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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/altinstall.xml,v 1.75 2008/05/23 20:29:44 swift Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6
7<title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title> 7<title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8
9<author title="Contributor">
10 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail>
11</author>
12<author title="Contributor">
8<author title="Author"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author> 13 <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail>
9<author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. 14</author>
10Tanasescu</mail></author> 15<author title="Contributor">
11<author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author> 16 <mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail>
17</author>
18<author title="Contributor">
19 <mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail>
20</author>
21<author title="Contributor">
22 <mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail>
23</author>
24<author title="Contributor">
25 <mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail>
26</author>
27<author title="Contributor">
28 <mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail>
29</author>
30<author title="Contributor">
31 <mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail>
32</author>
33<author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
35</author>
36<author title="Reviewer">
37 Ken Nowack <!-- antifa@gentoo.org seems out -->
38</author>
39<author title="Editor">
40 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
41</author>
42<author title="Editor">
43 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
44</author>
45<author title="Editor">
46 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
47</author>
48
12<abstract> 49<abstract>
13This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation 50This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
14methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom 51methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
15or a computer that cant boot cds. 52or a computer that can't boot cds.
16</abstract> 53</abstract>
17 54
55<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
56<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
57<license/>
58
18<version>0.3</version> 59<version>0.73</version>
19<date>10 September 2002</date> 60<date>2008-01-09</date>
20 61
21<chapter> 62<chapter>
22<title>About this document</title> 63<title>About this document</title>
23<section> 64<section>
24<body> 65<body>
25 66
67<p>
26<p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you 68If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you (or you just
27(or you just don't like it), 69don't like it), help is now here. This document serves to provide a repository
28help is now here. This document serves to 70of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques to those who need them.
29provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques 71Or, if you prefer, it serves as a place to put your wacky installation methods.
30to those who need them.
31Or, if you prefer, it serves as
32a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
33installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an 72If you have an installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have
34amusing way of installing gentoo, please dont hesitate to write something 73devised an amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write
35up and <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">send it to me.</mail></p> 74something up and post it on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>.
36 75</p>
37 76
38</body> 77</body>
39</section> 78</section>
40</chapter> 79</chapter>
41 80
42<chapter> 81<chapter>
43<title>Netboot install</title> 82<title>Booting the Install CD with Smart BootManager</title>
83<section>
84<body>
85
86<p>
87Download Smart BootManager available from
88<uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/download.html</uri>.
89Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well
90as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to
91use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of
92NASM.
93</p>
94
95<p>
96Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are
97several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen
98below.
99</p>
100
101<pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
102sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
103
104 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
105 us = English theme de = German theme
106 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
107 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
108 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
109 pt = Portuguese theme
110
111
112 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
113 for Linux:
114 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
115 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
116 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
117 for DOS:
118 0 is the first floppy drive
119 128 is the first hard drive;
120
121 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
122
123 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
124 future uninstallation;
125
126 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
127
128 -y do not ask any question or warning.
129</pre>
130
131<pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
132# <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
133</pre>
134
135<note>
136Replace <path>fd0</path> with your respective floppy device name if yours is
137different.
138</note>
139
140<p>
141Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to
142boot the Install CD on, as well as placing the Install CD in the CD-ROM and boot
143the computer.
144</p>
145
146<p>
147You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and
148press ENTER to boot the Install CD. Once booted proceed with the standard
149installation instructions.
150</p>
151
152<p>
153Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at
154<uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri>
155</p>
156
157</body>
158</section>
159</chapter>
160
161<chapter>
162<title>Knoppix Installation</title>
163<section>
164<body>
165
166<note>
167Knoppix is only available for x86 users.
168</note>
169
170<!-- this works with knoppix 3.6+ and gentoo 2004.3, 2005.0-->
171
172<p>
173Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a
174way to have a fully functional system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer
175will help you pass the time while you wait, and you can use OpenOffice for
176work.
177</p>
178
179<warn>
180Be aware that if you save anything in Knoppix's home directory while waiting
181for your Gentoo system to install, it will not be available when you reboot
182into Gentoo. Be sure to save important files on the hard disk or on some other
183computer!
