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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/proj/en/vps/vserver-howto.xml,v 1.6 2007/01/21 14:12:12 hollow Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/proj/en/vps/vserver-howto.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux-VServer Howto</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="hollow@gentoo.org">Benedikt Boehm</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
13 </author>
14
15 <abstract>
16 In this Howto you will learn to setup a basic virtual server using the
17 Linux-VServer Technology
18 </abstract>
19
20 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
21 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
22 <license/>
23
24 <version>1.9</version>
25 <date>2007-02-10</date>
26
27 <chapter>
28 <title>Introduction</title>
29 <section>
30 <title>The Linux-VServer Concept</title>
31 <body>
32
33 <p>
34 The basic concept of the Linux-VServer solution is to separate the user-space
35 environment into distinct units (sometimes called Virtual Private Servers) in
36 such a way that each VPS looks and feels like a real server to the processes
37 contained within.
38 </p>
39
40 </body>
41 </section>
42 <section>
43 <title>Terms used in this Howto</title>
44 <body>
45
46 <table>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Term</th>
49 <th>Description</th>
50 </tr>
51 <tr>
52 <th>Linux-VServer, VServer</th>
53 <ti>
54 Linux-VServer is the official name of the project and used in this Howto
55 the same way
56 </ti>
57 </tr>
58 <tr>
59 <th>virtual server, vserver, guest system</th>
60 <ti>
61 All these are interchangable and refer to one instance of a server (i.e.
62 one virtual server)
63 </ti>
64 </tr>
65 <tr>
66 <th>host system, host</th>
67 <ti>
68 The physical machine running your Gentoo Linux will host all virtual
69 servers
70 </ti>
71 </tr>
72 <tr>
73 <th>util-vserver</th>
74 <ti>
75 The <c>util-vserver</c> package contains all programs necessary for
76 maintaining your virtual servers
77 </ti>
78 </tr>
79 </table>
80
81 </body>
82 </section>
83 </chapter>
84
85 <chapter>
86 <title>Host configuration</title>
87 <section>
88 <title>Install a VServer kernel</title>
89 <body>
90
91 <pre caption="Install vserver-sources">
92 # <i>emerge vserver-sources</i>
93 </pre>
94
95 <p>
96 After the vserver-sources are installed it's time to configure them using
97 <c>make menuconfig</c>.. Below is a common configuration for 2.1.1 and above. If
98 you are using 2.0.x some configuration options may not be present.
99 </p>
100
101 <pre caption="Configure vserver-sources">
102 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux-&lt;KERNELVERSION&gt;-vserver-&lt;VSERVERVERSION&gt;</i>
103 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
104
105 Linux VServer ---&gt;
106 <comment>(Do not enable the legacy options)</comment>
107 [ ] Enable Legacy Kernel API
108 [ ] Enable Legacy Networking Kernel API
109 <comment>(Read help text)</comment>
110 [ ] Remap Source IP Address
111 [*] Enable COW Immutable Link Breaking
112 [ ] Enable Virtualized Guest Time
113 [*] Enable Proc Security
114 [*] Enable Hard CPU Limits
115 [*] Avoid idle CPUs by skipping Time
116 [*] Limit the IDLE task
117 Persistent Inode Tagging (UID24/GID24) ---&gt;
118 [ ] Tag NFSD User Auth and Files
119 [*] Enable Inode Tag Propagation
120 [*] Honor Privacy Aspects of Guests
121 [ ] VServer Debugging Code
122 </pre>
123
124 <note>
125 If you are using reiserfs as filesystem on the partition where guest images are
126 stored, you will need to enable extended attributes for reiserfs in your
127 kernel config and additionally add the <c>attrs</c> option in
128 <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
129 </note>
130
131 <pre caption="Configure reiserfs options">
132 File systems --->
133 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
134 [*] ReiserFS extended attributes
135 </pre>
136
137 <pre caption="Example fstab with extended attributes">
138 /dev/hdb1 /vservers reiserfs noatime,attrs 0 0
139 </pre>
140
141 <p>
142 After you've built and installed the kernel, update your boot loader and
143 finally reboot to see if the kernel boots correctly.
