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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/altinstall.xml,v 1.74 2008/01/09 20:36:44 jkt Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6
7<title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title> 7<title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8
9<author title="Contributor">
10 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail>
11</author>
12<author title="Contributor">
8<author title="Author"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author> 13 <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail>
9<author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. 14</author>
10Tanasescu</mail></author> 15<author title="Contributor">
11<author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author> 16 <mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail>
17</author>
18<author title="Contributor">
19 <mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail>
20</author>
21<author title="Contributor">
22 <mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail>
23</author>
24<author title="Contributor">
25 <mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail>
26</author>
27<author title="Contributor">
28 <mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail>
29</author>
30<author title="Contributor">
31 <mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail>
32</author>
33<author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
35</author>
36<author title="Reviewer">
37 Ken Nowack <!-- antifa@gentoo.org seems out -->
38</author>
39<author title="Editor">
40 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
41</author>
42<author title="Editor">
43 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
44</author>
45<author title="Editor">
46 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
47</author>
48
12<abstract> 49<abstract>
13This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation 50This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
14methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom 51methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
15or a computer that cant boot cds. 52or a computer that can't boot cds.
16</abstract> 53</abstract>
17 54
55<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
56<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
57<license/>
58
18<version>0.3</version> 59<version>0.73</version>
19<date>10 September 2002</date> 60<date>2008-01-09</date>
20 61
21<chapter> 62<chapter>
22<title>About this document</title> 63<title>About this document</title>
23<section> 64<section>
24<body> 65<body>
25 66
67<p>
26<p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you 68If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you (or you just
27(or you just don't like it), 69don't like it), help is now here. This document serves to provide a repository
28help is now here. This document serves to 70of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques to those who need them.
29provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques 71Or, if you prefer, it serves as a place to put your wacky installation methods.
30to those who need them.
31Or, if you prefer, it serves as
32a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
33installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an 72If you have an installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have
34amusing way of installing gentoo, please dont hesitate to write something 73devised an amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write
35up and <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">send it to me.</mail></p> 74something up and post it on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>.
36 75</p>
37 76
38</body> 77</body>
39</section> 78</section>
40</chapter> 79</chapter>
41 80
42<chapter> 81<chapter>
43<title>Netboot install</title> 82<title>Booting the Install CD with Smart BootManager</title>
83<section>
84<body>
85
86<p>
87Download Smart BootManager available from
88<uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/download.html</uri>.
89Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well
90as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to
91use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of
92NASM.
93</p>
94
95<p>
96Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are
97several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen
98below.
99</p>
100
101<pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
102sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
103
104 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
105 us = English theme de = German theme
106 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
107 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
108 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
109 pt = Portuguese theme
110
111
112 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
113 for Linux:
114 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
115 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
116 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
117 for DOS:
118 0 is the first floppy drive
119 128 is the first hard drive;
120
121 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
122
123 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
124 future uninstallation;
125
126 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
127
128 -y do not ask any question or warning.
129</pre>
130
131<pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
132# <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
133</pre>
134
135<note>
136Replace <path>fd0</path> with your respective floppy device name if yours is different.
137</note>
138
139<p>
140Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to
141boot the Install CD on, as well as placing the Install CD in the CD-ROM and boot
142the computer.
143</p>
144
145<p>
146You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and
147press ENTER to boot the Install CD. Once booted proceed with the standard
148installation instructions.
149</p>
150
151<p>
152Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at
153<uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri>
154</p>
155
156</body>
157</section>
158</chapter>
159
160<chapter>
161<title>Knoppix Installation</title>
162<section>
163<body>
164
165<note>
166Knoppix is only available for x86 users.
167</note>
168
169<!-- this works with knoppix 3.6+ and gentoo 2004.3, 2005.0-->
170
171<p>
172Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a
173way to have a fully functional system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer
174will help you pass the time while you wait, and you can use OpenOffice for
175work.