184</warn>
185
186<p>
187Boot from the Knoppix CD. If you have Knoppix 3.6-3.8.2, you will need to
188specify <c>knoppix26</c> as a boot option to load a 2.6 kernel. If you miss
189this step, when you <c>chroot</c>, you will recieve an error saying that your
190kernel is too old. If, however, you have Knoppix 3.9+, this step is
191unnecessary, since the 2.6 kernel is default.
192</p>
193
194<p>
195By default Knoppix boots into a KDE desktop. Open a <c>konsole</c> and <c>su
196-</c> so you can change your password. This lets you set the root password for
197Knoppix. You can now configure <c>sshd</c> for remote login, at your
198preference.
199</p>
200
201<pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo mountpoint">
202# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
203</pre>
204
205<p>
206At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at <uri
207link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">part 4</uri>.
208However, when you are asked to mount the proc system, issue the following
209command instead:
210</p>
211
212<pre caption="Bind-mounting the proc pseudo filesystem">
213# <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
214</pre>
215
216<p>
217Also, know that some of Portage's FEATURES will not work in knoppix. Especially
218watch out for <c>userpriv</c> and <c>usersandbox</c>. If you find yourself
219getting errors, it might be wise to disable some or all of the optional
220features.
221</p>
222
223<!--
224 Commenting out due to #78716. If it needs to be restated again, note
225 that some will require to bind-mount it, others don't, and that you have
226 a 50-50 chance of winning the gold strike.
227
228
229<p>
230You will also need to bind-mount the device tree to resolve permission issues
231with various device files.
232</p>
233
234< ! - -
235 If this doesn't seem to work, #71901 mentions the following command:
236 mount -o remount,rw,nosuid /dev/hd* /mnt/hd*
237 before all. Looks weird to me, but if this doesn't work, we might want to try
238 that.
239- - >
240
241<pre caption="Bind-mounting the device tree">
242# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
243</pre>
244-->
245
246</body>
247</section>
248</chapter>
249
250<chapter>
251<title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
44<section> 252<section>
45<title>Requirements</title> 253<title>Requirements</title>
46<body> 254<body>
47<p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
48provide a tftp server and a computer
49that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
50or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
51course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
52<uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/build/</uri></p>
53</body>
54</section>
55 255
256<p>
257You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol
258to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting
259from PXE.
260</p>
261
262</body>
56<section> 263</section>
57<title>Overview</title>
58<body>
59
60<p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
61must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
62an IP address, and any
63one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
64your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
65be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
66instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
67
68<p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
69out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
70it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
71a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
72and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
73
74<p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
75with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
76can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
77
78</body>
79</section> 264<section>
265<title>Server base setup</title>
266<body>
267
268<p>
269Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where
270your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called
271<path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For
272the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.
273</p>
274
275<pre caption="Directory setup">
276# <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
277# <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
278# <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
279</pre>
280
281<p>
282DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and
283download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it
284for your basic needs. Then, add the following on
285<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.
286</p>
287
288<note>
289This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot
290image, here <path>pxegrub</path>. You have to replace the MAC address of the
291Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client
292files with the one you use.
293</note>
294
295<p>
296For DHCPd, run <c>emerge dhcp</c> (or any other DHCP server of your choice).
297Make sure that the correct interface is selected in
298<path>/etc/conf.d/dhcpd</path>.
299</p>
300
301<pre caption="dhcpd.conf">
302option option-150 code 150 = text ;
303ddns-update-style none ;
304host eta {
305hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
306fixed-address <i>ip.add.re.ss</i>;
307option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
308filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
309}
310</pre>
311
312<p>
313Next you'll need to configure your interface in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> so
314that it doesn't get cleared at bootup. See <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>
315for more information.
316</p>
317
318<pre caption="/etc/conf.d/net">
319<comment>(Replace eth0 with the correct interface)</comment>
320config_eth0=( "noop" )
321</pre>
322
323<p>
324For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In
325<path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :
326</p>
327
328<pre caption="in.tftpd">
329INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
330INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
331INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
332</pre>
333
334<p>
335Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB with the <c>netboot</c> USE flag
336enabled. Once GRUB is compiled, copy the PXE image to the diskless client's
337boot directory. Then edit its <path>grub.lst</path> config file.
