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1 .\" $Id: MAKEDEV.8 334 2003-03-09 09:06:23Z azarah $
2 .TH MAKEDEV 8 "14th August 1994" Linux "Linux Programmer's Manual"
3 .SH NAME
4 MAKEDEV \- create devices
5 .SH SYNOPSIS
6 .B "cd dev; ./MAKEDEV -V"
7 .br
8 .B "cd dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] update"
9 .br
10 .BI "cd dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ -d ]" " device ..."
11 .SH DESCRIPTION
12 .B MAKEDEV
13 is a script that will create the devices in \fC/dev\fP used to interface
14 with drivers in the kernel.
15 .PP
16 This man page is woefully out of date. A large number of devices are supported
17 that are not documented here.
18 .PP
19 Note that programs giving the error ``ENOENT: No such file or
20 directory'' normally means that the device file is missing, whereas
21 ``ENODEV: No such device'' normally means the kernel does not have the
22 driver configured or loaded.
23 .SH OPTIONS
24 .TP
25 .B \-V
26 Print out version (actually RCS version information) and exit.
27 .TP
28 .B \-n
29 Do not actually update the devices, just print the actions that would be
30 performed.
31 .TP
32 .B \-d
33 Delete the devices. The main use for this flag is by
34 .B MAKEDEV
35 itself.
36 .TP
37 .B \-v
38 Be verbose. Print out the actions as they are performed. This is the
39 same output as produced by
40 .BR \-n .
41 .SH CUSTOMISATION
42 Since there is currently no standardisation in what names are used for
43 system users and groups, it is possible that you may need to modify
44 .B MAKEDEV
45 to reflect your site's settings. Near the top of the file is a mapping
46 from device type to user, group and permissions (e.g. all CD-ROM devices
47 are set from the \fC$cdrom\fP variable). If you wish to change the
48 defaults, this is the section to edit.
49 .SH DEVICES
50 .TP
51 .B General Options
52 .TP
53 .B update
54 This only works on kernels which have \fC/proc/interrupts\fP (introduced
55 during 1.1.x). This file is scanned to see what devices are currently
56 configured into the kernel, and this is compared with the previous
57 settings stored in the file called \fCDEVICES\fP.
58 Devices which are new since then or have a different major number are
59 created, and those which are no longer configured are deleted.
60 .TP
61 .B generic
62 Create a generic subset of devices. This is the standard devices, plus
63 floppy drives, various hard drives, pseudo-terminals, console devices,
64 basic serial devices, busmice, and printer ports.
65 .TP
66 .B
67 std
68 Standard devices.
69 These are:
70 .B mem
71 \- acess to physical memory;
72 .B kmem
73 \- access to kernel virtual memory;
74 .B null
75 \- null device (infinite sink);
76 .B port
77 \- access to I/O ports;
78 .B zero
79 \- null byte source (infinite source);
80 .B core
81 \- symlink to /proc/kcore (for kernel debugging);
82 .B full
83 \- always returns ENOSPACE on write;
84 .B ram
85 \- ramdisk;
86 .B tty
87 \- to access the controlling tty of a process.
88 .TP
89 .B local
90 This simply runs
91 .BR MAKEDEV.local .
92 This is a script that can create any local devices.
93 .TP
94 .B Virtual Terminals
95 .TP
96 .I console
97 This creates the devices associated with the console. This is the virtual
98 terminals
99 .RI tty x ,
100 where
101 .I x
102 can be from 0 though 63. The device tty0 is the currently active vt, and
103 is also known as \fCconsole\fP. For each vt, there are two devices
104 .RI vcs x
105 and
106 .RI vcsa x ,
107 which are used to generate screen-dumps of the vt (the
108 .BI vcs x
109 is just the text,
110 and
111 .BI vcsa x
112 includes the attributes).
113 .TP
114 .B Serial Devices
115 .TP
116 .I ttyS{0..63}
117 Serial ports and corresponding dialout device. For device
118 .BI ttyS x ,
119 there is also the device
120 .BI cua x
121 which is used to dial out with. This can avoid the need for cooperative
122 locks in simple situations.