144 </p>
145
146 <pre caption="Install the kernel">
147 <comment>(Building the kernel)</comment>
148 # <i>make</i>
149 <comment>(Installing)</comment>
150 # <i>make modules_install</i>
151 # <i>cp arch/&lt;arch&gt;/boot/bzImage /boot/kernel-&lt;KERNELVERSION&gt;-vserver-&lt;VSERVERVERSION&gt;</i>
152 <comment>(Edit bootloader config file as required and)</comment>
153 # <i>reboot</i>
154 </pre>
155
156 </body>
157 </section>
158 <section>
159 <title>Setup host environment</title>
160 <body>
161
162 <p>
163 To maintain your virtual servers you need the util-vserver package which
164 contains all necessary programs and many useful features.
165 </p>
166
167 <pre caption="Install util-vserver">
168 # <i>emerge >=sys-cluster/util-vserver-0.30.212</i>
169 </pre>
170
171 <p>
172 You have to run the <c>vprocunhide</c> command after every reboot in order to
173 setup <path>/proc</path> permissions correctly for vserver guests. An init
174 script has been installed by util-vserver. To use it you should add it to the
175 default runlevel:
176 </p>
177
178 <pre caption="vprocunhide init script">
179 # <i>rc-update add vprocunhide default</i>
180 # <i>/etc/init.d/vprocunhide start</i>
181 </pre>
182
183 </body>
184 </section>
185 </chapter>
186
187 <chapter>
188 <title>Guest creation</title>
189 <section>
190 <title>Using vserver stage3/4</title>
191 <body>
192
193 <p>
194 You have to download a vserver prepared stage3/4 from one of
195 <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">our mirrors</uri>. Those stages are located
196 under the <path>experimental/&lt;arch&gt;/vserver/</path> directory.
197 Since a stage3/4 contains a complete root filesystem you can use the template
198 build method of util-vserver. However, this method is only available since
199 util-vserver-0.30.211, so make sure you have the right version installed.
200 </p>
201
202 <p>
203 You have to choose a context ID for your vserver (dynamic context IDs are
204 discouraged) as well as the necessary network device information (In this
205 example eth0 is configured with 192.168.1.253/24 and the context ID is
206 equivalent to the last two parts of the virtual servers IP).
207 </p>
208
209 <note>
210 The context ID should be 1 &lt; ID &lt; 49152.
211 </note>
212
213 <pre caption="Start stage3 installation">
214 # <i>vserver myguest build \</i>
215 <i>--context 1253 \</i>
216 <i>--hostname gentoo \</i>
217 <i>--interface eth0:192.168.1.253/24 \</i>
218 <i>--initstyle plain \</i>
219 <i>-m template -- \</i>
220 <i> -d gentoo \</i>
221 <i> -t /path/to/stage4-&lt;arch&gt;-&lt;version&gt;.tar.bz2</i>
222 </pre>
223
224 <note>
225 To reflect your network settings you should change
226 <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path>, <path>/etc/conf.d/domainname</path> and
227 <path>/etc/hosts</path> inside the guest to your needs. See <uri
228 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=8#doc_chap2_sect1">chapter
229 8.b.1</uri> and <uri
230 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=8#doc_chap2_sect4">chapter
231 8.b.4</uri>. The rest of your virtual servers network setup will be
232 done on the host.
233 </note>
234
235 <p>
236 You should be able to start and enter the vserver by using the commands below.
237 If you miss commands like <c>mount</c> or <c>dmesg</c> you should <c>emerge
238 util-linux</c> inside your virtual server as the vserver profile doesn't ship
239 this package by default.
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Test the virtual server">
243 # <i>vserver myguest start</i>
244 # <i>vserver-stat</i>
245 CTX PROC VSZ RSS userTIME sysTIME UPTIME NAME
246 0 90 1.4G 153.4K 14m00s11 6m45s17 2h59m59 root server
247 1252 2 3M 286 0m00s45 0m00s42 0m02s91 myguest
248 # <i>vserver myguest enter</i>
249 # <i>ps ax</i>
250 PID TTY STAT TIME COMMAND
251 1 ? S 0:00 init [3]
252 22887 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/sbin/syslog-ng
253 20496 pts/0 S 0:00 /bin/bash -login
254 20508 pts/0 R+ 0:00 ps ax
255 # <i>logout</i>
256 </pre>
257
258 </body>
259 </section>
260 </chapter>
261
262 <chapter>
263 <title>Maintenance made easy</title>
264 <section>
265 <title>Start guests on boot</title>
266 <body>
267
268 <p>
269 You can start certain guests during boot. Each guest can be assigned a MARK.
270 Now everything you have to do is configure these MARKs in the guests
271 configuration and add the approriate init scripts to the default runlevel.
