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update manuals to use new stages with baselayout-1.13; add howto for custom stage4 creation

1 hollow 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 hollow 1.8 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/proj/en/vps/vserver-howto.xml,v 1.7 2007/02/10 14:28:34 hollow Exp $ -->
3 hollow 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 hollow 1.3 <guide link="/proj/en/vps/vserver-howto.xml">
6 hollow 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux-VServer Howto</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="hollow@gentoo.org">Benedikt Boehm</mail>
10     </author>
11     <author title="Editor">
12     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
13     </author>
14    
15     <abstract>
16     In this Howto you will learn to setup a basic virtual server using the
17     Linux-VServer Technology
18     </abstract>
19    
20     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
21     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
22     <license/>
23    
24 hollow 1.8 <version>1.10</version>
25     <date>2007-03-26</date>
26 hollow 1.1
27     <chapter>
28     <title>Introduction</title>
29     <section>
30     <title>The Linux-VServer Concept</title>
31     <body>
32    
33     <p>
34     The basic concept of the Linux-VServer solution is to separate the user-space
35     environment into distinct units (sometimes called Virtual Private Servers) in
36     such a way that each VPS looks and feels like a real server to the processes
37     contained within.
38     </p>
39    
40     </body>
41     </section>
42     <section>
43     <title>Terms used in this Howto</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <table>
47     <tr>
48     <th>Term</th>
49     <th>Description</th>
50     </tr>
51     <tr>
52     <th>Linux-VServer, VServer</th>
53     <ti>
54     Linux-VServer is the official name of the project and used in this Howto
55     the same way
56     </ti>
57     </tr>
58     <tr>
59     <th>virtual server, vserver, guest system</th>
60     <ti>
61     All these are interchangable and refer to one instance of a server (i.e.
62     one virtual server)
63     </ti>
64     </tr>
65     <tr>
66     <th>host system, host</th>
67     <ti>
68     The physical machine running your Gentoo Linux will host all virtual
69     servers
70     </ti>
71     </tr>
72     <tr>
73     <th>util-vserver</th>
74     <ti>
75     The <c>util-vserver</c> package contains all programs necessary for
76     maintaining your virtual servers
77     </ti>
78     </tr>
79     </table>
80    
81     </body>
82     </section>
83     </chapter>
84    
85     <chapter>
86     <title>Host configuration</title>
87     <section>
88     <title>Install a VServer kernel</title>
89     <body>
90    
91     <pre caption="Install vserver-sources">
92     # <i>emerge vserver-sources</i>
93     </pre>
94    
95     <p>
96     After the vserver-sources are installed it's time to configure them using
97 hollow 1.5 <c>make menuconfig</c>.. Below is a common configuration for 2.1.1 and above. If
98     you are using 2.0.x some configuration options may not be present.
99 hollow 1.1 </p>
100    
101     <pre caption="Configure vserver-sources">
102     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux-&lt;KERNELVERSION&gt;-vserver-&lt;VSERVERVERSION&gt;</i>
103     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
104    
105     Linux VServer ---&gt;
106 hollow 1.5 <comment>(Do not enable the legacy options)</comment>
107 hollow 1.1 [ ] Enable Legacy Kernel API
108 hollow 1.5 [ ] Enable Legacy Networking Kernel API
109     <comment>(Read help text)</comment>
110     [ ] Remap Source IP Address
111     [*] Enable COW Immutable Link Breaking
112     [ ] Enable Virtualized Guest Time
113 hollow 1.1 [*] Enable Proc Security
114     [*] Enable Hard CPU Limits
115 hollow 1.5 [*] Avoid idle CPUs by skipping Time
116     [*] Limit the IDLE task
117     Persistent Inode Tagging (UID24/GID24) ---&gt;
118 hollow 1.1 [ ] Tag NFSD User Auth and Files
119 hollow 1.5 [*] Enable Inode Tag Propagation
120     [*] Honor Privacy Aspects of Guests
121     [ ] VServer Debugging Code
122 hollow 1.1 </pre>
123    
124     <note>
125     If you are using reiserfs as filesystem on the partition where guest images are
126     stored, you will need to enable extended attributes for reiserfs in your
127     kernel config and additionally add the <c>attrs</c> option in
128     <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
129     </note>
130    
131     <pre caption="Configure reiserfs options">
132     File systems --->
133     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
134     [*] ReiserFS extended attributes
135     </pre>
136    
137     <pre caption="Example fstab with extended attributes">
138 hollow 1.2 /dev/hdb1 /vservers reiserfs noatime,attrs 0 0
139 hollow 1.1 </pre>
140    
141     <p>
142     After you've built and installed the kernel, update your boot loader and
143     finally reboot to see if the kernel boots correctly.
