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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/altinstall.xml,v 1.64 2006/07/21 15:42:00 rane Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6
7<title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title> 7<title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8
9<author title="Contributor">
10 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail>
11</author>
12<author title="Contributor">
8<author title="Author"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author> 13 <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail>
9<author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. 14</author>
10Tanasescu</mail></author> 15<author title="Contributor">
11<author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author> 16 <mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail>
17</author>
18<author title="Contributor">
19 <mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail>
20</author>
21<author title="Contributor">
22 <mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail>
23</author>
24<author title="Contributor">
25 <mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail>
26</author>
27<author title="Contributor">
28 <mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail>
29</author>
30<author title="Contributor">
31 <mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail>
32</author>
33<author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
35</author>
36<author title="Reviewer">
37 Ken Nowack <!-- antifa@gentoo.org seems out -->
38</author>
39<author title="Editor">
40 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
41</author>
42<author title="Editor">
43 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
44</author>
45<author title="Editor">
46 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
47</author>
48
12<abstract> 49<abstract>
13This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation 50This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
14methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom 51methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
15or a computer that cant boot cds. 52or a computer that can't boot cds.
16</abstract> 53</abstract>
17 54
55<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
56<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
57<license/>
58
18<version>0.3</version> 59<version>0.67</version>
19<date>10 September 2002</date> 60<date>2006-07-20</date>
20 61
21<chapter> 62<chapter>
22<title>About this document</title> 63<title>About this document</title>
23<section> 64<section>
24<body> 65<body>
25 66
67<p>
26<p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you 68If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you (or you just
27(or you just don't like it), 69don't like it), help is now here. This document serves to provide a repository
28help is now here. This document serves to 70of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques to those who need them.
29provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques 71Or, if you prefer, it serves as a place to put your wacky installation methods.
30to those who need them.
31Or, if you prefer, it serves as
32a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
33installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an 72If you have an installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have
34amusing way of installing gentoo, please dont hesitate to write something 73devised an amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write
35up and <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">send it to me.</mail></p> 74something up and post it on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>.
36 75</p>
37 76
38</body> 77</body>
39</section> 78</section>
40</chapter> 79</chapter>
41 80
42<chapter> 81<chapter>
43<title>Netboot install</title> 82<title>Booting the Install CD with Smart BootManager</title>
83<section>
84<body>
85
86<p>
87Download Smart BootManager available from
88<uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/download.html</uri>.
89Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well
90as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to
91use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of
92NASM.
93</p>
94
95<p>
96Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are
97several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen
98below.
99</p>
100
101<pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
102sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
103
104 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
105 us = English theme de = German theme
106 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
107 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
108 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
109 pt = Portuguese theme
110
111
112 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
113 for Linux:
114 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
115 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
116 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
117 for DOS:
118 0 is the first floppy drive
119 128 is the first hard drive;
120
121 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
122
123 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
124 future uninstallation;
125
126 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
127
128 -y do not ask any question or warning.
129</pre>
130
131<pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
132# <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
133</pre>
134
135<note>
136Replace <path>fd0</path> with your respective floppy device name if yours is different.
137</note>
138
139<p>
140Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to
141boot the Install CD on, as well as placing the Install CD in the CD-ROM and boot
142the computer.
143</p>
144
145<p>
146You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and
147press ENTER to boot the Install CD. Once booted proceed with the standard
148installation instructions.
149</p>
150
151<p>
152Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at
153<uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri>
154</p>
155
156</body>
157</section>
158</chapter>
159
160<chapter>
161<title>Knoppix Installation</title>
162<section>
163<body>
164
165<note>
166Knoppix is only available for x86 users.
167</note>
168
169<!-- this works with knoppix 3.6+ and gentoo 2004.3, 2005.0-->
170
171<p>
172Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a
173way to have a fully functional system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer
174will help you pass the time while you wait, and you can use OpenOffice for
175work.
176</p>
177
178<warn>
179Be aware that if you save anything in Knoppix's home directory while waiting
180for your Gentoo system to install, it will not be available when you reboot
181into Gentoo. Be sure to save important files on the hard disk or on some other
182computer!
183</warn>
184
185<p>
186Boot from the Knoppix CD. If you have Knoppix 3.6-3.8.2, you will need to
187specify <c>knoppix26</c> as a boot option to load a 2.6 kernel. If you miss
188this step, when you <c>chroot</c>, you will recieve an error saying that your
189kernel is too old. If, however, you have Knoppix 3.9+, this step is
190unnecessary, since the 2.6 kernel is default.