338</p>
339
340<pre caption="Grub setup">
341# <i>echo "sys-boot/grub netboot" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
342# <i>emerge -av grub</i>
343# <i>cp /usr/lib/grub/pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
344# <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
345</pre>
346
347<pre caption="grub.lst">
348default 0
349timeout 30
350
351title=Diskless Gentoo
352root (nd)
353kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<i>ip.add.re.ss</i>:/diskless/eta
354
355<comment># For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and
356the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</comment>
357</pre>
358
359<p>
360Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to
361add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file:
362</p>
363
364<pre caption="/etc/exports">
365# <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
366# /etc/exports: NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
367/diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
368</pre>
369
370<p>
371Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your
372<path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs.
373</p>
374
375<pre caption="/etc/hosts">
376127.0.0.1 localhost
377
378192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
379192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
380</pre>
381
382</body>
80<section> 383</section>
81<title>Using GRUB</title> 384<section>
385<title>Creating the system on the server</title>
386<body>
387
388<p>
389You might want to reboot the server with a Gentoo Install CD, although you can
390very well continue immediately if you know how to proceed with the Gentoo
391Installation Instructions from an existing installation. Follow the standard
392install procedure as explained in the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo
393Handbook</uri> BUT with the following differences:
394When you mount the file system, do the following (where <path>hdaX</path> is
395the partition where you created the <path>/diskless</path> directory). You do
396not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the
397<path>/diskless/eta</path> directory.
398</p>
399
400<pre caption="Mounting the filesystem">
401#<i> mount /dev/hdaX /mnt/gentoo</i>
402</pre>
403
404<p>
405Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount
406<path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue
407with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel
408configuration.
409</p>
410
411<warn>
412Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up
413extracting over your existing installation.
414</warn>
415
416<pre caption="Extracting the stage tarball">
417# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
418# <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
419# <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
420# <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
421# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
422# <i>env-update</i>
423# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
424</pre>
425
426<p>
427Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel
428configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others
429recommended into the install howto.
430</p>
431
432<pre caption="menuconfig options">
433- Your network card device support
434<comment>(In the kernel, *not* as a module!)</comment>
435
436- Under "Networking options" :
437
438[*] TCP/IP networking
439[*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
440[*] IP: DHCP support
441[*] IP: BOOTP support
442
443
444- Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
445
446&lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
447[*] Provide NFSv3 client support
448[*] Root file system on NFS
449</pre>
450
451<p>
452Save the kernel in your chrooted <path>/</path> (not in <path>/boot</path>)
453according to the pxegrub setting defined earlier. Next configure your
454diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
455</p>
456
457<pre caption="/etc/fstab">
458# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
459/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
460proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
461tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
462</pre>
463
464<p>
465You also need to prevent the client to run a filesystem check:
466</p>
467
468<pre caption="Preventing the client to run a filesystem check">
469# <i>touch /fastboot</i>
470# <i>echo "touch /fastboot" &gt;&gt; /etc/conf.d/local.start</i>
471</pre>
472
473<p>
474Install <c>nfs-utils</c> since your client will heavily depend on it:
475</p>
476
477<pre caption="Installing nfs-utils">
478# <i>emerge nfs-utils</i>
479</pre>
480
481<p>
482Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one -
483pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services
484you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.
485</p>
486
487<pre caption="Starting services">
488# <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
489# <i>/etc/init.d/in.tftpd start</i>
490# <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
491</pre>
492
82<body> 493</body>
494</section>
495<section>
496<title>Booting the new client</title>
497<body>
83 498
84<p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB 499<p>
85compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install 500For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the
86to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo 501network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For
87on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed, 502help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The
88then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from 503network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE
89<uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p> 504image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu
90 505where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok
91<p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my 506the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you
92box:</p> 507with a login prompt. Enjoy.