176</p>
177
178<warn>
179Be aware that if you save anything in Knoppix's home directory while waiting
180for your Gentoo system to install, it will not be available when you reboot
181into Gentoo. Be sure to save important files on the hard disk or on some other
182computer!
183</warn>
184
185<p>
186Boot from the Knoppix CD. If you have Knoppix 3.6-3.8.2, you will need to
187specify <c>knoppix26</c> as a boot option to load a 2.6 kernel. If you miss
188this step, when you <c>chroot</c>, you will recieve an error saying that your
189kernel is too old. If, however, you have Knoppix 3.9+, this step is
190unnecessary, since the 2.6 kernel is default.
191</p>
192
193<p>
194By default Knoppix boots into a KDE desktop. Open a <c>konsole</c> and <c>su -</c>
195so you can change your password. This lets you set the root password for
196Knoppix. You can now configure <c>sshd</c> for remote login, at your
197preference.
198</p>
199
200<pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo mountpoint">
201# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at <uri
206link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">part 4</uri>.
207However, when you are asked to mount the proc system, issue the following
208command instead:
209</p>
210
211<pre caption="Bind-mounting the proc pseudo filesystem">
212# <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
213</pre>
214
215<p>
216Also, know that some of Portage's FEATURES will not work in knoppix. Especially
217watch out for <c>userpriv</c> and <c>usersandbox</c>. If you find yourself
218getting errors, it might be wise to disable some or all of the optional
219features.
220</p>
221
222<!--
223 Commenting out due to #78716. If it needs to be restated again, note
224 that some will require to bind-mount it, others don't, and that you have
225 a 50-50 chance of winning the gold strike.
226
227
228<p>
229You will also need to bind-mount the device tree to resolve permission issues
230with various device files.
231</p>
232
233< ! - -
234 If this doesn't seem to work, #71901 mentions the following command:
235 mount -o remount,rw,nosuid /dev/hd* /mnt/hd*
236 before all. Looks weird to me, but if this doesn't work, we might want to try
237 that.
238- - >
239
240<pre caption="Bind-mounting the device tree">
241# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
242</pre>
243-->
244
245</body>
246</section>
247</chapter>
248
249<chapter>
250<title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
44<section> 251<section>
45<title>Requirements</title> 252<title>Requirements</title>
46<body> 253<body>
47<p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
48provide a tftp server and a computer
49that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
50or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
51course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
52<uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/build/</uri></p>
53</body>
54</section>
55 254
255<p>
256You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol
257to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting
258from PXE.
259</p>
260
261</body>
56<section> 262</section>
57<title>Overview</title>
58<body>
59
60<p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
61must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
62an IP address, and any
63one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
64your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
65be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
66instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
67
68<p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
69out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
70it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
71a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
72and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
73
74<p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
75with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
76can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
77
78</body>
79</section> 263<section>
264<title>Server base setup</title>
265<body>
266
267<p>
268Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where
269your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called
270<path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For
271the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.
272</p>
273
274<pre caption="Directory setup">
275# <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
276# <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
277# <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
278</pre>
279
280<p>
281DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and
282download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it
283for your basic needs. Then, add the following on
284<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.
285</p>
286
287<note>
288This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot
289image, here <path>pxegrub</path>. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card
290of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the
291one you use.
292</note>
293
294<p>
295For DHCPd, run <c>emerge dhcp</c> (or any other DHCP server of your choice).
296Make sure that the correct interface is selected in
297<path>/etc/conf.d/dhcpd</path>.
298</p>
299
300<pre caption="dhcpd.conf">
301option option-150 code 150 = text ;
302ddns-update-style none ;
303host eta {
304hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
305fixed-address <i>ip.add.re.ss</i>;
306option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
307filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
308}
309</pre>
310
311<p>
312Next you'll need to configure your interface in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> so
313that it doesn't get cleared at bootup. See <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>
314for more information.
