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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/altinstall.xml,v 1.63 2006/07/21 08:10:19 rane Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6
7<title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title> 7<title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8
9<author title="Contributor">
10 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail>
11</author>
12<author title="Contributor">
8<author title="Author"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author> 13 <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail>
9<author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. 14</author>
10Tanasescu</mail></author> 15<author title="Contributor">
11<author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author> 16 <mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail>
17</author>
18<author title="Contributor">
19 <mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail>
20</author>
21<author title="Contributor">
22 <mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail>
23</author>
24<author title="Contributor">
25 <mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail>
26</author>
27<author title="Contributor">
28 <mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail>
29</author>
30<author title="Contributor">
31 <mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail>
32</author>
33<author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
35</author>
36<author title="Reviewer">
37 Ken Nowack <!-- antifa@gentoo.org seems out -->
38</author>
39<author title="Editor">
40 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
41</author>
42<author title="Editor">
43 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
44</author>
45<author title="Editor">
46 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
47</author>
48
49
12<abstract> 50<abstract>
13This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation 51This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
14methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom 52methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
15or a computer that cant boot cds. 53or a computer that can't boot cds.
16</abstract> 54</abstract>
17 55
56<license/>
57
18<version>0.3</version> 58<version>0.67</version>
19<date>10 September 2002</date> 59<date>2006-07-20</date>
20 60
21<chapter> 61<chapter>
22<title>About this document</title> 62<title>About this document</title>
23<section> 63<section>
24<body> 64<body>
25 65
66<p>
26<p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you 67If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you (or you just
27(or you just don't like it), 68don't like it), help is now here. This document serves to provide a repository
28help is now here. This document serves to 69of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques to those who need them.
29provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques 70Or, if you prefer, it serves as a place to put your wacky installation methods.
30to those who need them.
31Or, if you prefer, it serves as
32a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
33installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an 71If you have an installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have
34amusing way of installing gentoo, please dont hesitate to write something 72devised an amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write
35up and <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">send it to me.</mail></p> 73something up and post it on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>.
36 74</p>
37 75
38</body> 76</body>
39</section> 77</section>
40</chapter> 78</chapter>
41 79
42<chapter> 80<chapter>
43<title>Netboot install</title> 81<title>Booting the Install CD with Smart BootManager</title>
82<section>
83<body>
84
85<p>
86Download Smart BootManager available from
87<uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/download.html</uri>.
88Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well
89as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to
90use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of
91NASM.
92</p>
93
94<p>
95Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are
96several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen
97below.
98</p>
99
100<pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
101sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
102
103 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
104 us = English theme de = German theme
105 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
106 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
107 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
108 pt = Portuguese theme
109
110
111 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
112 for Linux:
113 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
114 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
115 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
116 for DOS:
117 0 is the first floppy drive
118 128 is the first hard drive;
119
120 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
121
122 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
123 future uninstallation;
124
125 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
126
127 -y do not ask any question or warning.
128</pre>
129
130<pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
131# <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
132</pre>
133
134<note>
135Replace fd0 with your respective floppy device name if yours is different.
136</note>
137
138<p>
139Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to
140boot the Install CD on, as well as placing the Install CD in the CD-ROM and boot
141the computer.
142</p>
143
144<p>
145You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and
146press ENTER to boot the Install CD. Once booted proceed with the standard
147installation instructions.
148</p>
149
150<p>
151Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at
152<uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri>
153</p>
154
155</body>
156</section>
157</chapter>
158
159<chapter>
160<title>Knoppix Installation</title>
161<section>
162<body>
163
164<note>
165Knoppix is only available for x86 users.
166</note>
167
168<!-- this works with knoppix 3.6+ and gentoo 2004.3, 2005.0-->
169
170<p>
171Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a
172way to have a fully functional system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer
173will help you pass the time while you wait, and you can use OpenOffice for
174work.
175</p>
176
177<warn>
178Be aware that if you save anything in Knoppix's home directory while waiting
179for your Gentoo system to install, it will not be available when you reboot
180into Gentoo. Be sure to save important files on the hard disk or on some other
181computer!