93
94<pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
95# <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
96# <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
97</pre> 508</p>
98
99<p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo
100tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support
101for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with
102tulip support:</p>
103
104<pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux">
105# <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i>
106# <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i>
107# <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i>
108> <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i>
109# <i>make</i>
110# <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
111# <i>cd /usr/portage/</i>
112# <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i>
113</pre>
114
115<p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
116a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
117install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
118GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
119shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
120preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
121
122<pre caption="grub-install example">
123# <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
124# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
125# <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
126# <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
127</pre>
128
129<p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
130GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
131via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
132is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
133
134<pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
135# <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
136# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
137# <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
138# <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
139# <i>grub</i>
140grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
141grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
142grub> <i>quit</i>
143# <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
144</pre>
145
146<p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
147(I suggest netkit's tftp server)
148for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
149a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
150like this:</p>
151
152<pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
153tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
154</pre>
155
156<p>To install the netkit tftp server under gentoo linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
157
158<note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
159so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
160use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
161them in this howto.</note>
162
163<p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
164put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
165things necessary for running gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
166support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the gentoo ISO.</p>
167
168<impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
169support.</impo>
170
171<pre>
172# <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
173# <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
174# <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
175# <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
176# <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
177</pre>
178
179<p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly usefull grub floppy.
180Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get
181its IP address, specify where
182to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
183
184<pre>
185grub> <i>ifconfig --address=192.168.0.10 --server=192.168.0.2</i>
186grub> <i>root (nd)</i>
187grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i>
188 <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment>
189grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
190grub> <i>boot</i>
191</pre>
192
193<note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp
194and dhcp commands.</note>
195
196<p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the
197from source cd install howto.</p>
198 509
199</body> 510</body>
200</section> 511</section>
201</chapter> 512</chapter>
202 513
203 514<chapter>
204
205
206
207<chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title> 515<title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution</title>
516<section>
208<section> <title> Requirements </title> 517<title>Requirements</title>
209<body> 518<body>
519
520<p>
210<p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to 521In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
211have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation 522have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
212tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if 523tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
213you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is 524you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
214just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the 525just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
215"host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p> 526"host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started!
527</p>
528
216</body> 529</body>
530</section>
217</section> 531<section>
218
219<section> <title> Overview </title> 532<title>Overview</title>
220<body>
221<p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the proto-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
222</body> 533<body>
534
535<p>
536We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux
537partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball to the partition that is
538mounted, chroot inside the pseudo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap
539process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to
540make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo.
541</p>
542
543</body>
544</section>
223</section> 545<section>
224
225<section> <title> How should we make space for gentoo? </title> 546<title>How should we make space for Gentoo?</title>
226<body> 547<body>
227 548
549<p>
550The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run
551of <c>mount</c> on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use
552<c>df</c> (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be
553resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You
554could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about
555that later.
228<p> 556</p>
229The root partition is the filesystem mounted under "/". A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
230
231 557
232<pre caption="Filesystem information"> 558<pre caption="Filesystem information">
233# <i>mount</i> 559# <i>mount</i>
234/dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw) 560/dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
235none on /proc type proc (rw) 561none on /proc type proc (rw)
236none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620) 562none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
237none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw) 563none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nodev,nosuid,noexec)
238# <i>df -h </i> 564# <i>df -h </i>
239Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on 565Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
240/dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% / 566/dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
241none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm 567none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
568</pre>
569
570<p>
571As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named
572<path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will
573resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes
574for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, I think
575that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing!
242</pre> 576</p>
243 577
244<p>As we can see, the partition mounted as "/" named /dev/hdb2 has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
245
246</body> </section>
247
248<section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
249<body> 578</body>
250<p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri> 579</section>
580<section>
581<title>Building parted to resize partition</title>
582<body>
583
584<p>
585Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable
586huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one
587tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called
588parted, partition editor and we can get it from
251http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/ </uri> 589<uri>http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
252</p> 590</p>
591
592<note>
253<note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author 593There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but the author is
254is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind 594unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind do
255do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note> 595the job. It's the reader's job to check them out
596</note>
256 597
257<p> 598<p>
258Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted 599Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if
259can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition 600parted can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some
260to make space for gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the 601partition to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading
261software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root 602the software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux
262partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and 603root partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux
263use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize "/". 604system and use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to
264However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky, 605resize <path>/</path>. However, if you can unmount the partition while still
265you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an 606in Linux you are lucky, you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted
266unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system. 607and run it on an unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it
608for my system.