144     </p>
145    
146     <pre caption="Install the kernel">
147     <comment>(Building the kernel)</comment>
148     # <i>make</i>
149     <comment>(Installing)</comment>
150     # <i>make modules_install</i>
151     # <i>cp arch/&lt;arch&gt;/boot/bzImage /boot/kernel-&lt;KERNELVERSION&gt;-vserver-&lt;VSERVERVERSION&gt;</i>
152     <comment>(Edit bootloader config file as required and)</comment>
153     # <i>reboot</i>
154     </pre>
155    
156     </body>
157     </section>
158     <section>
159     <title>Setup host environment</title>
160     <body>
161    
162     <p>
163     To maintain your virtual servers you need the util-vserver package which
164 hollow 1.5 contains all necessary programs and many useful features.
165 hollow 1.1 </p>
166    
167     <pre caption="Install util-vserver">
168 hollow 1.5 # <i>emerge >=sys-cluster/util-vserver-0.30.212</i>
169 hollow 1.1 </pre>
170    
171     <p>
172     You have to run the <c>vprocunhide</c> command after every reboot in order to
173 hollow 1.8 setup <path>/proc</path> permissions correctly for vserver guests. Two init
174     scripts have been installed by util-vserver which run the <c>vprocunhide</c>
175     command for you and take care of virtual servers during shutdown of the host.
176 hollow 1.1 </p>
177    
178 hollow 1.8 <pre caption="util-vserver init scripts">
179 hollow 1.5 # <i>rc-update add vprocunhide default</i>
180     # <i>/etc/init.d/vprocunhide start</i>
181 hollow 1.8 # <i>rc-update add util-vserver default</i>
182     # <i>/etc/init.d/util-vserver start</i>
183 hollow 1.1 </pre>
184    
185     </body>
186     </section>
187     </chapter>
188    
189     <chapter>
190 hollow 1.5 <title>Guest creation</title>
191 hollow 1.1 <section>
192 hollow 1.8 <title>Download a precompiled stage3/4</title>
193 hollow 1.1 <body>
194    
195     <p>
196 hollow 1.8 Since many hardware related commands are not available inside a virtual server,
197     there has been a patched version of baselayout known as baselayout-vserver.
198     However, since baselayout-1.13.0_alpha12, all required changes have been
199     integrated into normal baselayout, eliminating the need for seperate vserver
200     stages, profiles and baselayout. The only (temporary) drawback is that
201     baselayout-1.13 is still considered to be in alpha stage and there are no
202     stages with baselayout-1.13 available on the mirrors yet.
203     </p>
204    
205     <p>
206     As soon as baselayout-1.13 is stable you can use a precompiled stage3/4 from
207     one of <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">our mirrors</uri>. In the meantime
208     please download a stage3/4 from
209     <uri link="http://people.linux-vserver.org/~hollow/stages/">here</uri>.
210 hollow 1.6 Since a stage3/4 contains a complete root filesystem you can use the template
211 hollow 1.5 build method of util-vserver. However, this method is only available since
212     util-vserver-0.30.211, so make sure you have the right version installed.
213 hollow 1.1 </p>
214    
215     <p>
216     You have to choose a context ID for your vserver (dynamic context IDs are
217     discouraged) as well as the necessary network device information (In this
218     example eth0 is configured with 192.168.1.253/24 and the context ID is
219     equivalent to the last two parts of the virtual servers IP).
