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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
7 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail></author>
8 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail></author>
10 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail></author>
11 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail></author>
12 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail></author>
13 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail></author>
14 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
15 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
16 <author title="Reviewer"><mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
17 <abstract>
18 This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
19 methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
20 or a computer that can't boot cds.
21 </abstract>
23 <version>0.33</version>
24 <date>September 12, 2003</date>
26 <license/>
28 <chapter>
29 <title>About this document</title>
30 <section>
31 <body>
33 <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
34 (or you just don't like it),
35 help is now here. This document serves to
36 provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
37 to those who need them.
38 Or, if you prefer, it serves as
39 a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
40 installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
41 amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write something
42 up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail></p>
45 </body>
46 </section>
47 </chapter>
49 <chapter>
50 <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
51 <section>
53 <body>
54 <p>Download Smart BootManager <uri link="http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html">http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html</uri>. Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of NASM.</p>
56 <p>Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen below.</p>
58 <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
59 <i>sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
61 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
62 us = English theme de = German theme
63 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
64 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
65 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
66 pt = Portuguese theme
69 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
70 for Linux:
71 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
72 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
73 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
74 for DOS:
75 0 is the first floppy drive
76 128 is the first hard drive;
78 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
80 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
81 future uninstallation;
83 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
85 -y do not ask any question or warning.</i>
86 </pre>
88 <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
89 # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
90 </pre>
91 <note> Replace fd0 with your repective floppy device name if yours is different. </note>
92 <p>Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the computer.</p>
94 <p>You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard installation instructions.</p>
96 <p>Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri></p>
97 </body>
98 </section>
99 </chapter>
102 <chapter>
103 <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
104 <section>
106 <body>
107 <p>Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.</p>
109 <p>Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options. </p>
111 <p>By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root password for Knoppix.</p>
113 <p> Next, I su to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.</p>
115 <p>I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the change that was made with the usermod command. At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at step 6. However, when you're asked to mount the proc system, issue the following commands instead: </p>
117 <pre caption = "Bind-mounting two important filesystems">
118 # <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
119 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
120 </pre>
122 </body>
123 </section>
124 </chapter>
126 <chapter>
127 <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
128 <section>
129 <body>
132 <p>Burn a LiveCD iso.</p>
134 <p>Get the latest portage snapshot from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri> (or your favorite <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to, or burn it to a CD.</p>
136 <p>You'll also need a package list for the stage packages. Place the following dl-list.sh script on the same medium as the portage snapshot, you'll need it later.</p>
138 <pre caption="dl-list.sh">
139 #!/bin/bash
141 # set your defaults here:
142 user_defs() {
144 # portage directory (without a trailing "/"):
145 portage_dir="/usr/portage"
147 # default download mirror (without a trailing "/"):
148 gentoo_mirror="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo"
150 # default sourceforge mirror (unc, telia, belnet):
151 sourceforge_mirror="unc"
153 # fix gnu mirror entries
154 gnu_url="ftp:\/\/ftp.gnu.org\/pub\/gnu"
156 }
159 #------------------------------------------------------------
161 # function to remove temporary files
162 cleanup() {
164 rm -f $temp_file_1 $temp_file_2
165 exit $1
167 }
169 # set user defaults
170 user_defs
172 # set the complete url for the sourceforge mirror
173 # (the \'s are needed because this goes in a sed command)
174 sourceforge_mirror_complete="http:\/\/$sourceforge_mirror.dl.sourceforge.net\/sourceforge"
176 # initialize counters
177 num_files=0
178 num_alt_urls=0
179 total_size=0
181 # initialize lists (arrays)
182 declare -a def_urls_arr
183 declare -a alt_urls_arr
185 # create 2 temporary files
186 temp_file_1=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
187 temp_file_2=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
189 # run "emerge -p &lt;args&gt;" (too easy to forget the "-p" in the command line...)
