <comment>(Sync metadata for 'myguest')</comment>
297     # <i>vesync myguest</i>
298     <comment>(Sync metadata for all guests)</comment>
299 hollow 1.5 # <i>vesync --all</i>
300 hollow 1.1 <comment>(Sync 'myoverlay' for all guests)</comment>
301 hollow 1.5 # <i>vesync --all \</i>
302 hollow 1.1 <i>--overlay /usr/local/overlays/myoverlay \</i>
303     <i>--overlay-host rsync://rsync.myhost.com/myoverlay \</i>
304     <i>--overlay-only</i>
305     <comment>(emerge app-editors/vim in 'myguest')</comment>
306 hollow 1.5 # <i>vemerge myguest -- app-editors/vim -va</i>
307 hollow 1.1 </pre>
308    
309     </body>
310     </section>
311     <section>
312     <title>Update guests</title>
313     <body>
314    
315     <p>
316     Gentoo guests can share packages to save compilation time. In order to use
317     shared packages, you have to create a central directory for packages on the
318     host. We will use <path>/var/cache/vpackages</path> on the host and mount it
319     to <path>/usr/portage/packages</path> in every guest.
320     </p>
321    
322     <pre caption="Add bind mount to guest configuration">
323     # <i>mkdir -p /var/cache/vpackages</i>
324     # <i>$EDITOR /etc/vservers/myguest/fstab</i>
325     <comment>(Add this line at the end)</comment>
326     /var/cache/vpackages /usr/portage/packages none bind,rw 0 0
327     </pre>
328    
329     <p>
330     Now you can use <c>vupdateworld</c> to update every guest. The command is
331     equivalent to something like <c>emerge --deep --update --newuse world</c>
332     depending on command line options.
333     </p>
334    
335     <pre caption="vupdateworld examples">
336     <comment>(Pretend update for 'myguest')</comment>
337 hollow 1.5 # <i>vupdateworld myguest -- -vp</i>
338 hollow 1.1 <comment>(Update 'myguest' using binary packages)</comment>
339 hollow 1.5 # <i>vupdateworld myguest -- -k</i>
340 hollow 1.1 <comment>(Update all guests using binary packages)</comment>
341 hollow 1.5 # <i>vupdateworld --all -- -k</i>
342 hollow 1.1 </pre>
343    
344     <note>
345     In order to get binary packages you can either use PORTAGE_BINHOST (see <c>man
346     make.conf</c>) or set FEATURES="buildpkg" in one or more guests.
347     </note>
348    
349     <p>
350     After a successful update you can easily update all configuration files with
351     <c>vdispatch-conf</c>. It is a simple wrapper for <c>dispatch-conf</c> and
352     behaves exactly the same.
353     </p>
354    
355     <pre caption="vdispatch-conf examples">
356     <comment>(Update configuration files for 'myguest')</comment>
357     # <i>vdispatch-conf myguest</i>
358     <comment>(Update configuration files for all guests)</comment>
359 hollow 1.5 # <i>vdispatch-conf --all</i>
360 hollow 1.1 </pre>
361    
362     </body>
363     </section>
364    
365     <section>
366     <title>Contact</title>
367     <body>
368    
369     <p>
370     Please feel free to contact the <mail link="hollow@gentoo.org">author</mail> or
371     file a bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> in case of any
372     problems.
373     </p>
374    
375     </body>
376     </section>
377     </chapter>
378     </guide>

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