182</warn>
183
184<p>
185Boot from the Knoppix CD. If you have Knoppix 3.6-3.8.2, you will need to
186specify <c>knoppix26</c> as a boot option to load a 2.6 kernel. If you miss
187this step, when you <c>chroot</c>, you will recieve an error saying that your
188kernel is too old. If, however, you have Knoppix 3.9+, this step is
189unnecessary, since the 2.6 kernel is default.
190</p>
191
192<p>
193By default Knoppix boots into a KDE desktop. Open a konsole and <c>su -</c>
194so you can change your password. This lets you set the root password for
195Knoppix. You can now configure <c>sshd</c> for remote login, at your
196preference.
197</p>
198
199<pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo mountpoint">
200# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
201</pre>
202
203<p>
204At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at <uri
205link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">part 4</uri>.
206However, when you are asked to mount the proc system, issue the following
207command instead:
208</p>
209
210<pre caption="Bind-mounting the proc pseudo filesystem">
211# <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
212</pre>
213
214<p>
215Also, know that some of Portage's FEATURES will not work in knoppix. Especially
216watch out for <c>userpriv</c> and <c>usersandbox</c>. If you find yourself
217getting errors, it might be wise to disable some or all of the optional
218features.
219</p>
220
221<!--
222 Commenting out due to #78716. If it needs to be restated again, note
223 that some will require to bind-mount it, others don't, and that you have
224 a 50-50 chance of winning the gold strike.
225
226
227<p>
228You will also need to bind-mount the device tree to resolve permission issues
229with various device files.
230</p>
231
232< ! - -
233 If this doesn't seem to work, #71901 mentions the following command:
234 mount -o remount,rw,nosuid /dev/hd* /mnt/hd*
235 before all. Looks weird to me, but if this doesn't work, we might want to try
236 that.
237- - >
238
239<pre caption="Bind-mounting the device tree">
240# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
241</pre>
242-->
243
244</body>
245</section>
246</chapter>
247
248<chapter>
249<title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
250<section>
251<body>
252
253<p>
254Burn an Install CD ISO.
255</p>
256
257<p>
258Get the latest Portage snapshot from
259<uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>
260(or your favorite <uri
261link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place
262this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to,
263or burn it to a CD.
264</p>
265
266<p>
267Follow all instructions of the Gentoo Installation Handbook up to <c>chroot
268/mnt/gentoo</c> in Chapter 6. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the
269<c>docache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the Install CD and mount
270your Portage snapshot CD.
271</p>
272
273<p>
274Open a new console (Alt-F2), we will continue with the Install Doc up to
275running the <c>bootstrap.sh</c> script.
276</p>
277
278<warn>
279Older releases of the Install CD required you to change the password using the
280<c>passwd</c> command, before logging in manually.
281</warn>
282
283<p>
284Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on
285<path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the Portage tarball from cdrom2 and
286unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path>.
287</p>
288
289<pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
290# <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
291# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
292# <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
293# <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
294# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
295# <i>tar -xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
296</pre>
297
298<p>
299Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c> it will
300fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files
301somewhere else and put them in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (on F2
302console).
303</p>
304
305<p>
306You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib,
307binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies.
308</p>
309
310<note>
311Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your Portage tree.
312</note>
313
314<pre caption="Getting the download listing">
315<comment>(Don't forget the 2 in front of the &gt;)</comment>
316# <i>emerge -fp glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses 2&gt; stage1.list</i>
317# <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
318# <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
319# <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
320</pre>
321
322<p>
323Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access. If you take a look at the
324<path>stage1.list</path> file, you'll see that it provides you with several
325URLs to download. Sadly, it lists several possible URLs for each package as
326well, which isn't what you want. Strip all but one of the URLs first:
327</p>
328
329<pre caption="Stripping URLs">
330<comment>(This script is depending on the output format given by emerge which
331 might change in the future without further notice - use with caution!)</comment>
332# <i>cut -f 1 -d ' ' stage1.list > stage1.download</i>
333</pre>
334
335<p>
336Now use <c>wget</c> to fetch all the listed sources:
337</p>
338
339<pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
340# <i>wget -N -i stage1.download</i>
341</pre>
342
343<p>
344Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them
345to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run
346<c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2
347and 3.
348</p>
349
350</body>
351</section>
352</chapter>
353
354<chapter>
355<title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
44<section> 356<section>
45<title>Requirements</title> 357<title>Requirements</title>
46<body> 358<body>
47<p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
48provide a tftp server and a computer
49that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
50or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
51course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
52<uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/build/</uri></p>
53</body>
54</section>
55 359
360<p>
361You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol
362to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting
363from PXE.
