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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/altinstall.xml,v 1.25 2004/04/11 13:05:50 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
7 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail></author>
9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
10 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail></author>
11 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail></author>
12 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail></author>
13 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail></author>
14 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail></author>
15 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
17 <author title="Reviewer"><mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
18 <author title="Editor"><mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail></author>
19 <abstract>
20 This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
21 methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
22 or a computer that can't boot cds.
23 </abstract>
25 <license/>
27 <version>0.38</version>
28 <date>April 21, 2004</date>
30 <chapter>
31 <title>About this document</title>
32 <section>
33 <body>
35 <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
36 (or you just don't like it),
37 help is now here. This document serves to
38 provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
39 to those who need them.
40 Or, if you prefer, it serves as
41 a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
42 installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
43 amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write something
44 up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail></p>
47 </body>
48 </section>
49 </chapter>
51 <chapter>
52 <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
53 <section>
55 <body>
56 <p>Download Smart BootManager <uri link="http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html">http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html</uri>. Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of NASM.</p>
58 <p>Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen below.</p>
60 <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
61 <i>sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
63 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
64 us = English theme de = German theme
65 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
66 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
67 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
68 pt = Portuguese theme
71 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
72 for Linux:
73 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
74 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
75 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
76 for DOS:
77 0 is the first floppy drive
78 128 is the first hard drive;
80 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
82 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
83 future uninstallation;
85 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
87 -y do not ask any question or warning.</i>
88 </pre>
90 <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
91 # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
92 </pre>
93 <note> Replace fd0 with your repective floppy device name if yours is different. </note>
94 <p>Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the computer.</p>
96 <p>You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard installation instructions.</p>
98 <p>Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri></p>
99 </body>
100 </section>
101 </chapter>
104 <chapter>
105 <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
106 <section>
108 <body>
109 <p>Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.</p>
111 <p>Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options. </p>
113 <p>By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root password for Knoppix.</p>
115 <p> Next, I su to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.</p>
117 <p>I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the change that was made with the usermod command. Now create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> mountpoint using <c>mkdir</c>:</p>
119 <pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo mountpoint">
120 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
121 </pre>
123 <p>At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at
124 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">part 4</uri>. However, when you're asked to mount the proc system, issue the following command instead: </p>
126 <pre caption = "Bind-mounting the proc pseudo filesystem">
127 # <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
128 </pre>
130 </body>
131 </section>
132 </chapter>
134 <chapter>
135 <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
136 <section>
137 <body>
140 <p>Burn a LiveCD iso.</p>
142 <p>Get the latest portage snapshot from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri> (or your favorite <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to, or burn it to a CD.</p>
144 <p>Follow all instructions of Gentoo Install Doc up to <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo</c> in Step 8. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the <c>cdcache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount your portage snapshot CD.</p>
146 <p>Open a new console (Alt-F2), we will continue with the Install Doc up to running the bootstrap.sh script.</p>
148 <warn>Older realeases of the livecd required you to change the password using the <c>passwd</c> command, before logging in manually.</warn>
151 <p>Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on <path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the portage tarball from cdrom2 and unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</path>.</p>
153 <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
154 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
155 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
156 # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
157 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
158 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
159 # <i>tar xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
160 </pre>
162 <p>Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console). </p>
164 <p>You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib, binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies. </p>
166 <note>Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.</note>
168 <pre caption="Using dl-list.sh">
169 <comment>(Don't forget the 2 in front of the &gt;)</comment>
170 # <i>emerge -fp glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses 2&gt; stage1.list</i>
171 # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
172 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
173 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
174 </pre>
176 <p>
177 Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access. If you take a look at the
178 <path>stage1.list</path> file, you'll see that it provides you with several URLs
179 to download. Sadly, it lists several possible URLs for each package as well,
180 which isn't what you want. Strip all but one of the URLs first:
181 </p>
183 <pre caption="Stripping URLs">
184 <comment>(This script is depending on the output format given by emerge which
185 might change in the future without further notice - use with caution!)</comment>
186 # <i>cut -f 1 -d ' ' stage1.list > stage1.download</i>
187 </pre>
189 <p>
190 Now use <c>wget</c> to fetch all the listed sources:
191 </p>
193 <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
194 # <i>wget -N -i stage1.list</i>
195 </pre>
198 <p>Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2 and 3.</p>
202 </body>
203 </section>
204 </chapter>
206 <chapter><title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
208 <section><title>Requirements</title>
209 <body>
210 <p>You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting from PXE.</p>
211 </body></section>
213 <section><title>Server base setup</title>
214 <body>
215 <p>Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called <path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.</p>
217 <pre caption="directory setup">
218 # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
219 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
220 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
221 </pre>
223 <p>DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it for your basic needs. Then, add the following on <path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.</p>
225 <note>This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the one you use.</note>
227 <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
228 option option-150 code 150 = text ;
229 host eta {
230 hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
231 fixed-address <i>ip.add.re.ss</i>;
232 option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
233 filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
234 }
235 </pre>
237 <p>For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In <path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :</p>
239 <pre caption="in.tftpd">
240 INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
241 INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
242 INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
243 </pre>
245 <p>Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First, get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to <path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit it's grub.lst config file.</p>
247 <pre caption="grub setup">
248 # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
249 # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