220     </p>
221    
222     <note>
223     The context ID should be 1 &lt; ID &lt; 49152.
224     </note>
225    
226 hollow 1.8 </body>
227     </section>
228     <section>
229     <title>Using the template build method</title>
230     <body>
231    
232     <p>
233     For a long time now, plain init style was the only init style available for
234     gentoo, i.e. a normal init process will be started inside the guest, just like
235     on any common Unix system. However this approach has some drawbacks:
236     </p>
237    
238     <ul>
239     <li>No possibility to see output of init/rc scripts</li>
240     <li>Wasted resources for idle init processes in each guest</li>
241     <li>Annoying conflicts for <path>/etc/inittab</path></li>
242     </ul>
243    
244     <p>
245     Therefore, many users have requested to reimplement the gentoo init style,
246     which has been abandonned since it was a very hacky implementation and more
247     or less worked by accident due to other modifications done to baselayout back
248     then. However, as of util-vserver-0.30.212 the gentoo init style has been
249     reimplemented in a concise manner and will get the default in the future.
250     </p>
251    
252     <note>
253     If there is not a good reason for using an extra init process for each guest
254     or if you don't know what to do here, you should stick with gentoo init style.
255     </note>
256    
257 hollow 1.1 <pre caption="Start stage3 installation">
258 hollow 1.5 # <i>vserver myguest build \</i>
259     <i>--context 1253 \</i>
260 hollow 1.1 <i>--hostname gentoo \</i>
261     <i>--interface eth0:192.168.1.253/24 \</i>
262 hollow 1.8 <i>--initstyle gentoo \</i> <comment>(replace if needed)</comment>
263 hollow 1.5 <i>-m template -- \</i>
264     <i> -d gentoo \</i>
265 hollow 1.6 <i> -t /path/to/stage4-&lt;arch&gt;-&lt;version&gt;.tar.bz2</i>
266 hollow 1.1 </pre>
267    
268     <note>
269     To reflect your network settings you should change
270     <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path>, <path>/etc/conf.d/domainname</path> and
271     <path>/etc/hosts</path> inside the guest to your needs. See <uri
272     link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=8#doc_chap2_sect1">chapter
273     8.b.1</uri> and <uri
274     link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=8#doc_chap2_sect4">chapter
275     8.b.4</uri>. The rest of your virtual servers network setup will be
276     done on the host.
277     </note>
278    
279     <p>
280     You should be able to start and enter the vserver by using the commands below.
281     If you miss commands like <c>mount</c> or <c>dmesg</c> you should <c>emerge
282     util-linux</c> inside your virtual server as the vserver profile doesn't ship
283     this package by default.
284     </p>
285    
286     <pre caption="Test the virtual server">
287     # <i>vserver myguest start</i>
288 hollow 1.8
289    
290     Gentoo/Linux 1.13.0_alpha12; http://www.gentoo.org/
291     Copyright 1999-2007 Gentoo Foundation; Distributed under the GPLv2
292    
293     Press I to enter interactive boot mode
294    
295     * Using existing device nodes in /dev [ ok ]
296     * root filesystem is mounted read-write - skipping
297     * Checking all filesystems [ ok ]
298     * Mounting local filesystems [ ok ]
299     * Activating (possible) swap [ ok ]
300     * Setting hostname to myguest [ ok ]
301     * Updating environment [ ok ]
302     * Cleaning /var/lock, /var/run [ ok ]
303     * Cleaning /tmp directory [ ok ]
304     * Initializing random number generator [ ok ]
305     * Setting system clock using the hardware clock [VPS] [ ok ]
306     * Starting syslog-ng [ ok ]
307     * Starting vixie-cron [ ok ]
308     * Starting local [ ok ]
309 hollow 1.1 # <i>vserver-stat</i>
310     CTX PROC VSZ RSS userTIME sysTIME UPTIME NAME
311     0 90 1.4G 153.4K 14m00s11 6m45s17 2h59m59 root server
312     1252 2 3M 286 0m00s45 0m00s42 0m02s91 myguest
313     # <i>vserver myguest enter</i>
314     # <i>ps ax</i>
315     PID TTY STAT TIME COMMAND
316     1 ? S 0:00 init [3]
317     22887 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/sbin/syslog-ng
318     20496 pts/0 S 0:00 /bin/bash -login
319     20508 pts/0 R+ 0:00 ps ax
320     # <i>logout</i>
321     </pre>
322    
323     </body>
324     </section>
325     </chapter>
326    
327     <chapter>
328     <title>Maintenance made easy</title>
329     <section>
330     <title>Start guests on boot</title>
331     <body>
332    
333     <p>
334     You can start certain guests during boot. Each guest can be assigned a MARK.
335     Now everything you have to do is configure these MARKs in the guests
336 hollow 1.5 configuration and add the approriate init scripts to the default runlevel.