364</p>
365
366</body>
56<section> 367</section>
57<title>Overview</title>
58<body>
59
60<p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
61must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
62an IP address, and any
63one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
64your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
65be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
66instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
67
68<p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
69out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
70it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
71a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
72and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
73
74<p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
75with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
76can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
77
78</body>
79</section> 368<section>
80<section> 369<title>Server base setup</title>
81<title>Using GRUB</title>
82<body> 370<body>
83 371
84<p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB 372<p>
85compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install 373Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where
86to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo 374your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called
87on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed, 375<path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For
88then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from 376the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.
89<uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p>
90
91<p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my
92box:</p>
93
94<pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
95# <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
96# <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
97</pre> 377</p>
98 378
99<p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo 379<pre caption="Directory setup">
100tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support 380# <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
101for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with 381# <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
102tulip support:</p> 382# <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
383</pre>
103 384
104<pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux"> 385<p>
105# <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i> 386DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and
106# <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i> 387download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it
107# <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i> 388for your basic needs. Then, add the following on
108> <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i> 389<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.
390</p>
391
392<note>
393This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot
394image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card
395of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the
396one you use.
397</note>
398
399<p>
400For DHCPd, run <c>emerge dhcp</c> (or any other DHCP server of your choice).
401Make sure that the correct interface is selected in
402<path>/etc/conf.d/dhcp</path>.
403</p>
404
405<pre caption="dhcp.conf">
406option option-150 code 150 = text ;
407ddns-update-style none ;
408host eta {
409hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
410fixed-address <i>ip.add.re.ss</i>;
411option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
412filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
413}
414</pre>
415
416<p>
417For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In
418<path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :
419</p>
420
421<pre caption="in.tftpd">
422INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
423INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
424INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
425</pre>
426
427<p>
428Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by
429yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First,
430get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will
431place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to
432<path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once
433the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit
434it's grub.lst config file.
435</p>
436
437<pre caption="Grub setup">
438# <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
439# <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
440# <i>./configure --help</i>
441<comment>(In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers.
442 Select the driver compatible with your client's network card. Herein referenced
443 as $nic)</comment>
444# <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
109# <i>make</i> 445# <i>make</i>
110# <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
111# <i>cd /usr/portage/</i> 446# <i>cd stage2</i>
112# <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i> 447# <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
113</pre> 448# <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
114
115<p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
116a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
117install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
118GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
119shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
120preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
121
122<pre caption="grub-install example">
123# <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
124# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
125# <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
126# <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
127</pre>
128
129<p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
130GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
131via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
132is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
133
134<pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
135# <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
136# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
137# <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
138# <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
139# <i>grub</i>
140grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
141grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
142grub> <i>quit</i>
143# <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
144</pre>
145
146<p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
147(I suggest netkit's tftp server)
148for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
149a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
150like this:</p>
151
152<pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
153tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
154</pre>
155
156<p>To install the netkit tftp server under gentoo linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
157
158<note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
159so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
160use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
161them in this howto.</note>
162
163<p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
164put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
165things necessary for running gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
166support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the gentoo ISO.</p>
167
168<impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
169support.</impo>
170
171<pre> 449</pre>
172# <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
173# <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
174# <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
175# <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
176# <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
177</pre>
178 450
179<p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly usefull grub floppy. 451<pre caption="grub.lst">
180Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get 452default 0
181its IP address, specify where 453timeout 30
182to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
183 454
455title=Diskless Gentoo
456root (nd)
457kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<i>ip.add.re.ss</i>:/diskless/eta
458
459<comment># For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and
460the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</comment>
184<pre> 461</pre>
185grub> <i>ifconfig --address=192.168.0.10 --server=192.168.0.2</i> 462
186grub> <i>root (nd)</i> 463<p>
187grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i> 464Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to
188 <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment> 465add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :
189grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
190grub> <i>boot</i>
191</pre> 466</p>
192 467
193<note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp 468<pre caption="/etc/exports">
194and dhcp commands.</note> 469# <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
470# /etc/exports: NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
471/diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
472</pre>
195 473
196<p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the 474<p>
197from source cd install howto.</p> 475Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your
476<path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs.