267</p> 609</p>
268 610
611<impo>
269<impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are 612Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are supported by
270supported by parted! </impo> 613parted!
614</impo>
271 615
272<p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri> 616<p>
273http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt" </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the 617Get the mininux boot/root disk (a 2.4-powered mini Linux distribution on a
274Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in 618floppy - free of charge) from <uri>http://mininux.free.fr/uk/</uri>, create a
275the drive for the next step. </p> 619floppy as suggested in the Documentation that accompanies the software package
620and insert a new floppy in the drive for the next step.
621</p>
276 622
623<note>
277<note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your 624Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
278objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You 625objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
279might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even 626might use some boot/root diskset other than mininux. You might not even
280need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to 627need to do this step at all, ie. you might only have umount the filesystem you
281repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note> 628want to repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it.
629</note>
282 630
283<pre caption="Utility disk creation"> 631<pre caption="Utility disk creation">
284# <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i> 632# <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
285480 inodes 633480 inodes
2861440 blocks 6341440 blocks
287Firstdatazone=19 (19) 635Firstdatazone=19 (19)
288Zonesize=1024 636Zonesize=1024
289Maxsize=268966912 637Maxsize=268966912
290</pre> 638</pre>
291 639
292We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk. 640<p>
641We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded
642and untarred, do so now and <c>cd</c> into the corresponding directory. Now run
643the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy
644disk.
645</p>
293 646
294<pre caption="Building the utility floppy"> 647<pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
295# <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp; 648# <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
296export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure 649export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
297&amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i> 650&amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
298</pre> 651</pre>
299 652
300<p> 653<p>
301Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only 654Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this
302after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The 655only after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website.
303resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient. 656The resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be
304Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once 657patient. Reboot your system with the mininux boot disk (just pop it inside),
305you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have 658and once you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk
306created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy. 659we have created above and type <c>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy</c> to have parted
307There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once 660under <path>/floppy</path>. There you go. Run parted and you will be able to
308this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing 661resize your partition. Once this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the
309gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive youwish to operate 662real fun, by installing Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now.
310on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For example, if we 663The drive you wish to operate on is the drive containing the partition we want
311want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda </p> 664to resize. For example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda.
665</p>
312 666
313<pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system"> 667<pre caption="Commands to run once logged into mininux system">
314# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i> 668# <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
315# <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i> 669# <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
316(parted) <i> print </i> 670(parted) <i> print </i>
317Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes 671Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
318Disk label type: msdos 672Disk label type: msdos
319Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags 673Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
3201 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs 6741 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
3213 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap 6753 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
3222 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3 6762 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
3234 5633.086 9787.148 extended 6774 5633.086 9787.148 extended
3245 5633.117 6633.210 logical 6785 5633.117 6633.210 logical
3256 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3 6796 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
326(parted) <i> help resize </i> 680(parted) <i> help resize </i>
327 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR 681 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
328 682
329 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the 683 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
330 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5 684 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
331 onwards. 685 onwards.
332 START and END are in megabytes 686 START and END are in megabytes
333(parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i> 687(parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
334</pre> 688</pre>
335 689
690<impo>
336<impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on 691Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the harddrive LED on your case
337your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30 692to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30 minutes.
338minutes. </impo> 693</impo>
339 694
695<p>
340<p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to 696Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
341<uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6, 7, 9 through 697<uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">The Gentoo
34217. 698Handbook: Preparing the Disks</uri> and follow the instructions. When
699chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
700</p>
343 701
702<pre caption="Flushing the environment during chroot">
703# <i>env -i HOME=$HOME TERM=$TERM chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
704# <i>/usr/sbin/env-update</i>
705# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
706</pre>
344 707
708<p>
345Enjoy! 709Enjoy!
346</p> 710</p>
711
347</body> 712</body>
348</section> 713</section>
349</chapter> 714</chapter>
350</guide> 715</guide>

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