191</p>
192
193<p>
194By default Knoppix boots into a KDE desktop. Open a <c>konsole</c> and <c>su -</c>
195so you can change your password. This lets you set the root password for
196Knoppix. You can now configure <c>sshd</c> for remote login, at your
197preference.
198</p>
199
200<pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo mountpoint">
201# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at <uri
206link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">part 4</uri>.
207However, when you are asked to mount the proc system, issue the following
208command instead:
209</p>
210
211<pre caption="Bind-mounting the proc pseudo filesystem">
212# <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
213</pre>
214
215<p>
216Also, know that some of Portage's FEATURES will not work in knoppix. Especially
217watch out for <c>userpriv</c> and <c>usersandbox</c>. If you find yourself
218getting errors, it might be wise to disable some or all of the optional
219features.
220</p>
221
222<!--
223 Commenting out due to #78716. If it needs to be restated again, note
224 that some will require to bind-mount it, others don't, and that you have
225 a 50-50 chance of winning the gold strike.
226
227
228<p>
229You will also need to bind-mount the device tree to resolve permission issues
230with various device files.
231</p>
232
233< ! - -
234 If this doesn't seem to work, #71901 mentions the following command:
235 mount -o remount,rw,nosuid /dev/hd* /mnt/hd*
236 before all. Looks weird to me, but if this doesn't work, we might want to try
237 that.
238- - >
239
240<pre caption="Bind-mounting the device tree">
241# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
242</pre>
243-->
244
245</body>
246</section>
247</chapter>
248
249<chapter>
250<title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
251<section>
252<body>
253
254<p>
255Burn an Install CD ISO.
256</p>
257
258<p>
259Get the latest Portage snapshot from
260<uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>
261(or your favorite <uri
262link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place
263this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to,
264or burn it to a CD.
265</p>
266
267<p>
268Follow all instructions of the Gentoo Installation Handbook up to <c>chroot
269/mnt/gentoo</c> in Chapter 6. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the
270<c>docache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the Install CD and mount
271your Portage snapshot CD.
272</p>
273
274<p>
275Open a new console (Alt-F2), we will continue with the Install Doc up to
276running the <c>bootstrap.sh</c> script.
277</p>
278
279<warn>
280Older releases of the Install CD required you to change the password using the
281<c>passwd</c> command, before logging in manually.
282</warn>
283
284<p>
285Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on
286<path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the Portage tarball from cdrom2 and
287unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path>.
288</p>
289
290<pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
291# <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
292# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
293# <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
294# <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
295# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
296# <i>tar -xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
297</pre>
298
299<p>
300Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c> it will
301fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files
302somewhere else and put them in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (on F2
303console).
304</p>
305
306<p>
307You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib,
308binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies.
309</p>
310
311<note>
312Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your Portage tree.
313</note>
314
315<pre caption="Getting the download listing">
316<comment>(Don't forget the 2 in front of the &gt;)</comment>
317# <i>emerge -fp glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses 2&gt; stage1.list</i>
318# <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
319# <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
320# <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
321</pre>
322
323<p>
324Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access. If you take a look at the
325<path>stage1.list</path> file, you'll see that it provides you with several
326URLs to download. Sadly, it lists several possible URLs for each package as
327well, which isn't what you want. Strip all but one of the URLs first:
328</p>
329
330<pre caption="Stripping URLs">
331<comment>(This script is depending on the output format given by emerge which
332 might change in the future without further notice - use with caution!)</comment>
333# <i>cut -f 1 -d ' ' stage1.list > stage1.download</i>
334</pre>
335
336<p>
337Now use <c>wget</c> to fetch all the listed sources:
338</p>
339
340<pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
341# <i>wget -N -i stage1.download</i>
342</pre>
343
344<p>
345Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them
346to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run
347<c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2
348and 3.
349</p>
350
351</body>
352</section>
353</chapter>
354
355<chapter>
356<title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
44<section> 357<section>
45<title>Requirements</title> 358<title>Requirements</title>
46<body> 359<body>
47<p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
48provide a tftp server and a computer
49that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
50or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
51course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
52<uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/build/</uri></p>
53</body>
54</section>
55 360
361<p>
362You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol
363to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting
364from PXE.