337 hollow 1.1 </p>
338    
339     <pre caption="Configure MARKs for each guest">
340     <comment>(Do this for every guest you want to start)</comment>
341     # <i>mkdir -p /etc/vservers/myguest/apps/init</i>
342     # <i>echo "default" > /etc/vservers/myguest/apps/init/mark</i>
343     </pre>
344    
345 hollow 1.5 <pre caption="Add init script to the default runlevel">
346     # <i>rc-update add vservers.default default</i>
347     </pre>
348 hollow 1.1
349     </body>
350     </section>
351     <section>
352     <title>Keep portage in sync</title>
353     <body>
354    
355     <p>
356     The script <c>vesync</c> will help you to keep the metadata cache and overlays
357     in sync. <c>vemerge</c> is a simple wrapper for <c>emerge</c> in guests.
358     </p>
359    
360     <pre caption="Examples">
361     <comment>(Sync metadata for 'myguest')</comment>
362     # <i>vesync myguest</i>
363     <comment>(Sync metadata for all guests)</comment>
364 hollow 1.5 # <i>vesync --all</i>
365 hollow 1.1 <comment>(Sync 'myoverlay' for all guests)</comment>
366 hollow 1.5 # <i>vesync --all \</i>
367 hollow 1.1 <i>--overlay /usr/local/overlays/myoverlay \</i>
368     <i>--overlay-host rsync://rsync.myhost.com/myoverlay \</i>
369     <i>--overlay-only</i>
370     <comment>(emerge app-editors/vim in 'myguest')</comment>
371 hollow 1.5 # <i>vemerge myguest -- app-editors/vim -va</i>
372 hollow 1.1 </pre>
373    
374     </body>
375     </section>
376     <section>
377     <title>Update guests</title>
378     <body>
379    
380     <p>
381     Gentoo guests can share packages to save compilation time. In order to use
382     shared packages, you have to create a central directory for packages on the
383     host. We will use <path>/var/cache/vpackages</path> on the host and mount it
384     to <path>/usr/portage/packages</path> in every guest.
385     </p>
386    
387     <pre caption="Add bind mount to guest configuration">
388     # <i>mkdir -p /var/cache/vpackages</i>
389     # <i>$EDITOR /etc/vservers/myguest/fstab</i>
390     <comment>(Add this line at the end)</comment>
391     /var/cache/vpackages /usr/portage/packages none bind,rw 0 0
392     </pre>
393    
394     <p>
395     Now you can use <c>vupdateworld</c> to update every guest. The command is
396     equivalent to something like <c>emerge --deep --update --newuse world</c>
397     depending on command line options.
398     </p>
399    
400     <pre caption="vupdateworld examples">
401     <comment>(Pretend update for 'myguest')</comment>
402 hollow 1.5 # <i>vupdateworld myguest -- -vp</i>
403 hollow 1.1 <comment>(Update 'myguest' using binary packages)</comment>
404 hollow 1.5 # <i>vupdateworld myguest -- -k</i>
405 hollow 1.1 <comment>(Update all guests using binary packages)</comment>
406 hollow 1.5 # <i>vupdateworld --all -- -k</i>
407 hollow 1.1 </pre>
408    
409     <note>
410     In order to get binary packages you can either use PORTAGE_BINHOST (see <c>man
411     make.conf</c>) or set FEATURES="buildpkg" in one or more guests.
412     </note>
413    
414     <p>
415     After a successful update you can easily update all configuration files with
416     <c>vdispatch-conf</c>. It is a simple wrapper for <c>dispatch-conf</c> and
417     behaves exactly the same.
418     </p>
419    
420     <pre caption="vdispatch-conf examples">
421     <comment>(Update configuration files for 'myguest')</comment>
422     # <i>vdispatch-conf myguest</i>
423     <comment>(Update configuration files for all guests)</comment>
424 hollow 1.5 # <i>vdispatch-conf --all</i>
425 hollow 1.1 </pre>
426    
427     </body>
428     </section>
429    
430     <section>
431     <title>Contact</title>
432     <body>
433    
434     <p>
435     Please feel free to contact the <mail link="hollow@gentoo.org">author</mail> or
436     file a bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> in case of any
437     problems.
438     </p>
439    
440     </body>
441     </section>
442     </chapter>
443     </guide>

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