123 .TP
124 .I cyclades
125 Dial-in and dial-out devices for the cyclades intelligent I/O serial card.
126 The dial in device is
127 .BI ttyC x
128 and the corresponding dial-out device is
129 .BI cub x
130 Devices for 32 lines are created.
131 .TP
132 .B Pseudo Terminals
133 .TP
134 .I pty[p-s]
135 Each possible argument will create a bank of 16 master and slave
136 pairs. The current kernel (1.2) is limited to 64 such pairs.
137 The master pseudo-terminals are
138 .BR pty[p-s][0-9a-f] ,
139 and the slaves are
140 .BR tty[p-s][0-9a-f] .
141 .TP
142 .B Parallel Ports
143 .TP
144 .I lp
145 Standard parallel ports. The devices are created
146 .BR lp0 ,
147 .BR lp1 ,
148 and
149 .BR lp2 .
150 These correspond to ports at 0x3bc, 0x378 and 0x278.
151 Hence, on some machines, the first printer port may actually be
152 .BR lp1 .
153 .TP
154 .I par
155 Alternative to
156 .IR lp .
157 Ports are named
158 .BI par x
159 instead of
160 .BI lp x .
161 .TP
162 .B Bus Mice
163 .TP
164 .I busmice
165 The various bus mice devices. This creates the following devices:
166 .B logimouse
167 (Logitech bus mouse),
168 .B psmouse
169 (PS/2-style mouse),
170 .B msmouse
171 (Microsoft Inport bus mouse) and
172 .B atimouse
173 (ATI XL bus mouse) and
174 .B jmouse
175 (J-mouse).
176 .TP
177 .B Joystick Devices
178 .TP
179 .I js
180 Joystick. Creates
181 .B js0
182 and
183 .BR js1 .
184 .TP
185 .B Disk Devices
186 .TP
187 .I fd[0-7]
188 Floppy disk devices. The device
189 .BI fd x
190 is the device which autodetects the format, and the additional devices are
191 fixed format (whose size is indicated in the name).
192 The other devices are named as
193 .BI fd xLn .
194 The single letter
195 .I L
196 identifies the type of floppy disk (d = 5.25" DD, h = 5.25" HD, D = 3.5"
197 DD, H = 3.5" HD, E = 3.5" ED). The number
198 .I n
199 represents the capacity of that format in K. Thus the standard formats
200 are
201 .BI fd x d360 ,
202 .BI fd x h1200 ,
203 .BI fd x D720 ,
204 .BI fd x H1440 ,
205 and
206 .RI fd x E2880 .
207 .IP
208 For more information see Alain Knaff's fdutils package.
209 .IP
210 Devices
211 .BI fd0 *
212 through
213 .BI fd3 *
214 are floppy disks on the first controller, and devices
215 .BI fd4 *
216 through
217 .BI fd7 *
218 are floppy disks on the second controller.
219 .TP
220 .I hd[a-d]
221 AT hard disks. The device
222 .BI hd x
223 provides access to the whole disk, with the partitions being
224 .BI hd x [0-20].
225 The four primary partitions are
226 .BI hd x 1
227 through
228 .BI hd x 4,
229 with the logical partitions being numbered from
230 .BI hd x 5
231 though
232 .BI hd x 20.
233 (A primary partition can be made into an extended partition, which can hold
234 4 logical partitions).
235 By default, only the devices for 4 logical partitions are made. The
236 others can be made by uncommenting them.
237 .IP
238 Drives hda and hdb are the two on the first controller. If using the new
239 IDE driver (rather than the old HD driver), then hdc and hdd are the two
240 drives on the secondary controller. These devices can also be used to
241 acess IDE CDROMs if using the new IDE driver.
242 .TP
243 .I xd[a-d]
244 XT hard disks. Partitions are the same as IDE disks.
245 .TP
246 .I sd[a-h]
247 SCSI hard disks. The partitions are similar to the IDE disks, but there
248 is a limit of 11 logical partitions
249 .RI (sd x 5
250 through
251 .RI sd x 15).
252 This is to allow there to be 8 SCSI disks.
253 .TP
254 .I loop
255 Loopback disk devices. These allow you to use a regular file as a
256 block device. This means that images of filesystems can be mounted,
257 and used as normal. This creates 8 devices loop0 through loop7.