365</p>
366
367</body>
56<section> 368</section>
57<title>Overview</title>
58<body>
59
60<p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
61must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
62an IP address, and any
63one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
64your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
65be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
66instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
67
68<p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
69out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
70it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
71a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
72and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
73
74<p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
75with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
76can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
77
78</body>
79</section> 369<section>
80<section> 370<title>Server base setup</title>
81<title>Using GRUB</title>
82<body> 371<body>
83 372
84<p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB 373<p>
85compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install 374Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where
86to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo 375your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called
87on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed, 376<path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For
88then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from 377the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.
89<uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p>
90
91<p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my
92box:</p>
93
94<pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
95# <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
96# <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
97</pre> 378</p>
98 379
99<p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo 380<pre caption="Directory setup">
100tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support 381# <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
101for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with 382# <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
102tulip support:</p> 383# <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
384</pre>
103 385
104<pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux"> 386<p>
105# <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i> 387DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and
106# <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i> 388download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it
107# <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i> 389for your basic needs. Then, add the following on
108> <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i> 390<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.
391</p>
392
393<note>
394This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot
395image, here <path>pxegrub</path>. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card
396of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the
397one you use.
398</note>
399
400<p>
401For DHCPd, run <c>emerge dhcp</c> (or any other DHCP server of your choice).
402Make sure that the correct interface is selected in
403<path>/etc/conf.d/dhcp</path>.
404</p>
405
406<pre caption="dhcp.conf">
407option option-150 code 150 = text ;
408ddns-update-style none ;
409host eta {
410hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
411fixed-address <i>ip.add.re.ss</i>;
412option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
413filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
414}
415</pre>
416
417<p>
418For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In
419<path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :
420</p>
421
422<pre caption="in.tftpd">
423INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
424INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
425INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
426</pre>
427
428<p>
429Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by
430yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First,
431get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will
432place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to
433<path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once
434the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit
435it's <path>grub.lst</path> config file.
436</p>
437
438<pre caption="Grub setup">
439# <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
440# <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
441# <i>./configure --help</i>
442<comment>(In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers.
443 Select the driver compatible with your client's network card. Herein referenced
444 as $nic)</comment>
445# <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
109# <i>make</i> 446# <i>make</i>
110# <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
111# <i>cd /usr/portage/</i> 447# <i>cd stage2</i>
112# <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i> 448# <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
113</pre> 449# <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
114
115<p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
116a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
117install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
118GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
119shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
120preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
121
122<pre caption="grub-install example">
123# <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
124# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
125# <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
126# <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
127</pre>
128
129<p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
130GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
131via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
132is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
133
134<pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
135# <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
136# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
137# <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
138# <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
139# <i>grub</i>
140grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
141grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
142grub> <i>quit</i>
143# <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
144</pre>
145
146<p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
147(I suggest netkit's tftp server)
148for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
149a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
150like this:</p>
151
152<pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
153tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
154</pre>
155
156<p>To install the netkit tftp server under gentoo linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
157
158<note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
159so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
160use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
161them in this howto.</note>
162
163<p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
164put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
165things necessary for running gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
166support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the gentoo ISO.</p>
167
168<impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
169support.</impo>
170
171<pre> 450</pre>
172# <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
173# <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
174# <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
175# <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
176# <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
177</pre>
178 451
179<p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly usefull grub floppy. 452<pre caption="grub.lst">
180Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get 453default 0
181its IP address, specify where 454timeout 30
182to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
183 455
456title=Diskless Gentoo
457root (nd)
458kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<i>ip.add.re.ss</i>:/diskless/eta
459
460<comment># For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and
461the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</comment>
184<pre> 462</pre>
185grub> <i>ifconfig --address=192.168.0.10 --server=192.168.0.2</i> 463
186grub> <i>root (nd)</i> 464<p>
187grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i> 465Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to
188 <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment> 466add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :
189grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
190grub> <i>boot</i>
191</pre> 467</p>
192 468
193<note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp 469<pre caption="/etc/exports">
194and dhcp commands.</note> 470# <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
471# /etc/exports: NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
472/diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
473</pre>
195 474
196<p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the 475<p>
197from source cd install howto.</p> 476Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your
477<path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs.