190 emerge -p $@ &gt; $temp_file_1 || cleanup 1
192 # remove the lines that do not contain the word "ebuild"
193 sed -n -e '/ebuild/p' $temp_file_1 &gt; $temp_file_2
195 # count how many lines were left
196 num_ebuilds=`wc -l $temp_file_2 | sed -e 's/\(.*\) \(.*\)/\1/'`
198 # extract the useful information from those lines: category, package and version
199 #sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\) \(.*\) \(.*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
200 sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
202 # display starting message :)
203 echo -n "Generating list " &gt;&amp;2
205 # process each package in turn
206 while read category package version rest
207 do
209 # form the name of the digest file
211 digest_file="$portage_dir/$category/$package/files/digest-$package-$version"
213 # process the contents of the digest file
214 while read md5_flag md5_sum file_name file_size
215 do
217 # form the default url to download the file
218 def_urls_arr[$num_files]="$gentoo_mirror/distfiles/$file_name"
220 # increment the file counter
221 num_files=$(($num_files + 1))
223 # update the size accumulator (in kilobytes)
224 total_size=$(($total_size + $file_size / 1024))
226 done &lt; $digest_file
228 # form the "ebuild depend" command line
229 ebuild_depend_cmd="ebuild $portage_dir/$category/$package/$package-${version}.ebuild depend"
231 # execute the "ebuild depend" command
232 $ebuild_depend_cmd || cleanup 1
234 # form the name of the dependency file
235 dependency_file="/var/cache/edb/dep/$category/$package-$version"
237 # read in the 4th line from the dependency file,
238 # which contains the official download urls
239 alt_urls=`head -n 4 $dependency_file | tail -n 1`
241 # ignore empty url list
242 if [ -n "$alt_urls" ]
243 then
245 # split the urls list into $1..$N
246 set $alt_urls
248 # process each url in turn
249 for i in $@
250 do
252 # remove the (use)? strings from the url list
253 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$i" | sed -e '/\?$/d'`
255 # remove the "mirror://gnome" urls
256 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gnome/d'`
258 # remove the "mirror://kde" urls
259 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/kde/d'`
261 # remove the "mirror://gentoo" urls (already included)
262 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gentoo/d'`
264 # translate the "mirror://sourceforge" urls into valid urls
265 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/sourceforge/$sourceforge_mirror_complete/"`
267 # translate the "mirror://gnu" urls into valid urls
268 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/gnu/$gnu_url/"`
269 # ignore empty urls
270 if [ -n "$alt_url_tmp" ]
271 then
273 # add the url to the list
274 alt_urls_arr[$num_alt_urls]=$alt_url_tmp
276 # increment the alternate url counter
277 num_alt_urls=$(($num_alt_urls + 1))
279 fi
281 done
283 fi
285 # a progress bar :)
286 echo -n "." &gt;&amp;2
288 done &lt; $temp_file_1
290 # display ending message :)
291 echo " done." &gt;&amp;2
293 # display default urls list
294 for i in ${def_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
296 # display alternate urls list
297 for i in ${alt_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
299 # display totals
300 echo "Totals:" $num_ebuilds "ebuilds," $num_files "files," $num_files "default urls," \n
301 $num_alt_urls "alternate urls," "${total_size}Kb." &lt;&amp;2
303 # remove temporary files and exit
304 cleanup 0
305 </pre>
307 <p>Follow all instructions of Gentoo Install Doc up to <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo</c> in Step 8. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the <c>cdcache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount your portage snapshot CD.</p>
309 <p>Run <c>passwd</c> and set a new password for root. Open a new virtual console (Alt-F2) and login as root with your new password.</p>
311 <p>On the new console (F2) continue with the Install Doc up to running the bootstrap.sh script.</p>
313 <p>Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on <path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the portage tarball from cdrom2 and unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</path>. Further, grab the dl-list.sh script and place it in <path>/usr/sbin</path> and make it executable.</p>
315 <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
316 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
317 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
318 # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
319 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
320 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/dl-list.sh /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin</i>
321 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
322 # <i>tar xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
323 # <i>chmod +x /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin/dl-list.sh</i>
324 </pre>
326 <p>Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console). </p>
328 <p>You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib, binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies. </p>
330 <note>Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.</note>
332 <p>Now use the dl-list.sh script to generate the package list that you need. Then copy the subsequent list to a floppy.</p>
334 <pre caption="Using dl-list.sh">
335 # <i>dl-list.sh glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses > stage1.list</i>
336 # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
337 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
338 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
339 </pre>
341 <p>Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access and feed this list to wget:</p>
343 <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
344 # <i>wget -N -i stage1.list</i>
345 </pre>
348 <p>Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2 and 3.</p>
352 </body>
353 </section>
354 </chapter>
356 <chapter>
357 <title>Netboot install</title>
358 <section>
359 <title>Requirements</title>
360 <body>
361 <p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
362 provide a tftp server and a computer
363 that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
364 or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
365 course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
366 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/</uri></p>
367 <note>Due to changes in the LiveCD, this procedure will only work for the 1.2 LiveCD. </note>
368 </body>
369 </section>
371 <section>
372 <title>Overview</title>
373 <body>
375 <p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
376 must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
377 an IP address, and any
378 one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
379 your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
380 be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
381 instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
383 <p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
384 out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
385 it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
386 a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
387 and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
389 <p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
390 with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
391 can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
393 </body>
394 </section>
395 <section>
396 <title>Using GRUB</title>
397 <body>
399 <p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB
400 compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install
401 to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo
402 on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed,
403 then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from
404 <uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p>
406 <p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my
407 box:</p>
409 <pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
410 # <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
411 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
