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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml,v 1.6 2005/08/30 02:51:12 vapier Exp $ -->
5 <guide link="/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Bug Reporting Guide</title>
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
13 </author>
15 <abstract>
16 This document shows the proper method of reporting bugs using Bugzilla.
17 </abstract>
19 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
20 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
21 <license/>
23 <version>1.6</version>
24 <date>2006-09-01</date>
26 <chapter>
27 <title>Introduction</title>
28 <section>
29 <title>Preface</title>
30 <body>
32 <p>
33 One of the factors that delay a bug being fixed is the way it is reported. By
34 creating this guide, we hope to help improve the communication between
35 developers and users in bug resolution. Getting bugs fixed is an important, if
36 not crucial part of the quality assurance for any project and hopefully this
37 guide will help make that a success.
38 </p>
40 </body>
41 </section>
42 <section>
43 <title>Bugs!!!!</title>
44 <body>
46 <p>
47 You're emerge-ing a package or working with a program and suddenly the worst
48 happens -- you find a bug. Bugs come in many forms like emerge failures or
49 segmentation faults. Whatever the cause, the fact still remains that such a bug
50 must be fixed. Here is a few examples of such bugs.
51 </p>
53 <pre caption="A run time error">
54 $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
55 Segmentation fault
56 </pre>
58 <pre caption="An emerge failure">
59 /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
60 warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
61 header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section of
62 the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
63 header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
64 &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
65 In file included from main.cc:40:
66 menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
67 OXPopupMenu*'
68 menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
69 OXPopupMenu*'
70 menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
71 OXPopupMenu*'
72 menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
73 OXPopupMenu*'
74 main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
75 main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
76 main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
77 main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
78 make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
79 make[1]: Leaving directory
80 `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
81 make: *** [shared] Error 2
83 !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
84 !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
85 !!! 'emake shared' failed
86 </pre>
88 <p>
89 These errors can be quite troublesome. However, once you find them, what do you
90 do? The following sections will look at two important tools for handling run
91 time errors. After that, we'll take a look at compile errors, and how to handle
92 them. Let's start out with the first tool for debugging run time errors --
93 <c>gdb</c>.
94 </p>
96 </body>
97 </section>
98 </chapter>
101 <chapter>
102 <title>Debugging using GDB</title>
103 <section>
104 <title>Introduction</title>
105 <body>
107 <p>
108 GDB, or the (G)NU (D)e(B)ugger, is a program used to find run time errors that
109 normally involve memory corruption. First off, let's take a look at what
110 debugging entails. One of the main things you must do in order to debug a
111 program is to <c>emerge</c> the program with <c>FEATURES="nostrip"</c>. This
112 prevents the stripping of debug symbols. Why are programs stripped by default?
113 The reason is the same as that for having gzipped man pages -- saving space.
114 Here's how the size of a program varies with and without debug symbol stripping.
115 </p>
117 <pre caption="Filesize Comparison">
118 <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
119 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
120 <comment>(debug symbols intact)</comment>
121 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
122 </pre>
124 <p>
125 Just for reference, <e>bad_code</e> is the program we'll be debugging with
126 <c>gdb</c> later on. As you can see, the program without debugging symbols is
127 3140 bytes, while the program with them is 6374 bytes. That's close to double
128 the size! Two more things can be done for debugging. The first is adding ggdb3
129 to your CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS. This flag adds more debugging information than is
130 generally included. We'll see what that means later on. This is how
131 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> <e>might</e> look with the newly added flags.
132 </p>
134 <pre caption="make.conf settings">
135 CFLAGS="-O1 -pipe -g -ggdb"
137 </pre>
139 <p>
140 Lastly, you can also add debug to the package's USE flags. This can be done
141 with the <path>package.use</path> file.
142 </p>
144 <pre caption="Using package.use to add debug USE flag">
145 # <i>echo "category/package debug" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
146 </pre>
148 <note>
149 The directory <path>/etc/portage</path> does not exist by default and you may
150 have to create it, if you have not already done so. If the package already has
151 USE flags set in <path>package.use</path>, you will need to manually modify them
152 in your favorite editor.
153 </note>
155 <p>
156 Then we re-emerge the package with the modifications we've done so far as shown
157 below.