258 .TP
259 .B Tape Devices
260 .TP
261 .I st[0-7]
262 SCSI tapes. This creates the rewinding tape device
263 .BI st x
264 and the non-rewinding tape device
265 .BI nst x .
266 .TP
267 .I qic
268 QIC-80 tapes. The devices created are
269 .BR rmt8 ,
270 .BR rmt16 ,
271 .BR tape-d ,
272 and
273 .BR tape-reset .
274 .TP
275 .I ftape
276 Floppy driver tapes (QIC-117). There are 4 methods of access depending on
277 the floppy tape drive. For each of access methods 0, 1, 2 and 3, the
278 devices
279 .BI rft x
280 (rewinding) and
281 .BI nrft x
282 (non-rewinding) are created. For compatability, devices
283 .B ftape
284 and
285 .B nftape
286 are symlinks to
287 .B rft0
288 and
289 .B nrft0
290 respectively.
291 .TP
292 .B CDROM Devices
293 .TP
294 .I scd[0-7]
295 SCSI CD players.
296 .TP
297 .I sonycd
298 Sony CDU-31A CD player.
299 .TP
300 .I mcd
301 Mitsumi CD player.
302 .TP
303 .I cdu535
304 Sony CDU-535 CD player.
305 .TP
306 .I lmscd
307 LMS/Philips CD player.
308 .TP
309 .I sbpcd{,1,2,3}
310 Sound Blaster CD player. The kernel is capable of supporting 16 CDROMs,
311 each of which is accessed as
312 .BR sbpcd[0-9a-f] .
313 These are assigned in groups of 4 to each controller.
314 .B sbpcd
315 is a symlink to
316 .BR sbpcd0 .
317 .\" .TP
318 .\" .I idecd
319 .\" NEC CDR-260 (note: this will probably be obsoleted by the new IDE driver).
320 .TP
321 .B Scanner
322 .TP
323 .I logiscan
324 Logitech ScanMan32 & ScanMan 256.
325 .TP
326 .I m105scan
327 Mustek M105 Handscanner.
328 .TP
329 .I ac4096
330 A4Tek Color Handscanner.
331 .TP
332 .B Audio
333 .TP
334 .I audio
335 This creates the audio devices used by the sound driver. These include
336 .BR mixer ,
337 .BR sequencer ,
338 .BR dsp ,
339 and
340 .BR audio .
341 .TP
342 .I pcaudio
343 Devices for the PC Speaker sound driver. These are
344 .BR pcmixer .
345 .BR pxsp ,
346 and
347 .BR pcaudio .
348 .TP
349 .B Miscellaneous
350 .TP
351 .I sg
352 Generic SCSI devices. The devices created are
353 .B sg0 through
354 .BR sg7 .
355 These
356 allow arbitary commands to be sent to any SCSI device. This allows for
357 querying information about the device, or controlling SCSI devices that
358 are not one of disk, tape or CDROM (e.g. scanner, writeable CDROM).
359 .TP
360 .I fd
361 To allow an arbitary program to be fed input from file descriptor
362 .IR x ,
363 use
364 .BI /dev/fd/ x
365 as the file name. This also creates
366 BR /dev/stdin ,
367 BR /dev/stdout ,
368 and
369 BR /dev/stderr .
370 (Note, these are just symlinks into /proc/self/fd).
371 .TP
372 .I ibcs2
373 Devices (and symlinks) needed by the IBCS2 emulation.
374 .TP
375 .I apm
376 Devices for power management.
377 .TP
378 .I dcf
379 Driver for DCF-77 radio clock.
380 .TP
381 .I helloworld
382 Kernel modules demonstration device. See the modules source.
383 .TP
384 .B "Network Devices"
385 Linux used to have devices in /dev for controlling network devices, but
386 that is no longer the case. To see what network devices are known by the
387 kernel, look at /proc/net/dev.
388 .SH "SEE ALSO"
389 Linux Allocated Devices, maintained by H.\ Peter Anvin,
390 <Peter.Anvin@linux.org>.
391 .SH AUTHOR
392 Nick Holloway

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