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1 <?xml version='1.0'?>
2 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6 <guide>
7 <title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title>
8 <author title="Author"><mail link="zu@pandora.be">
9 Vincent Verleye</mail>
10 </author>
12 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">
13 John P. Davis</mail>
14 </author>
16 <abstract>
17 This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) on Gentoo Linux.
18 In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject. </abstract>
20 <version>1.0</version>
21 <date>30 Oct 2002</date>
23 <chapter>
24 <title>Introduction</title>
25 <section>
26 <title>What is ALSA?</title>
27 <body>
28 <p>
29 The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux sound subsystem by rewriting
30 large chunks of it.
31 It is anticipated that ALSA will make it into Linux kernel 2.6.x (or 3.x.x -- whichever comes first) as it becomes ready.
32 </p>
34 <p>
35 ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux.
36 </p>
38 <p>
39 Quoted from <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org</uri>, ALSA has the following features:
40 <ul><li> Efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, from consumer soundcards to professional multichannel audio interfaces.</li>
41 <li> Fully modularized sound drivers.</li>
42 <li> SMP and thread-safe design.</li>
43 <li> User space library (alsa-lib) to simplify application programming and provide higher level functionality.</li>
44 <li> Support for the older OSS API, providing binary compatibility for most OSS programs.</li>
45 </ul>
46 There's lots more to ALSA however, like support for Full Duplex playback and recording, multiple soundcard support,
47 hardware mixing of streams, extensive mixer capabilities (to support advanced features of new soundcards), ...
48 </p>
49 </body>
50 </section>
51 <section>
52 <title>Why use ALSA?</title>
53 <body>
54 <p>
55 If your soundcard is supported by the Linux kernel sound system or the commercial OSS/4Front sound driver system,
56 which can be found in all 2.4.x Linux kernels, you could just aswell build <e>those modules</e> for use with your soundcard.
57 If you want this, just read through the <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri>.
58 </p>
59 <p>
60 However, those OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations -- being commercial is one.
61 ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations and to do so in an open source fashion.
62 ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system, that provides a professional quality system for recording, playback,
63 and MIDI sequencing.
64 </p>
65 </body>
66 </section>
67 <section>
68 <title>What cards does ALSA support?</title>
69 <body>
70 <p>
71 ALSA tries to support as many (new) cards as possible by providing open-source drivers.
72 However, some vendors may provide binary-only packages.
73 </p>
74 <p>To know if your card is supported, you can find a Soundcard Matrix of supported and not-supported cards here:
75 <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/</uri>.
76 </p>
77 </body>
78 </section>
79 </chapter>
81 <chapter>
82 <title>Installation</title>
83 <section>
84 <title>Kernel modules</title>
85 <body>
86 <p>
87 Since we're still using 2.4.x kernel sources, we'll have to compile kernel modules and ALSA modules separately.
88 </p>
89 <p>
90 First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA.
91 All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to be built as a module (M).
92 This will build <c>soundcore.o</c>.
93 </p>
94 <p>
95 <note>
96 Possibly, this will also work when you built Sound Card Support in the kernel (Y) instead of building it as a module (M).
97 However, the official ALSA documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it.
98 </note>
99 </p>
100 <p>If you already have a working kernel configuration, make sure you remove all sound drivers (except for Sound Card Support).
101 If you wish to do this without having to reboot, you could do like this:
102 </p>
103 <pre>
104 # <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c>
105 # <c>cp .config ~</c>
106 # <c>make mrproper</c>
107 # <c>cp ~/.config .</c>
108 # <c>make menuconfig</c>
109 </pre>
110 <p>
111 Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound drivers.
112 Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration.
113 After that, build the modules:
114 </p>
115 <pre>
116 # <c>make dep clean</c>
117 # <c>make modules modules_install</c>
118 </pre>
119 <p>
120 Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous modules,
121 even the ones from a previous ALSA installation.