158 </p>
160 <pre caption="Re-emergeing a package with debugging">
161 # <i>FEATURES="nostrip" emerge package</i>
162 </pre>
164 <p>
165 Now that debug symbols are setup, we can continue with debugging the program.
166 </p>
168 </body>
169 </section>
170 <section>
171 <title>Running the program with GDB</title>
172 <body>
174 <p>
175 Let's say we have a program here called "bad_code". Some person claims that the
176 program crashes and provides an example. You go ahead and test it out:
177 </p>
179 <pre caption="Breaking The Program">
180 $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
181 Segmentation fault
182 </pre>
184 <p>
185 It seems this person was right. Since the program is obviously broken, we have
186 a bug at hand. Now, it's time to use <c>gdb</c> to help solve this matter. First
187 we run <c>gdb</c> with <c>--args</c>, then give it the full program with
188 arguments like shown:
189 </p>
191 <pre caption="Running Our Program Through GDB">
192 $ <i>gdb --args ./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
193 GNU gdb 6.3
194 Copyright 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
195 GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
196 welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
197 Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
198 There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
199 This GDB was configured as "i686-pc-linux-gnu"...Using host libthread_db library "/lib/libthread_db.so.1".
200 </pre>
202 <note>
203 One can also debug with core dumps. These core files contain the same
204 information that the program would produce when run with gdb. In order to debug
205 with a core file with bad_code, you would run <c>gdb ./bad_code core</c> where
206 core is the name of the core file.
207 </note>
209 <p>
210 You should see a prompt that says "(gdb)" and waits for input. First, we have to
211 run the program. We type in <c>run</c> at the command and receive a notice like:
212 </p>
214 <pre caption="Running the program in GDB">
215 (gdb) <i>run</i>
216 Starting program: /home/chris/bad_code
218 Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
219 0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
220 </pre>
222 <p>
223 Here we see the program starting, as well as a notification of SIGSEGV, or
224 Segmentation Fault. This is GDB telling us that our program has crashed. It
225 also gives the last run function it could trace when the program crashes.
226 However, this isn't too useful, as there could be multiple strcpy's in the
227 program, making it hard for developers to find which one is causing the issue.
228 In order to help them out, we do what's called a backtrace. A backtrace runs
229 backwards through all the functions that occurred upon program execution, to the
230 function at fault. Functions that return (without causing a crash) will not show
231 up on the backtrace. To get a backtrace, at the (gdb) prompt, type in <c>bt</c>.
232 You will get something like this:
233 </p>
235 <pre caption="Program backtrace">
236 (gdb) <i>bt</i>
237 #0 0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
238 #1 0x0804838c in run_it ()
239 #2 0x080483ba in main ()
240 </pre>
242 <p>
243 You can notice the trace pattern clearly. main() is called first, followed by
244 run_it(), and somewhere in run_it() lies the strcpy() at fault. Things such as
245 this help developers narrow down problems. There are a few exceptions to the
246 output. First off is forgetting to enable debug symbols with
247 <c>FEATURES="nostrip"</c>. With debug symbols stripped, the output looks something
248 like this:
249 </p>
251 <pre caption="Program backtrace With debug symbols stripped">
252 (gdb) <i>bt</i>
253 #0 0xb7e2cdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
254 #1 0x0804838c in ?? ()
255 #2 0xbfd19510 in ?? ()
256 #3 0x00000000 in ?? ()
257 #4 0x00000000 in ?? ()
258 #5 0xb7eef148 in libgcc_s_personality () from /lib/libc.so.6
259 #6 0x080482ed in ?? ()
260 #7 0x080495b0 in ?? ()
261 #8 0xbfd19528 in ?? ()
262 #9 0xb7dd73b8 in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
263 #10 0xb7dd742d in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
264 #11 0x00000006 in ?? ()
265 #12 0xbfd19548 in ?? ()
266 #13 0x080483ba in ?? ()
267 #14 0x00000000 in ?? ()
268 #15 0x00000000 in ?? ()
269 #16 0xb7deebcc in __new_exitfn () from /lib/libc.so.6
270 #17 0x00000000 in ?? ()
271 #18 0xbfd19560 in ?? ()
272 #19 0xb7ef017c in nullserv () from /lib/libc.so.6
273 #20 0xb7dd6f37 in __libc_start_main () from /lib/libc.so.6
274 #21 0x00000001 in ?? ()
275 #22 0xbfd195d4 in ?? ()
276 #23 0xbfd195dc in ?? ()
277 #24 0x08048201 in ?? ()
278 </pre>
280 <p>
281 This backtrace contains a large number of ?? marks. This is because without
282 debug symbols, <c>gdb</c> doesn't know how the program was run. Hence, it is
283 crucial that debug symbols are <e>not</e> stripped. Now remember a while ago we
284 mentioned the -ggdb flag. Let's see what the output looks like with the flag
285 enabled:
286 </p>
288 <pre caption="Program backtrace with -ggdb3">
289 (gdb) <i>bt</i>
290 #0 0xb7e4bdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
291 #1 0x0804838c in run_it (input=0x0) at bad_code.c:7
292 #2 0x080483ba in main (argc=1, argv=0xbfd3a434) at bad_code.c:12
293 </pre>
295 <p>
296 Here we see that a lot more information is available for developers. Not only is
297 function information displayed, but even the exact line numbers of the source
298 files. This method is the most preferred if you can spare the extra space.