477</p>
478
479<pre caption="/etc/hosts">
480127.0.0.1 localhost
481
482192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
483192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
484</pre>
485
486</body>
487</section>
488<section>
489<title>Creating the system on the server</title>
490<body>
491
492<p>
493You might want to reboot the server with a Gentoo Install CD, although you can
494very well continue immediately if you know how to proceed with the Gentoo
495Installation Instructions from an existing installation. Follow the standard
496install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the
497following differences:
498When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition
499where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other
500partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path>
501directory.
502</p>
503
504<pre caption="Mounting the filesystem">
505#<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
506</pre>
507
508<p>
509Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount
510<path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue
511with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel
512configuration.
513</p>
514
515<warn>
516Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up
517extracting over your existing installation.
518</warn>
519
520<pre caption="Extracting the stage tarball">
521# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
522# <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
523# <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
524# <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
525# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
526# <i>env-update</i>
527# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
528</pre>
529
530<p>
531Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel
532configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others
533recommended into the install howto.
534</p>
535
536<pre caption="menuconfig options">
537- Your network card device support
538<comment>(In the kernel, *not* as a module!)</comment>
539
540- Under "Networking options" :
541
542[*] TCP/IP networking
543[*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
544[*] IP: DHCP support
545[*] IP: BOOTP support
546
547
548- Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
549
550&lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
551[*] Provide NFSv3 client support
552[*] Root file system on NFS
553</pre>
554
555<p>
556Save the kernel in your chrooted <path>/</path> (not in <path>/boot</path>)
557according to the pxegrub setting defined earlier. Next configure your
558diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
559</p>
560
561<pre caption="/etc/fstab">
562# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
563/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
564proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
565tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
566</pre>
567
568<p>
569You also need to prevent the client to run a filesystem check:
570</p>
571
572<pre caption="Preventing the client to run a filesystem check">
573# <i>touch /fastboot</i>
574# <i>echo "touch /fastboot" &gt;&gt; /etc/conf.d/local.start</i>
575</pre>
576
577<p>
578Install <c>nfs-utils</c> since your client will heavily depend on it:
579</p>
580
581<pre caption="Installing nfs-utils">
582# <i>emerge nfs-utils</i>
583</pre>
584
585<p>
586Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one -
587pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services
588you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.
589</p>
590
591<pre caption="Starting services">
592# <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
593# <i>/etc/init.d/in.tftpd start</i>
594# <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
595</pre>
596
597</body>
598</section>
599<section>
600<title>Booting the new client</title>
601<body>
602
603<p>
604For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the
605network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For
606help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The
607network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE
608image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu
609where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok
610the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you
611with a login prompt. Enjoy.
612</p>
198 613
199</body> 614</body>
200</section> 615</section>
201</chapter> 616</chapter>
202 617
203 618<chapter>
204
205
206
207<chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title> 619<title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution</title>
620<section>
208<section> <title> Requirements </title> 621<title>Requirements</title>
209<body> 622<body>
623
624<p>
210<p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to 625In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
211have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation 626have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
212tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if 627tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
213you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is 628you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
214just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the 629just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
215"host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p> 630"host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started!
631</p>
632
216</body> 633</body>
634</section>
217</section> 635<section>
218
219<section> <title> Overview </title> 636<title>Overview</title>
220<body>
221<p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the proto-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
222</body> 637<body>
638
639<p>
640We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux
641partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball to the partition that is mounted, chroot
642inside the pseudo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is
643done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it
644boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo.
645</p>
646
647</body>
648</section>
223</section> 649<section>
224
225<section> <title> How should we make space for gentoo? </title> 650<title>How should we make space for Gentoo?</title>
226<body> 651<body>
227 652
653<p>
654The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run
655of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk
656free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that
657it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing
658anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.
228<p> 659</p>
229The root partition is the filesystem mounted under "/". A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
230
231 660
232<pre caption="Filesystem information"> 661<pre caption="Filesystem information">
233# <i>mount</i> 662# <i>mount</i>
234/dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw) 663/dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
235none on /proc type proc (rw) 664none on /proc type proc (rw)
236none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620) 665none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
237none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw) 666none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nodev,nosuid,noexec)
238# <i>df -h </i> 667# <i>df -h </i>
239Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on 668Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
240/dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% / 669/dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
241none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm 670none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
671</pre>
672
673<p>
674As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named
675<path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will
676resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes
677for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think
678that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing!