315</p>
316
317<pre caption="/etc/conf.d/net">
318<comment>(Replace eth0 with the correct interface)</comment>
319config_eth0=( "noop" )
320</pre>
321
322<p>
323For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In
324<path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :
325</p>
326
327<pre caption="in.tftpd">
328INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
329INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
330INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
331</pre>
332
333<p>
334Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB with the <c>netboot</c> USE flag
335enabled. Once GRUB is compiled, copy the PXE image to the diskless client's
336boot directory. Then edit its <path>grub.lst</path> config file.
337</p>
338
339<pre caption="Grub setup">
340# <i>echo "sys-boot/grub netboot" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
341# <i>emerge -av grub</i>
342# <i>cp /usr/lib/grub/pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
343# <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
344</pre>
345
346<pre caption="grub.lst">
347default 0
348timeout 30
349
350title=Diskless Gentoo
351root (nd)
352kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<i>ip.add.re.ss</i>:/diskless/eta
353
354<comment># For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and
355the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</comment>
356</pre>
357
358<p>
359Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to
360add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file:
361</p>
362
363<pre caption="/etc/exports">
364# <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
365# /etc/exports: NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
366/diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
367</pre>
368
369<p>
370Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your
371<path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs.
372</p>
373
374<pre caption="/etc/hosts">
375127.0.0.1 localhost
376
377192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
378192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
379</pre>
380
381</body>
80<section> 382</section>
81<title>Using GRUB</title> 383<section>
384<title>Creating the system on the server</title>
385<body>
386
387<p>
388You might want to reboot the server with a Gentoo Install CD, although you can
389very well continue immediately if you know how to proceed with the Gentoo
390Installation Instructions from an existing installation. Follow the standard
391install procedure as explained in the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri> BUT with the
392following differences:
393When you mount the file system, do the following (where <path>hdaX</path> is the partition
394where you created the <path>/diskless</path> directory). You do not need to mount any other
395partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path>
396directory.
397</p>
398
399<pre caption="Mounting the filesystem">
400#<i> mount /dev/hdaX /mnt/gentoo</i>
401</pre>
402
403<p>
404Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount
405<path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue
406with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel
407configuration.
408</p>
409
410<warn>
411Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up
412extracting over your existing installation.
413</warn>
414
415<pre caption="Extracting the stage tarball">
416# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
417# <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
418# <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
419# <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
420# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
421# <i>env-update</i>
422# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
423</pre>
424
425<p>
426Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel
427configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others
428recommended into the install howto.
429</p>
430
431<pre caption="menuconfig options">
432- Your network card device support
433<comment>(In the kernel, *not* as a module!)</comment>
434
435- Under "Networking options" :
436
437[*] TCP/IP networking
438[*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
439[*] IP: DHCP support
440[*] IP: BOOTP support
441
442
443- Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
444
445&lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
446[*] Provide NFSv3 client support
447[*] Root file system on NFS
448</pre>
449
450<p>
451Save the kernel in your chrooted <path>/</path> (not in <path>/boot</path>)
452according to the pxegrub setting defined earlier. Next configure your
453diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
454</p>
455
456<pre caption="/etc/fstab">
457# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
458/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
459proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
460tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
461</pre>
462
463<p>
464You also need to prevent the client to run a filesystem check:
465</p>
466
467<pre caption="Preventing the client to run a filesystem check">
468# <i>touch /fastboot</i>
469# <i>echo "touch /fastboot" &gt;&gt; /etc/conf.d/local.start</i>
470</pre>
471
472<p>
473Install <c>nfs-utils</c> since your client will heavily depend on it:
474</p>
475
476<pre caption="Installing nfs-utils">
477# <i>emerge nfs-utils</i>
478</pre>
479
480<p>
481Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one -
482pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services
483you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.
484</p>
485
486<pre caption="Starting services">
487# <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
488# <i>/etc/init.d/in.tftpd start</i>
489# <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
490</pre>
491
82<body> 492</body>
493</section>
494<section>
495<title>Booting the new client</title>
496<body>
83 497
84<p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB 498<p>
85compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install 499For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the
86to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo 500network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For
87on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed, 501help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The
88then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from 502network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE
89<uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p> 503image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu
90 504where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok
91<p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my 505the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you
92box:</p> 506with a login prompt. Enjoy.