299 Here's how much the file size varies between debug, strip, and -ggdb enabled
300 programs.
301 </p>
303 <pre caption="Filesize differences With -ggdb flag">
304 <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
305 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
306 <comment>(debug symbols enabled)</comment>
307 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
308 <comment>(-ggdb flag enabled)</comment>
309 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 19552 6/28 13:11 bad_code
310 </pre>
312 <p>
313 As you can see, -ggdb adds about <e>13178</e> more bytes to the file size over the one
314 with debugging symbols. However, as shown above, this increase in file size can
315 be worth it if presenting debug information to developers. The backtrace can be
316 saved to a file by copying and pasting from the terminal (if it's a non-x based
317 terminal, you can use gpm. To keep this doc simple, I recommend you read up on
318 the documentation for gpm to see how to copy and paste with it). Now that we're
319 done with <c>gdb</c>, we can quit.
320 </p>
322 <pre caption="Quitting GDB">
323 (gdb) <i>quit</i>
324 The program is running. Exit anyway? (y or n) <i>y</i>
325 $
326 </pre>
328 <p>
329 This ends the walk-through of <c>gdb</c>. Using <c>gdb</c>, we hope that you will
330 be able to use it to create better bug reports. However, there are other types
331 of errors that can cause a program to fail during run time. One of the other
332 ways is through improper file access. We can find those using a nifty little
333 tool called <c>strace</c>.
334 </p>
336 </body>
337 </section>
338 </chapter>
340 <chapter>
341 <title>Finding file access errors using strace</title>
342 <section>
343 <title>Introduction</title>
344 <body>
346 <p>
347 Programs often use files to fetch configuration information, access hardware or
348 write logs. Sometimes, a program attempts to reach such files incorrectly. A
349 tool called <c>strace</c> was created to help deal with this. <c>strace</c>
350 traces system calls (hence the name) which include calls that use the memory and
351 files. For our example, we're going to take a program foobar2. This is an
352 updated version of foobar. However, during the change over to foobar2, you notice
353 all your configurations are missing! In foobar version 1, you had it setup to
354 say "foo", but now it's using the default "bar".
355 </p>
357 <pre caption="Foobar2 With an invalid configuration">
358 $ <i>./foobar2</i>
359 Configuration says: bar
360 </pre>
362 <p>
363 Our previous configuration specifically had it set to foo, so let's use
364 <c>strace</c> to find out what's going on.
365 </p>
367 </body>
368 </section>
369 <section>
370 <title>Using strace to track the issue</title>
371 <body>
373 <p>
374 We make <c>strace</c> log the results of the system calls. To do this, we run
375 <c>strace</c> with the -o[file] arguments. Let's use it on foobar2 as shown.
376 </p>
378 <pre caption="Running foobar2 through strace">
379 # <i>strace -ostrace.log ./foobar2</i>
380 </pre>
382 <p>
383 This creates a file called <path>strace.log</path> in the current directory. We
384 check the file, and shown below are the relevant parts from the file.
385 </p>
387 <pre caption="A Look At the strace Log">
388 open(".foobar2/config", O_RDONLY) = 3
389 read(3, "bar", 3) = 3
390 </pre>
392 <p>
393 Aha! So There's the problem. Someone moved the configuration directory to
394 <path>.foobar2</path> instead of <path>.foobar</path>. We also see the program
395 reading in "bar" as it should. In this case, we can recommend the ebuild
396 maintainer to put a warning about it. For now though, we can copy over the
397 config file from <path>.foobar</path> and modify it to produce the correct
398 results.