242</pre> 679</p>
243 680
244<p>As we can see, the partition mounted as "/" named /dev/hdb2 has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
245
246</body> </section>
247
248<section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
249<body> 681</body>
250<p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri> 682</section>
683<section>
684<title>Building parted to resize partition</title>
685<body>
686
687<p>
688Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable
689huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one
690tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called
691parted, partition editor and we can get it from
251http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/ </uri> 692<uri>http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
252</p> 693</p>
694
695<note>
253<note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author 696There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author is
254is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind 697unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind do
255do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note> 698the job. It's the reader's job to check them out
699</note>
256 700
257<p> 701<p>
258Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted 702Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if
259can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition 703parted can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some
260to make space for gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the 704partition to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading
261software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root 705the software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux
262partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and 706root partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux
263use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize "/". 707system and use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to
264However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky, 708resize <path>/</path>. However, if you can unmount the partition while still
265you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an 709in Linux you are lucky, you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted
266unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system. 710and run it on an unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it
711for my system.
267</p> 712</p>
268 713
714<impo>
269<impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are 715Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are supported by
270supported by parted! </impo> 716parted!
717</impo>
271 718
272<p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri> 719<p>
273http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt" </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the 720Get the mininux boot/root disk (a 2.4-powered mini Linux distribution on a
274Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in 721floppy - free of charge) from <uri>http://mininux.free.fr/uk/</uri>, create a
275the drive for the next step. </p> 722floppy as suggested in the Documentation that accompanies the software package
723and insert a new floppy in the drive for the next step.
724</p>
276 725
726<note>
277<note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your 727Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
278objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You 728objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
279might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even 729might use some other boot/root diskset other than mininux. You might not even
280need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to 730need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
281repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note> 731repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it.
732</note>
282 733
283<pre caption="Utility disk creation"> 734<pre caption="Utility disk creation">
284# <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i> 735# <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
285480 inodes 736480 inodes
2861440 blocks 7371440 blocks
287Firstdatazone=19 (19) 738Firstdatazone=19 (19)
288Zonesize=1024 739Zonesize=1024
289Maxsize=268966912 740Maxsize=268966912
290</pre> 741</pre>
291 742
292We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk. 743<p>
744We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded
745and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the
746following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
747</p>
293 748
294<pre caption="Building the utility floppy"> 749<pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
295# <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp; 750# <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
296export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure 751export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
297&amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i> 752&amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
298</pre> 753</pre>
299 754
300<p> 755<p>
301Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only 756Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this
302after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The 757only after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website.
303resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient. 758The resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be
304Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once 759patient. Reboot your system with the mininux boot disk (just pop it inside),
305you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have 760and once you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk
306created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy. 761we have created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under
307There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once 762/floppy. There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your
308this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing 763partition. Once this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun,
309gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive youwish to operate 764by installing Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you
310on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For example, if we 765wish to operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
311want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda </p> 766example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
767</p>
312 768
313<pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system"> 769<pre caption="Commands to run once logged into mininux system">
314# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i> 770# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
315# <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i> 771# <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
316(parted) <i> print </i> 772(parted) <i> print </i>
317Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes 773Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
318Disk label type: msdos 774Disk label type: msdos
331 onwards. 787 onwards.
332 START and END are in megabytes 788 START and END are in megabytes
333(parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i> 789(parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
334</pre> 790</pre>
335 791
792<impo>
336<impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on 793Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on your case
337your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30 794to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30 minutes.
338minutes. </impo> 795</impo>
339 796
797<p>
340<p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to 798Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
341<uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6, 7, 9 through 799<uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">The Gentoo
34217. 800Handbook: Preparing the Disks</uri> and follow the instructions. When
801chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
802</p>
343 803
804<pre caption="Flushing the environment during chroot">
805# <i>env -i HOME=$HOME TERM=$TERM chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
806# <i>/usr/sbin/env-update</i>
807# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
808</pre>
344 809
810<p>
345Enjoy! 811Enjoy!
346</p> 812</p>
813
347</body> 814</body>
348</section> 815</section>
349</chapter> 816</chapter>
350</guide> 817</guide>

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