122 </p>
123 <p>
124 <impo>
125 This means, whenever you recompile your kernel later on, you MUST recompile <c>alsa-driver</c>.
126 </impo>
127 </p>
128 <p>
129 <note>However, there's no need to reinstall <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, the Nvidia drivers are in a separate directory
130 in <path>/lib/modules/*/video</path> and won't get deleted by a <c>make modules modules_install</c>
131 </note>
132 </p>
133 </body>
134 </section>
136 <section>
137 <title>ALSA modules</title>
138 <body>
140 <p>
141 Now it's time to install the ALSA drivers for your soundcard(s). If your soundcard is PCI, you can find out the name
142 and type of your soundcard by looking at the output of /proc/pci
143 <pre>#<c>cat /proc/pci | grep audio</c></pre>
144 </p>
146 <p>
147 <warn>
148 If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules loaded, unload them <e>now</e>.
149 Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c> to unload all sound-related modules on your system.
150 </warn>
151 </p>
153 <p>
154 We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers.
155 </p>
156 <p>
157 However, to save some time, lookup the <e>Module Name</e> of your soundcard(s) on the
158 <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard Matrix</uri> under the <e>Install</e> section.
159 Mine is <c>EMU10K1</c>, since I have an SBlive! soundcard.
160 We'll set ALSA_CARDS environment to this value before emerging, so emerge will only compile the drivers we need.
161 </p>
163 <p>
164 <pre>
165 # <c>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</c>
166 </pre>
167 </p>
168 <p>
169 <note>
170 When you want to install ALSA drivers for more than one soundcard, you could set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list
171 of drivers; like this: <c>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c>
172 </note>
174 <note>If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <i>alsa-oss</i>, it is the ALSA/OSS compatibility
175 wrapper. </note>
177 </p>
178 <p>
179 After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system.
180 </p>
181 </body>
182 </section>
183 <section>
184 <title>Configuration of ALSA</title>
185 <body>
186 <p>
187 Let's start configuring now to get ALSA working properly.
188 We'll need to edit some files, to let our system know about the freshly installed ALSA modules.
189 </p>
190 <p>
191 First file to edit is <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>.
192 </p>
193 <warn>
194 There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
195 </warn>
196 <p>
197 Check the ALSA portion <e>at the top of the file</e>.
198 By adding this line you can specify the max number of soundcards you have (generally, just one).
199 </p>
200 <p>
201 <pre caption="At the top of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
202 # Alsa 0.9.X kernel modules' configuration file.
203 # $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo-src/gentoo-web/xml/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.4 2002/11/01 02:40:47 zhen Exp $
205 # ALSA portion
206 alias char-major-116 snd
207 <c>options snd snd_major=116 snd_cards_limit=1</c>
208 # OSS/Free portion
209 alias char-major-14 soundcore
211 ##
213 </pre>
214 </p>
215 <p>
216 Now we'll specify the sounddriver(s) ALSA should use. In the same file, edit like this:
217 <pre caption="A bit lower in /etc/modules.d/alsa">
218 ## and then run `update-modules' command.
219 ## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info.
220 ##
221 ## ALSA portion
222 <c>alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1</c>
223 <c>## If you have more than one, add:
224 ## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0
225 ## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370</c>
226 ## OSS/Free portion
227 ## alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0
228 ## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1
229 ##
230 </pre>
231 </p>
232 <p>
233 <note>
234 If you have more than one soundcard, adjust the <c>snd_cards_limit</c> value and add more snd-card aliases to the file.
235 I don't have experience with this, but you can find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in
236 <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri>
237 of the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA Howto</uri>.
238 </note>
239 </p>
240 <p>
241 Last thing to do in this file, at the very bottom, check if these lines are there and uncommented:
242 <pre caption="at the very bottom of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
243 alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss
244 alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss
245 alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss
246 </pre>
247 </p>
248 <p>
249 Now double-check the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> and when you're sure everyting is ok, run <c>update-modules</c>.