399 </p>
401 </body>
402 </section>
403 <section>
404 <title>Conclusion</title>
405 <body>
407 <p>
408 Now we've taken care of finding run time bugs. These bugs prove to be
409 problematic when you try and run your programs. However, run time errors are
410 the least of your concerns if your program won't compile at all. Let's take a
411 look at how to address <c>emerge</c> compile errors.
412 </p>
414 </body>
415 </section>
416 </chapter>
418 <chapter>
419 <title>Handling emerge Errors</title>
420 <section>
421 <title>Introduction</title>
422 <body>
424 <p>
425 <c>emerge</c> errors, such as the one displayed earlier, can be a major cause
426 of frustration for users. Reporting them is considered crucial for maintaining
427 the health of Gentoo. Let's take a look at a sample ebuild, foobar2, which
428 contains some build errors.
429 </p>
431 </body>
432 </section>
433 <section id="emerge_error">
434 <title>Evaluating emerge Errors</title>
435 <body>
437 <p>
438 Let's take a look at this very simple <c>emerge</c> error:
439 </p>
441 <pre caption="emerge Error">
442 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
443 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
444 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
445 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
446 foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
447 make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
449 !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
450 !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
451 !!! Make failed!
452 !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
453 </pre>
455 <p>
456 The program is compiling smoothly when it suddenly stops and presents an error message. This
457 particular error can be split into 3 different sections, The compile messages, the build
458 error, and the emerge error message as shown below.
459 </p>
461 <pre caption="Parts of the error">
462 <comment>(Compilation Messages)</comment>
463 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
464 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
465 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
466 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
468 <comment>(Build Error)</comment>
469 foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
470 make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
472 <comment>(emerge Error)</comment>
473 !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
474 !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
475 !!! Make failed!
476 !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
477 </pre>
479 <p>
480 The compilation messages are what lead up to the error. Most often, it's good to
481 at least include 10 lines of compile information so that the developer knows
482 where the compilation was at when the error occurred.
483 </p>
485 <p>
486 Make errors are the actual error and the information the developer needs. When
487 you see "make: ***", this is often where the error has occurred. Normally, you
488 can copy and paste 10 lines above it and the developer will be able to address
489 the issue. However, this may not always work and we'll take a look at an
490 alternative shortly.
491 </p>
493 <p>
494 The emerge error is what <c>emerge</c> throws out as an error. Sometimes, this
495 might also contain some important information. Often people make the mistake of
496 posting the emerge error and that's all. This is useless by itself, but with
497 make error and compile information, a developer can get what application and
498 what version of the package is failing. As a side note, make is commonly used as
499 the build process for programs (<b>but not always</b>). If you can't find a
500 "make: ***" error anywhere, then simply copy and paste 20 lines before the
501 emerge error. This should take care of most all build system error messages. Now
502 let's say the errors seem to be quite large. 10 lines won't be enough to catch
503 everything. That's where PORT_LOGDIR comes into play.
504 </p>
506 </body>
507 </section>
508 <section>
509 <title>emerge and PORT_LOGDIR</title>
510 <body>
512 <p>
513 PORT_LOGDIR is a portage variable that sets up a log directory for separate
514 emerge logs. Let's take a look and see what that entails. First, run your
515 emerge with PORT_LOGDIR set to your favorite log location. Let's say we have a
516 location <path>/var/log/portage</path>. We'll use that for our log directory:
517 </p>
519 <note>
520 In the default setup, <path>/var/log/portage</path> does not exist, and you will
521 most likely have to create it. If you do not, portage will fail to write the
522 logs.
523 </note>
525 <pre caption="emerge-ing With PORT_LOGDIR">
526 # <i>PORT_LOGDIR=/var/log/portage emerge foobar2</i>
527 </pre>
529 <p>
530 Now the emerge fails again. However, this time we have a log we can work with,
531 and attach to the bug later on. Let's take a quick look at our log directory.
532 </p>
534 <pre caption="PORT_LOGDIR Contents">
535 # <i>ls -la /var/log/portage</i>
536 total 16
537 drwxrws--- 2 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 .
538 drwxr-xr-x 15 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 ..
539 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7390 Jun 30 10:09 2115-foobar2-1.0.log
540 </pre>
542 <p>
543 The log files have the format [counter]-[package name]-[version].log. Counter
544 is a special variable that is meant to state this package as the n-th package
545 you've emerged. This prevents duplicate logs from appearing. A quick look at
546 the log file will show the entire emerge process. This can be attached later
547 on as we'll see in the bug reporting section. Now that we've safely obtained
548 our information needed to report the bug we can continue to do so. However,
549 before we get started on that, we need to make sure no one else has reported
550 the issue. Let's take a look at searching for bugs.