250 # <i>./configure --help</i>
251 <codenote>In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers. </codenote>
252 <codenote>Select the driver compatible with your card. Herein referenced a $nic</codenote>
253 # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
254 # <i>make</i>
255 # <i>cd stage2</i>
256 # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
257 # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
258 </pre>
260 <pre caption="grub.lst">
261 default 0
262 timeout 30
264 title=Diskless Gentoo
265 root (nd)
266 kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<i>ip.add.re.ss</i>:/diskless/eta
268 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
269 <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
270 </pre>
272 <p>Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :</p>
274 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
275 # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
276 NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
277 /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
278 </pre>
280 <p>Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs. </p>
282 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
283 localhost
285 eta.example.com eta
286 sigma.example.com sigma
287 </pre>
288 </body>
289 </section>
291 <section><title>Creating the system on the server</title>
293 <body>
295 <p>Reboot the server on a Gentoo LiveCD. Follow the standard install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the following differences. When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path> directory.</p>
297 <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
298 #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
299 </pre>
301 <p>Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount <path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel configuration.</p>
303 <warn>Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up extracting over your existing installation.</warn>
305 <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
306 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
307 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
308 # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
309 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
310 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
311 # <i>env-update</i>
312 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
313 </pre>
315 <p>Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others recommended into the install howto.</p>
317 <pre caption="menuconfig options">
318 - Your network card device support
320 - Under "Networking options" :
322 [*] TCP/IP networking
323 [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
324 [*] IP: DHCP support
325 [*] IP: BOOTP support
328 - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
330 &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
331 [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
332 [*] Root file system on NFS
333 </pre>
335 <p>Next configure your diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.</p>
337 <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
338 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
339 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
340 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
341 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
342 </pre>
344 <p>Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one - pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.</p>
346 <pre caption="Starting services">
347 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
348 # <i>/etc/init.d/tftpd start</i>
349 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
350 </pre>
352 </body></section>
354 <section><title>Booting the new client</title>
355 <body>
356 <p>For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you with a login prompt. Enjoy.</p>
357 </body></section>
359 </chapter>
363 <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
364 <section> <title> Requirements </title>
365 <body>
366 <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
367 have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
368 tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
369 you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
370 just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
371 "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
372 </body>
373 </section>
375 <section> <title> Overview </title>
376 <body>
377 <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the psuedo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
378 </body>
379 </section>
381 <section> <title> How should we make space for Gentoo? </title>
382 <body>
384 <p>
385 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
388 <pre caption="Filesystem information">
389 # <i>mount</i>
390 /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
391 none on /proc type proc (rw)
392 none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
393 none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
394 # <i>df -h </i>
395 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
396 /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
397 none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
398 </pre>
400 <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named <path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
402 </body>
403 </section>
405 <section>
406 <title>Building parted to resize partition</title>
407 <body>
409 <p>
410 Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
411 </p>
413 <note>
414 There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
415 is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
416 do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out
417 </note>
419 <p>
420 Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
421 can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
422 to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
423 software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
424 partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
425 use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize <path>/</path>.
426 However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
427 you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
428 unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
429 </p>
431 <impo>
432 Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
433 supported by parted!
434 </impo>
436 <p>
437 Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in the drive for the next step.
438 </p>
440 <note>
441 Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
442 objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
443 might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
444 need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
445 repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it.
446 </note>
448 <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
449 # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
450 480 inodes
451 1440 blocks
452 Firstdatazone=19 (19)
453 Zonesize=1024
454 Maxsize=268966912
455 </pre>
457 <p>
458 We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
459 </p>
461 <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
462 # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
463 export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
464 &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
465 </pre>
467 <p>
468 Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
469 after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
470 resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
471 Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
472 you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
473 created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
474 There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
475 this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
476 Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
477 operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
478 example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
479 </p>
481 <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
482 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
483 # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
484 (parted) <i> print </i>
485 Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
486 Disk label type: msdos
487 Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
488 1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
489 3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
490 2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
491 4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
492 5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
493 6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
494 (parted) <i> help resize </i>
495 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
497 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
498 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
499 onwards.
500 START and END are in megabytes
501 (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
502 </pre>
504 <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
505 your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
506 minutes. </impo>
508 <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
509 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=5">The Gentoo Handbook: Installing the Gentoo Installation Files</uri> and follow the instructions. When chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
510 </p>
512 <pre caption = "Flushing the environment during chroot">
513 # <i>env -i chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
514 </pre>
516 <p>
517 Enjoy!
518 </p>
519 </body>
520 </section>
521 </chapter>
522 </guide>

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