250 <pre>
251 # <c>update-modules</c>
252 </pre>
253 </p>
254 <note>
255 Running <c>update-modules</c> here will insert the data from <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>
256 </note>
257 <p>
258 You should also verify that /etc/devfsd.conf has the alsa devices and permissions correctly registered.
259 </p>
260 <pre>
261 # nano -w /etc/devfsd.conf
262 </pre>
263 <pre>
264 # ALSA/OSS stuff
265 # Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on
266 # the audio devices
271 REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
272 REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
273 </pre>
274 <note>
275 Notice that devfsd.conf sets /dev/sound permissions to be root.audio. Thus, for non-root users to use audio they will have to be part of the audio group.
276 </note>
277 </body>
278 </section>
279 </chapter>
280 <chapter>
281 <title>Starting ALSA</title>
282 <section>
283 <title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title>
284 <body>
285 <p>
286 First thing to do now, is to make ALSA startup at boottime. Like this:
287 <pre>
288 # <c>rc-update add alsasound boot</c>
289 </pre>
290 </p>
291 <p>
292 <warn>Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the "default" runlevel.</warn>
293 </p>
294 </body>
295 </section>
296 <section>
297 <title>Running and unmuting</title>
298 <body>
299 <p>
300 Since we're Linux users, we don't want to reboot. So we'll start the alsasound script manually.
301 </p>
302 <pre>
303 # <c>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</c>
304 </pre>
305 <p>
306 ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>.
307 However, sound won't work yet, because the channels are still muted. We need <c>alsa-utils</c> for this.
308 </p>
309 <pre>
310 # <c>emerge alsa-utils</c>
311 # <c>amixer</c>
312 </pre>
313 <p>
314 <warn>
315 You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually insmod
316 <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again.
317 </warn>
318 </p>
319 <pre caption="only if you get an error when running amixer">
320 # <c>insmod snd-mixer-oss</c>
321 # <c>insmod snd-pcm-oss</c>
322 # <c>amixer</c>
323 </pre>
324 <p>
325 If you got this far, now unmute both Master and PCM channels.
326 </p>
327 <p>
328 <pre>
329 # <c>amixer set Master 100 unmute</c>
330 # <c>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</c>
331 # <c>aplay /usr/kde/3/share/sounds/pop.wav</c> <codenote>(pop.wav is part of KDE)</codenote>
332 </pre>
333 </p>
334 We check to see if sound is working by using the aplay (alsa play) command. If you hear a pop, then sound is indeed working.
335 Then, adjust the volume settings to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them "just so".
336 <p>
337 You may want to emerge <c>alsa-xmms</c> as that will provide ALSA support for XMMS.
338 </p>
339 When you reboot your system, the <e>alsasound</e> init script will properly save and restore your volume settings.
340 </body>
341 </section>
342 </chapter>
343 <chapter>
344 <title>Final Notes</title>
345 <section>
346 <title>After kernel-upgrades..</title>
347 <body>
348 <p>When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to rebuild the ALSA modules.</p>
349 <p>Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-libs</c> and <c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will
350 have to be installed again, since it will put the alsa modules in
351 <path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>.</p>
352 <pre caption="needed after each kernel compile">
353 emerge alsa-driver
354 </pre>
355 </body>
356 </section>
357 <section>
358 <title>/etc/modules.autoload</title>
359 <body>
360 <p>You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After our <c>rc-update add alsasound boot</c>, our system will
361 load the correct modules at startup.</p>
362 <p>It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this file.
363 Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this FAQ</uri> for more info.</p>
364 </body>
365 </section>
366 <section>
367 <title>More links..</title>
368 <body>
369 <p>
370 You could check these for additional info:
371 </p>
372 <p>
373 <ul>
374 <li><uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/desktop.html">The Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide</uri></li>
375 <li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">ALSA Project Homepage</uri></li>
376 <li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/documentation.php3">ALSA Users Documentation</uri></li>
377 <li><uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQ's</uri></li>
378 <li><uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri></li>
379 <li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org/">Sound and MIDI Software For Linux</uri></li>
380 </ul>
381 </p>
382 </body>
383 </section>
384 </chapter>
385 </guide>

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