93
94<pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
95# <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
96# <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
97</pre> 507</p>
98
99<p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo
100tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support
101for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with
102tulip support:</p>
103
104<pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux">
105# <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i>
106# <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i>
107# <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i>
108> <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i>
109# <i>make</i>
110# <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
111# <i>cd /usr/portage/</i>
112# <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i>
113</pre>
114
115<p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
116a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
117install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
118GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
119shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
120preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
121
122<pre caption="grub-install example">
123# <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
124# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
125# <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
126# <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
127</pre>
128
129<p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
130GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
131via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
132is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
133
134<pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
135# <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
136# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
137# <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
138# <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
139# <i>grub</i>
140grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
141grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
142grub> <i>quit</i>
143# <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
144</pre>
145
146<p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
147(I suggest netkit's tftp server)
148for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
149a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
150like this:</p>
151
152<pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
153tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
154</pre>
155
156<p>To install the netkit tftp server under gentoo linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
157
158<note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
159so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
160use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
161them in this howto.</note>
162
163<p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
164put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
165things necessary for running gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
166support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the gentoo ISO.</p>
167
168<impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
169support.</impo>
170
171<pre>
172# <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
173# <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
174# <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
175# <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
176# <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
177</pre>
178
179<p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly usefull grub floppy.
180Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get
181its IP address, specify where
182to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
183
184<pre>
185grub> <i>ifconfig --address=192.168.0.10 --server=192.168.0.2</i>
186grub> <i>root (nd)</i>
187grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i>
188 <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment>
189grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
190grub> <i>boot</i>
191</pre>
192
193<note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp
194and dhcp commands.</note>
195
196<p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the
197from source cd install howto.</p>
198 508
199</body> 509</body>
200</section> 510</section>
201</chapter> 511</chapter>
202 512
203 513<chapter>
204
205
206
207<chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title> 514<title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution</title>
515<section>
208<section> <title> Requirements </title> 516<title>Requirements</title>
209<body> 517<body>
518
519<p>
210<p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to 520In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
211have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation 521have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
212tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if 522tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
213you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is 523you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
214just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the 524just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
215"host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p> 525"host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started!
526</p>
527
216</body> 528</body>
529</section>
217</section> 530<section>
218
219<section> <title> Overview </title> 531<title>Overview</title>
220<body>
221<p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the proto-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
222</body> 532<body>
533
534<p>
535We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux
536partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball to the partition that is mounted, chroot
537inside the pseudo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is
538done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it
539boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo.
540</p>
541
542</body>
543</section>
223</section> 544<section>
224
225<section> <title> How should we make space for gentoo? </title> 545<title>How should we make space for Gentoo?</title>
226<body> 546<body>
227 547
548<p>
549The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run
550of <c>mount</c> on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use <c>df</c> (disk
551free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that
552it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing
553anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.
228<p> 554</p>
229The root partition is the filesystem mounted under "/". A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
230
231 555
232<pre caption="Filesystem information"> 556<pre caption="Filesystem information">
233# <i>mount</i> 557# <i>mount</i>
234/dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw) 558/dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
235none on /proc type proc (rw) 559none on /proc type proc (rw)
236none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620) 560none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
237none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw) 561none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nodev,nosuid,noexec)
238# <i>df -h </i> 562# <i>df -h </i>
239Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on 563Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
240/dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% / 564/dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
241none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm 565none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
566</pre>
567
568<p>
569As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named
570<path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will
571resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes
572for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, I think
573that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing!