478</p>
479
480<pre caption="/etc/hosts">
481127.0.0.1 localhost
482
483192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
484192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
485</pre>
486
487</body>
488</section>
489<section>
490<title>Creating the system on the server</title>
491<body>
492
493<p>
494You might want to reboot the server with a Gentoo Install CD, although you can
495very well continue immediately if you know how to proceed with the Gentoo
496Installation Instructions from an existing installation. Follow the standard
497install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the
498following differences:
499When you mount the file system, do the following (where <path>hdaX</path> is the partition
500where you created the <path>/diskless</path> directory). You do not need to mount any other
501partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path>
502directory.
503</p>
504
505<pre caption="Mounting the filesystem">
506#<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
507</pre>
508
509<p>
510Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount
511<path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue
512with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel
513configuration.
514</p>
515
516<warn>
517Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up
518extracting over your existing installation.
519</warn>
520
521<pre caption="Extracting the stage tarball">
522# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
523# <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
524# <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
525# <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
526# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
527# <i>env-update</i>
528# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel
533configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others
534recommended into the install howto.
535</p>
536
537<pre caption="menuconfig options">
538- Your network card device support
539<comment>(In the kernel, *not* as a module!)</comment>
540
541- Under "Networking options" :
542
543[*] TCP/IP networking
544[*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
545[*] IP: DHCP support
546[*] IP: BOOTP support
547
548
549- Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
550
551&lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
552[*] Provide NFSv3 client support
553[*] Root file system on NFS
554</pre>
555
556<p>
557Save the kernel in your chrooted <path>/</path> (not in <path>/boot</path>)
558according to the pxegrub setting defined earlier. Next configure your
559diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
560</p>
561
562<pre caption="/etc/fstab">
563# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
564/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
565proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
566tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
567</pre>
568
569<p>
570You also need to prevent the client to run a filesystem check:
571</p>
572
573<pre caption="Preventing the client to run a filesystem check">
574# <i>touch /fastboot</i>
575# <i>echo "touch /fastboot" &gt;&gt; /etc/conf.d/local.start</i>
576</pre>
577
578<p>
579Install <c>nfs-utils</c> since your client will heavily depend on it:
580</p>
581
582<pre caption="Installing nfs-utils">
583# <i>emerge nfs-utils</i>
584</pre>
585
586<p>
587Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one -
588pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services
589you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.
590</p>
591
592<pre caption="Starting services">
593# <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
594# <i>/etc/init.d/in.tftpd start</i>
595# <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
596</pre>
597
598</body>
599</section>
600<section>
601<title>Booting the new client</title>
602<body>
603
604<p>
605For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the
606network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For
607help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The
608network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE
609image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu
610where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok
611the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you
612with a login prompt. Enjoy.
613</p>
198 614
199</body> 615</body>
200</section> 616</section>
201</chapter> 617</chapter>
202 618
203 619<chapter>
204
205
206
207<chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title> 620<title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution</title>
621<section>
208<section> <title> Requirements </title> 622<title>Requirements</title>
209<body> 623<body>
624
625<p>
210<p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to 626In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
211have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation 627have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
212tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if 628tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
213you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is 629you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
214just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the 630just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
215"host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p> 631"host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started!
632</p>
633
216</body> 634</body>
635</section>
217</section> 636<section>
218
219<section> <title> Overview </title> 637<title>Overview</title>
220<body>
221<p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the proto-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
222</body> 638<body>
639
640<p>
641We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux
642partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball to the partition that is mounted, chroot
643inside the pseudo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is
644done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it
645boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo.
646</p>
647
648</body>
649</section>
223</section> 650<section>
224
225<section> <title> How should we make space for gentoo? </title> 651<title>How should we make space for Gentoo?</title>
226<body> 652<body>
227 653
654<p>
655The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run
656of <c>mount</c> on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use <c>df</c> (disk
657free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that
658it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing
659anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.
228<p> 660</p>
229The root partition is the filesystem mounted under "/". A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
230
231 661
232<pre caption="Filesystem information"> 662<pre caption="Filesystem information">
233# <i>mount</i> 663# <i>mount</i>
234/dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw) 664/dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
235none on /proc type proc (rw) 665none on /proc type proc (rw)
236none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620) 666none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
237none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw) 667none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nodev,nosuid,noexec)
238# <i>df -h </i> 668# <i>df -h </i>
239Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on 669Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
240/dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% / 670/dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
241none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm 671none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
672</pre>
673
674<p>
675As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named
676<path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will
677resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes
678for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think
679that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing!