412 </pre>
414 <p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo
415 tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support
416 for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with
417 tulip support:</p>
419 <pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux">
420 # <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i>
421 # <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i>
422 # <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i>
423 > <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i>
424 # <i>make</i>
425 # <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
426 # <i>cd /usr/portage/</i>
427 # <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i>
428 </pre>
430 <p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
431 a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
432 install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
433 GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
434 shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
435 preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
437 <pre caption="grub-install example">
438 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
439 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
440 # <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
441 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
442 </pre>
444 <p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
445 GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
446 via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
447 is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
449 <pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
450 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
451 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
452 # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
453 # <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
454 # <i>grub</i>
455 grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
456 grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
457 grub> <i>quit</i>
458 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
459 </pre>
461 <p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
462 (I suggest netkit's tftp server)
463 for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
464 a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
465 like this:</p>
467 <pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
468 tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
469 </pre>
471 <p>To install the netkit tftp server under Gentoo Linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
473 <note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
474 so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
475 use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
476 them in this howto.</note>
478 <p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
479 put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
480 things necessary for running Gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
481 support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the Gentoo ISO.</p>
483 <impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
484 support.</impo>
486 <pre>
487 # <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
488 # <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
489 # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
490 # <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
491 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
492 </pre>
494 <p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly useful grub floppy.
495 Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get
496 its IP address, specify where
497 to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
499 <pre>
500 grub> <i>ifconfig --address=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c> --server=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c></i>
501 grub> <i>root (nd)</i>
502 grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i>
503 <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment>
504 grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
505 grub> <i>boot</i>
506 </pre>
508 <note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp
509 and dhcp commands.</note>
511 <p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the
512 from source cd install howto.</p>
514 </body>
515 </section>
516 </chapter>
518 <chapter><title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
520 <section><title>Requirements</title>
521 <body>
522 <p>You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting from PXE.</p>
523 </body></section>
525 <section><title>Server base setup</title>
526 <body>
527 <p>Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called <path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.</p>
529 <pre caption="directory setup">
530 # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
531 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
532 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
533 </pre>
535 <p>DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it for your basic needs. Then, add the following on <path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.</p>
537 <note>This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the one you use.</note>
539 <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
540 option option-150 code 150 = text ;
541 host eta {
542 hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
543 fixed-address <c>ip.add.re.ss</c>;
544 option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
545 filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
546 }
547 </pre>
549 <p>For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In <path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :</p>
551 <pre caption="in.tftpd">
552 INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
553 INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
554 INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
555 </pre>
557 <p>Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First, get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to <path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit it's grub.lst config file.</p>
559 <pre caption="grub setup">
560 # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
561 # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
562 # <i>./configure --help</i>
563 <codenote>In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers. </codenote>
564 <codenote>Select the driver compatible with your card. Herein referenced a $nic</codenote>
565 # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
566 # <i>make</i>
567 # <i>cd stage2</i>
568 # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
569 # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
570 </pre>
572 <pre caption="grub.lst">
573 default 0
574 timeout 30
576 title=Diskless Gentoo
577 root (nd)
578 kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c>:/diskless/eta
580 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
581 <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
582 </pre>
584 <p>Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :</p>
586 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
587 # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
588 NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
589 /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
590 </pre>
592 <p>Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs. </p>
594 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
595 localhost
597 eta.example.com eta
598 sigma.example.com sigma
599 </pre>
600 </body>
601 </section>
603 <section><title>Creating the system on the server</title>
605 <body>
607 <p>Reboot the server on a Gentoo LiveCD. Follow the standard install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the following differences. When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path> directory.</p>
609 <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
610 #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
611 </pre>
613 <p>Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount <path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel configuration.</p>
