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2     <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6     <guide link="doc/altinstall.html">
7     <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8     <author title="Author"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
9     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A.
10     Tanasescu</mail></author>
11     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
12     <abstract>
13     This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
14     methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
15     or a computer that cant boot cds.
16     </abstract>
18     <version>0.3</version>
19     <date>10 September 2002</date>
21     <chapter>
22     <title>About this document</title>
23     <section>
24     <body>
26     <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
27     (or you just don't like it),
28     help is now here. This document serves to
29     provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
30     to those who need them.
31     Or, if you prefer, it serves as
32     a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
33     installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
34     amusing way of installing gentoo, please dont hesitate to write something
35     up and <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">send it to me.</mail></p>
38     </body>
39     </section>
40     </chapter>
42     <chapter>
43     <title>Netboot install</title>
44     <section>
45     <title>Requirements</title>
46     <body>
47     <p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
48     provide a tftp server and a computer
49     that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
50     or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
51     course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
52     <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/build/</uri></p>
53     </body>
54     </section>
56     <section>
57     <title>Overview</title>
58     <body>
60     <p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
61     must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
62     an IP address, and any
63     one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
64     your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
65     be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
66     instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
68     <p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
69     out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
70     it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
71     a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
72     and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
74     <p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
75     with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
76     can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
78     </body>
79     </section>
80     <section>
81     <title>Using GRUB</title>
82     <body>
84     <p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB
85     compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install
86     to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo
87     on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed,
88     then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from
89     <uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p>
91     <p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my
92     box:</p>
94     <pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
95     # <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
96     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
97     </pre>
99     <p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo
100     tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support
101     for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with
102     tulip support:</p>
104     <pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux">
105     # <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i>
106     # <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i>
107     # <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i>
108     > <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i>
109     # <i>make</i>
110     # <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
111     # <i>cd /usr/portage/</i>
112     # <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i>
113     </pre>
115     <p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
116     a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
117     install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
118     GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
119     shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
120     preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
122     <pre caption="grub-install example">
123     # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
124     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
125     # <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
126     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
127     </pre>
129     <p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
130     GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
131     via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
132     is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
134     <pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
135     # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
136     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
137     # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
138     # <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
139     # <i>grub</i>
140     grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
141     grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
142     grub> <i>quit</i>
143     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
144     </pre>
146     <p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
147     (I suggest netkit's tftp server)
148     for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
149     a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
150     like this:</p>
152     <pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
153     tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
154     </pre>
156     <p>To install the netkit tftp server under gentoo linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
158     <note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
159     so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
160     use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
161     them in this howto.</note>
163     <p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
164     put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
165     things necessary for running gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
166     support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the gentoo ISO.</p>
168     <impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
169     support.</impo>
171     <pre>
172     # <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
173     # <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
174     # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
175     # <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
176     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
177     </pre>
179     <p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly usefull grub floppy.
180     Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get
181     its IP address, specify where
182     to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
184     <pre>
185     grub> <i>ifconfig --address= --server=</i>
186     grub> <i>root (nd)</i>
187     grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i>
188     <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment>
189     grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
190     grub> <i>boot</i>
191     </pre>
193     <note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp
194     and dhcp commands.</note>
196     <p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the
197     from source cd install howto.</p>
199     </body>
200     </section>
201     </chapter>
207     <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
208     <section> <title> Requirements </title>
209     <body>
210     <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
211     have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
212     tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
213     you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
214     just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
215     "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
216     </body>
217     </section>
219     <section> <title> Overview </title>
220     <body>
221     <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the proto-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
222     </body>
223     </section>
225     <section> <title> How should we make space for gentoo? </title>
226     <body>
228     <p>
229     The root partition is the filesystem mounted under "/". A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
232     <pre caption="Filesystem information">
233     # <i>mount</i>
234     /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
235     none on /proc type proc (rw)
236     none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
237     none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
238     # <i>df -h </i>
239     Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
240     /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
241     none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
242     </pre>
244     <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as "/" named /dev/hdb2 has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
246     </body> </section>
248     <section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
249     <body>
250     <p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>
251     http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/ </uri>
252     </p>
253     <note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
254     is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
255     do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note>
257     <p>
258     Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
259     can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
260     to make space for gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
261     software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
262     partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
263     use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize "/".
264     However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
265     you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
266     unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
267     </p>
269     <impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
270     supported by parted! </impo>
272     <p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>
273     http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt" </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the
274     Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in
275     the drive for the next step. </p>
277     <note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
278     objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
279     might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
280     need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
281     repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note>
283     <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
284     # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
285     480 inodes
286     1440 blocks
287     Firstdatazone=19 (19)
288     Zonesize=1024
289     Maxsize=268966912
290     </pre>
292     We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
294     <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
295     # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
296     export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
297     &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
298     </pre>
300     <p>
301     Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
302     after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
303     resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
304     Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
305     you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
306     created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
307     There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
308     this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
309     gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive youwish to operate
310     on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For example, if we
311     want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda </p>
313     <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
314     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
315     # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
316     (parted) <i> print </i>
317     Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
318     Disk label type: msdos
319     Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
320     1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
321     3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
322     2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
323     4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
324     5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
325     6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
326     (parted) <i> help resize </i>
327     resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
329     MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
330     primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
331     onwards.
332     START and END are in megabytes
333     (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
334     </pre>
336     <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
337     your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
338     minutes. </impo>
340     <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
341     <uri link="/doc/build.html">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/build.html</uri> and follow steps 6, 7, 9 through
342     17.
345     Enjoy!
346     </p>
347     </body>
348     </section>
349     </chapter>
350     </guide>

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