242</pre> 680</p>
243 681
244<p>As we can see, the partition mounted as "/" named /dev/hdb2 has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
245
246</body> </section>
247
248<section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
249<body> 682</body>
250<p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri> 683</section>
684<section>
685<title>Building parted to resize partition</title>
686<body>
687
688<p>
689Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable
690huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one
691tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called
692parted, partition editor and we can get it from
251http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/ </uri> 693<uri>http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
252</p> 694</p>
695
696<note>
253<note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author 697There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author is
254is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind 698unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind do
255do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note> 699the job. It's the reader's job to check them out
700</note>
256 701
257<p> 702<p>
258Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted 703Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if
259can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition 704parted can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some
260to make space for gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the 705partition to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading
261software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root 706the software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux
262partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and 707root partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux
263use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize "/". 708system and use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to
264However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky, 709resize <path>/</path>. However, if you can unmount the partition while still
265you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an 710in Linux you are lucky, you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted
266unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system. 711and run it on an unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it
712for my system.
267</p> 713</p>
268 714
715<impo>
269<impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are 716Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are supported by
270supported by parted! </impo> 717parted!
718</impo>
271 719
272<p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri> 720<p>
273http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt" </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the 721Get the mininux boot/root disk (a 2.4-powered mini Linux distribution on a
274Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in 722floppy - free of charge) from <uri>http://mininux.free.fr/uk/</uri>, create a
275the drive for the next step. </p> 723floppy as suggested in the Documentation that accompanies the software package
724and insert a new floppy in the drive for the next step.
725</p>
276 726
727<note>
277<note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your 728Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
278objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You 729objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
279might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even 730might use some other boot/root diskset other than mininux. You might not even
280need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to 731need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
281repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note> 732repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it.
733</note>
282 734
283<pre caption="Utility disk creation"> 735<pre caption="Utility disk creation">
284# <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i> 736# <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
285480 inodes 737480 inodes
2861440 blocks 7381440 blocks
287Firstdatazone=19 (19) 739Firstdatazone=19 (19)
288Zonesize=1024 740Zonesize=1024
289Maxsize=268966912 741Maxsize=268966912
290</pre> 742</pre>
291 743
292We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk. 744<p>
745We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded
746and untarred, do so now and <c>cd</c> into the corresponding directory. Now run the
747following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
748</p>
293 749
294<pre caption="Building the utility floppy"> 750<pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
295# <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp; 751# <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
296export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure 752export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
297&amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i> 753&amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
298</pre> 754</pre>
299 755
300<p> 756<p>
301Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only 757Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this
302after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The 758only after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website.
303resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient. 759The resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be
304Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once 760patient. Reboot your system with the mininux boot disk (just pop it inside),
305you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have 761and once you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk
306created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy. 762we have created above and type <c>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy</c> to have parted under
307There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once 763<path>/floppy</path>. There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your
308this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing 764partition. Once this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun,
309gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive youwish to operate 765by installing Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you
310on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For example, if we 766wish to operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
311want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda </p> 767example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
768</p>
312 769
313<pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system"> 770<pre caption="Commands to run once logged into mininux system">
314# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i> 771# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
315# <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i> 772# <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
316(parted) <i> print </i> 773(parted) <i> print </i>
317Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes 774Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
318Disk label type: msdos 775Disk label type: msdos
331 onwards. 788 onwards.
332 START and END are in megabytes 789 START and END are in megabytes
333(parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i> 790(parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
334</pre> 791</pre>
335 792
793<impo>
336<impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on 794Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on your case
337your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30 795to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30 minutes.
338minutes. </impo> 796</impo>
339 797
798<p>
340<p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to 799Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
341<uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6, 7, 9 through 800<uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">The Gentoo
34217. 801Handbook: Preparing the Disks</uri> and follow the instructions. When
802chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
803</p>
343 804
805<pre caption="Flushing the environment during chroot">
806# <i>env -i HOME=$HOME TERM=$TERM chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
807# <i>/usr/sbin/env-update</i>
808# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
809</pre>
344 810
811<p>
345Enjoy! 812Enjoy!
346</p> 813</p>
814
347</body> 815</body>
348</section> 816</section>
349</chapter> 817</chapter>
350</guide> 818</guide>

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