242</pre> 574</p>
243 575
244<p>As we can see, the partition mounted as "/" named /dev/hdb2 has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
245
246</body> </section>
247
248<section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
249<body> 576</body>
250<p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri> 577</section>
578<section>
579<title>Building parted to resize partition</title>
580<body>
581
582<p>
583Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable
584huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one
585tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called
586parted, partition editor and we can get it from
251http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/ </uri> 587<uri>http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
252</p> 588</p>
589
590<note>
253<note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author 591There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but the author is
254is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind 592unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind do
255do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note> 593the job. It's the reader's job to check them out
594</note>
256 595
257<p> 596<p>
258Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted 597Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if
259can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition 598parted can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some
260to make space for gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the 599partition to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading
261software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root 600the software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux
262partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and 601root partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux
263use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize "/". 602system and use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to
264However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky, 603resize <path>/</path>. However, if you can unmount the partition while still
265you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an 604in Linux you are lucky, you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted
266unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system. 605and run it on an unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it
606for my system.
267</p> 607</p>
268 608
609<impo>
269<impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are 610Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are supported by
270supported by parted! </impo> 611parted!
612</impo>
271 613
272<p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri> 614<p>
273http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt" </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the 615Get the mininux boot/root disk (a 2.4-powered mini Linux distribution on a
274Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in 616floppy - free of charge) from <uri>http://mininux.free.fr/uk/</uri>, create a
275the drive for the next step. </p> 617floppy as suggested in the Documentation that accompanies the software package
618and insert a new floppy in the drive for the next step.
619</p>
276 620
621<note>
277<note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your 622Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
278objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You 623objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
279might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even 624might use some boot/root diskset other than mininux. You might not even
280need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to 625need to do this step at all, ie. you might only have umount the filesystem you want to
281repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note> 626repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it.
627</note>
282 628
283<pre caption="Utility disk creation"> 629<pre caption="Utility disk creation">
284# <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i> 630# <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
285480 inodes 631480 inodes
2861440 blocks 6321440 blocks
287Firstdatazone=19 (19) 633Firstdatazone=19 (19)
288Zonesize=1024 634Zonesize=1024
289Maxsize=268966912 635Maxsize=268966912
290</pre> 636</pre>
291 637
292We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk. 638<p>
639We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded
640and untarred, do so now and <c>cd</c> into the corresponding directory. Now run the
641following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
642</p>
293 643
294<pre caption="Building the utility floppy"> 644<pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
295# <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp; 645# <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
296export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure 646export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
297&amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i> 647&amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
298</pre> 648</pre>
299 649
300<p> 650<p>
301Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only 651Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this
302after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The 652only after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website.
303resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient. 653The resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be
304Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once 654patient. Reboot your system with the mininux boot disk (just pop it inside),
305you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have 655and once you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk
306created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy. 656we have created above and type <c>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy</c> to have parted under
307There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once 657<path>/floppy</path>. There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your
308this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing 658partition. Once this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun,
309gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive youwish to operate 659by installing Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. The drive you
310on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For example, if we 660wish to operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
311want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda </p> 661example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
662</p>
312 663
313<pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system"> 664<pre caption="Commands to run once logged into mininux system">
314# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i> 665# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
315# <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i> 666# <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
316(parted) <i> print </i> 667(parted) <i> print </i>
317Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes 668Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
318Disk label type: msdos 669Disk label type: msdos
331 onwards. 682 onwards.
332 START and END are in megabytes 683 START and END are in megabytes
333(parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i> 684(parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
334</pre> 685</pre>
335 686
687<impo>
336<impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on 688Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the harddrive LED on your case
337your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30 689to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30 minutes.
338minutes. </impo> 690</impo>
339 691
692<p>
340<p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to 693Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
341<uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6, 7, 9 through 694<uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">The Gentoo
34217. 695Handbook: Preparing the Disks</uri> and follow the instructions. When
696chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
697</p>
343 698
699<pre caption="Flushing the environment during chroot">
700# <i>env -i HOME=$HOME TERM=$TERM chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
701# <i>/usr/sbin/env-update</i>
702# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
703</pre>
344 704
705<p>
345Enjoy! 706Enjoy!
346</p> 707</p>
708
347</body> 709</body>
348</section> 710</section>
349</chapter> 711</chapter>
350</guide> 712</guide>

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