551 </p>
553 </body>
554 </section>
555 </chapter>
557 <chapter>
558 <title>Searching Using Bugzilla</title>
559 <section>
560 <title>Introduction</title>
561 <body>
563 <p>
564 <uri link="http://www.bugzilla.org">Bugzilla</uri> is what we at Gentoo use to
565 handle bugs. Gentoo's Bugzilla is reachable by HTTPS and HTTP. HTTPS is
566 available for those on insecure networks or simply paranoid :). For the sake of
567 consistency, we will be using the HTTPS version in the examples to follow. Head
568 over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> to see how it
569 looks.
570 </p>
572 <p>
573 One of the most frustrating things for developers and bug-wranglers is finding
574 duplicate bug reports. These cost them valuable time that they could otherwise
575 use to work on more important bugs. Often, this can be prevented by a few simple
576 search methods. So we're going to see how to search for bugs and find out if
577 you have one that's similar. For this example, we're going to use the xclass
578 emerge error that was used earlier.
579 </p>
581 <pre caption="xclass emerge error">
582 /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
583 warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
584 header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section of
585 the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
586 header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
587 &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
588 In file included from main.cc:40:
589 menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
590 OXPopupMenu*'
591 menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
592 OXPopupMenu*'
593 menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
594 OXPopupMenu*'
595 menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
596 OXPopupMenu*'
597 main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
598 main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
599 main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
600 main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
601 make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
602 make[1]: Leaving directory
603 `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
604 make: *** [shared] Error 2
606 !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
607 !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
608 !!! 'emake shared' failed
609 </pre>
611 <p>
612 So to begin searching, we head over to the <uri
613 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/">Bugzilla Homepage</uri>.
614 </p>
616 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
618 <p>
619 We'll click on "Query Existing bug reports". The reason why we choose this
620 over the basic bug search is because the basic bug search tends to give vague
621 results and often hinders users from looking through the results and finding the
622 duplicate bug. Once we click on the query screen, we reach the next page:
623 </p>
625 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search.png" caption="Bugzilla Search Page"/>
627 <note>
628 If you've used the Advanced Search before, you'll most likely see that screen
629 instead.
630 </note>
632 <p>
633 Proceed by clicking on the "Advanced Search" link to bring up the Advanced
634 Search page.
635 </p>
637 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-adv-search.png" caption="Advanced Search Page"/>
639 <p>
640 This is how the Advanced Search Page looks like. While it may seem overwhelming
641 at first, we're going to look at a few simple areas to narrow down the rather
642 vague searches bugzilla returns.
643 </p>
645 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-content.png" caption="Content"/>
647 <p>
648 The first field is the summary of the bug. Here we're simply going to put the
649 name of the package that's crashing. If bugzie doesn't return results, try
650 removing the package name, just in case someone didn't put that in the summary
651 (highly unlikely, but we've seen a fair share of strange bug reports).
652 </p>
654 <p>
655 Product, Component, and Version should all be set to the default. This
656 prevents us from being too specific and missing all the bugs.
657 </p>
659 <p>
660 Comment is the important part. Use the comment field to list what appears to be a
661 specific instance of the error. Basically, don't use anything like the
662 beginning of the build error, find a line that's before it stating a true
663 error. Also, you'll want to filter out any punctuation to prevent bugzilla
664 from interpreting the results the comment the wrong way. Example from the xclass
665 emerge error:
666 </p>
668 <pre caption="Comment Line Content">
669 menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `OXPopupMenu'
670 <comment>(Remove the quotes ' ')</comment>
671 menudef.h 78 error brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize OXPopupMenu
672 </pre>
674 <p>
675 The above is specific enough to where we'll find the bug without wading through
676 other xclass compile failure candidates.
677 </p>
679 <p>
680 URI, Whiteboard, and Keywords can all be left alone. What we've entered so far
681 should be enough to find our bug. Let's take a look at what we have filled out.
682 </p>
684 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-comp-search.png" caption="Completed Search Form"/>
686 <p>
687 Now we click on the Search button and here come the results...
688 </p>
690 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search-result.png" caption="Search Results"/>
692 <p>
693 Only 2 bugs! That's a lot easier to deal with. We click on the first one to
694 check, and sure enough it's the one we're looking for.