615 <warn>Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up extracting over your existing installation.</warn>
617 <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
618 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
619 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
620 # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
621 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
622 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
623 # <i>env-update</i>
624 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
625 </pre>
627 <p>Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others recommended into the install howto.</p>
629 <pre caption="menuconfig options">
630 - Your network card device support
632 - Under "Networking options" :
634 [*] TCP/IP networking
635 [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
636 [*] IP: DHCP support
637 [*] IP: BOOTP support
640 - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
642 &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
643 [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
644 [*] Root file system on NFS
645 </pre>
647 <p>Next configure your diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.</p>
649 <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
650 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
651 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
652 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
653 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
654 </pre>
656 <p>Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one - pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.</p>
658 <pre caption="Starting services">
659 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
660 # <i>/etc/init.d/tftpd start</i>
661 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
662 </pre>
664 </body></section>
666 <section><title>Booting the new client</title>
667 <body>
668 <p>For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you with a login prompt. Enjoy.</p>
669 </body></section>
671 </chapter>
675 <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
676 <section> <title> Requirements </title>
677 <body>
678 <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
679 have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
680 tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
681 you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
682 just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
683 "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
684 </body>
685 </section>
687 <section> <title> Overview </title>
688 <body>
689 <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the psuedo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
690 </body>
691 </section>
693 <section> <title> How should we make space for Gentoo? </title>
694 <body>
696 <p>
697 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
700 <pre caption="Filesystem information">
701 # <i>mount</i>
702 /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
703 none on /proc type proc (rw)
704 none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
705 none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
706 # <i>df -h </i>
707 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
708 /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
709 none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
710 </pre>
712 <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named <path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
714 </body> </section>
716 <section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
717 <body>
718 <p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>
719 http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
720 </p>
721 <note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
722 is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
723 do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note>
725 <p>
726 Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
727 can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
728 to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
729 software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
730 partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
731 use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize <path>/</path>.
732 However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
733 you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
734 unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
735 </p>
737 <impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
738 supported by parted! </impo>
740 <p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>
741 http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the
742 Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in
743 the drive for the next step. </p>
745 <note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
746 objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
747 might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
748 need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
749 repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note>
751 <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
752 # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
753 480 inodes
754 1440 blocks
755 Firstdatazone=19 (19)
756 Zonesize=1024
757 Maxsize=268966912
758 </pre>
760 We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
762 <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
763 # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
764 export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
765 &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
766 </pre>
768 <p>
769 Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
770 after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
771 resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
772 Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
773 you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
774 created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
775 There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
776 this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
777 Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
778 operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
779 example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
780 </p>
782 <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
783 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
784 # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
785 (parted) <i> print </i>
786 Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
787 Disk label type: msdos
788 Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
789 1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
790 3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
791 2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
792 4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
793 5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
794 6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
795 (parted) <i> help resize </i>
796 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
798 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
799 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
800 onwards.
801 START and END are in megabytes
802 (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
803 </pre>
805 <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
806 your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
807 minutes. </impo>
809 <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
810 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6 through 17. Don't forget to create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> directory before proceeding with step 7. In step 8 you have to download the requested stage-tarball as we're not working from a LiveCD. When chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
811 </p>
813 <pre caption = "Flushing the environment during chroot">
814 # <i>env -i chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
815 </pre>
817 <p>
818 Enjoy!
819 </p>
820 </body>
821 </section>
822 </chapter>
823 </guide>

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