272 </p>
273
274 <pre caption="Configure MARKs for each guest">
275 <comment>(Do this for every guest you want to start)</comment>
276 # <i>mkdir -p /etc/vservers/myguest/apps/init</i>
277 # <i>echo "default" > /etc/vservers/myguest/apps/init/mark</i>
278 </pre>
279
280 <pre caption="Add init script to the default runlevel">
281 # <i>rc-update add vservers.default default</i>
282 </pre>
283
284 </body>
285 </section>
286 <section>
287 <title>Keep portage in sync</title>
288 <body>
289
290 <p>
291 The script <c>vesync</c> will help you to keep the metadata cache and overlays
292 in sync. <c>vemerge</c> is a simple wrapper for <c>emerge</c> in guests.
293 </p>
294
295 <pre caption="Examples">
296 <comment>(Sync metadata for 'myguest')</comment>
297 # <i>vesync myguest</i>
298 <comment>(Sync metadata for all guests)</comment>
299 # <i>vesync --all</i>
300 <comment>(Sync 'myoverlay' for all guests)</comment>
301 # <i>vesync --all \</i>
302 <i>--overlay /usr/local/overlays/myoverlay \</i>
303 <i>--overlay-host rsync://rsync.myhost.com/myoverlay \</i>
304 <i>--overlay-only</i>
305 <comment>(emerge app-editors/vim in 'myguest')</comment>
306 # <i>vemerge myguest -- app-editors/vim -va</i>
307 </pre>
308
309 </body>
310 </section>
311 <section>
312 <title>Update guests</title>
313 <body>
314
315 <p>
316 Gentoo guests can share packages to save compilation time. In order to use
317 shared packages, you have to create a central directory for packages on the
318 host. We will use <path>/var/cache/vpackages</path> on the host and mount it
319 to <path>/usr/portage/packages</path> in every guest.
320 </p>
321
322 <pre caption="Add bind mount to guest configuration">
323 # <i>mkdir -p /var/cache/vpackages</i>
324 # <i>$EDITOR /etc/vservers/myguest/fstab</i>
325 <comment>(Add this line at the end)</comment>
326 /var/cache/vpackages /usr/portage/packages none bind,rw 0 0
327 </pre>
328
329 <p>
330 Now you can use <c>vupdateworld</c> to update every guest. The command is
331 equivalent to something like <c>emerge --deep --update --newuse world</c>
332 depending on command line options.
333 </p>
334
335 <pre caption="vupdateworld examples">
336 <comment>(Pretend update for 'myguest')</comment>
337 # <i>vupdateworld myguest -- -vp</i>
338 <comment>(Update 'myguest' using binary packages)</comment>
339 # <i>vupdateworld myguest -- -k</i>
340 <comment>(Update all guests using binary packages)</comment>
341 # <i>vupdateworld --all -- -k</i>
342 </pre>
343
344 <note>
345 In order to get binary packages you can either use PORTAGE_BINHOST (see <c>man
346 make.conf</c>) or set FEATURES="buildpkg" in one or more guests.
347 </note>
348
349 <p>
350 After a successful update you can easily update all configuration files with
351 <c>vdispatch-conf</c>. It is a simple wrapper for <c>dispatch-conf</c> and
352 behaves exactly the same.
353 </p>
354
355 <pre caption="vdispatch-conf examples">
356 <comment>(Update configuration files for 'myguest')</comment>
357 # <i>vdispatch-conf myguest</i>
358 <comment>(Update configuration files for all guests)</comment>
359 # <i>vdispatch-conf --all</i>
360 </pre>
361
362 </body>
363 </section>
364
365 <section>
366 <title>Contact</title>
367 <body>
368
369 <p>
370 Please feel free to contact the <mail link="hollow@gentoo.org">author</mail> or
371 file a bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> in case of any
372 problems.
373 </p>
374
375 </body>
376 </section>
377 </chapter>
378 </guide>

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