695 </p>
697 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-located.png" caption="Bug Located"/>
699 <p>
700 Not only is it the one we want, but it has also been resolved. By checking the
701 last comment we see the solution and know what to do in order to resolve it.
702 Now, let's see what would have happened if we had not used the advanced search.
703 </p>
705 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-search-result.png" caption="Basic Search Results"/>
707 <p>
708 4 more bugs to deal with! It gets even worse with larger packages. However,
709 with these simple tools, we're able to significantly narrow down the search to
710 try and locate a specific bug.
711 </p>
713 </body>
714 </section>
715 <section>
716 <title>Conclusion</title>
717 <body>
719 <p>
720 Let's say that you have searched and searched but still can't find a bug.
721 You've found yourself a new bug. Let's take a look at the bug reporting process
722 for submitting your new bug.
723 </p>
725 </body>
726 </section>
727 </chapter>
729 <chapter>
730 <title>Reporting Bugs</title>
731 <section>
732 <title>Introduction</title>
733 <body>
735 <p>
736 In this chapter, we'll figure out how to use Bugzilla to file a shiny, new bug.
737 Head over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> and...
738 </p>
740 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
742 <p>
743 Click on "Report a Bug - Using the guided format".
744 </p>
746 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-prod-select.png" caption="Product Selection"/>
748 <p>
749 As you can see, <b>major</b> emphasis has been placed on putting your bug in the
750 right place. Gentoo Linux is where a large majority of bugs go.
751 </p>
753 <p>
754 Despite this, some people will file ebuild bugs in portage development
755 (assumption that portage team handles the portage tree) or infra (assumption
756 that infra has access to mirrors and rsync and can fix it directly). This is
757 simply not how things work.
758 </p>
760 <p>
761 Another common misconception occurs with our Documentation bugs. For example, a
762 user finds a bug with the <uri link="/proj/en/releng/catalyst/">Catalyst
763 Docs</uri>. The general tendency is to file a bug under Docs-user, which gets
764 assigned to the <uri link="http://gdp.gentoo.org">GDP</uri>, when it should
765 actually go to a member of the <uri link="/proj/en/releng/">Release
766 Engineering</uri> team. As a rule of thumb, only documentation under
767 <path>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/*</path> is under the GDP. Anything under
768 <path>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/*</path> is under the respective teams.
769 </p>
771 <note>
772 We would rather see a bug whose product was not supposed to be Gentoo Linux but
773 has been filed under the same rather than seeing a bug which belongs the Gentoo
774 Linux product and filed elsewhere. While neither is preferred, the former is more
775 acceptable and understandable (except website bugs.. we might have an issue with
776 that...).
777 </note>
779 <p>
780 Our bug goes in Gentoo Linux as it's an ebuild bug. We head over there and are
781 presented with the multi-step bug reporting process. Let us now proceed with
782 Step 1...
783 </p>
785 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-guide-step1.png" caption="Guided Format Step 1"/>
787 <p>
788 The first step here is really important (as the red text tells you). This is
789 where you search to see that someone else hasn't hit the same bug you have, yet.
790 If you do skip this step and a bug like yours already exists, it will be marked
791 as a DUPLICATE thus wasting a large amount of QA effort. To give you an idea,
792 the bug numbers that are struck out above are duplicate bugs. Now comes step 2,
793 where we give the information.
794 </p>
796 </body>
797 </section>
798 <section>
799 <title>Required Information</title>
800 <body>
802 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic.png" caption="Basic Information"/>
804 <p>
805 Let us take a closer look at what's what.
806 </p>
808 <ul>
809 <li>
810 First, there's the Product. The product will narrow down the bug to a
811 specific area of Gentoo like Bugzilla (for bugs relating to
812 bugs.gentoo.org), Docs-user(for User Documentation) or Gentoo Linux (for
813 ebuilds and the like).
814 </li>
815 <li>
816 Component is where exactly the problem occurs, more specifically which part
817 of selected product the bug comes under. This makes classification easier.
818 </li>
819 <li>
820 Hardware platform is what architecture you're running. If you were running
821 SPARC, you would set it to SPARC.
822 </li>
823 <li>
824 Operating System is what Operating System you're using. Because Gentoo is
825 considered a "Meta-distribution", it can run on other operating systems
826 beside Linux.
827 </li>
828 </ul>
830 <p>
831 So, for our example bug, we have :
832 </p>
834 <ul>
835 <li>Product - Gentoo Linux (Since it is an ebuild issue)</li>
836 <li>Component - Application (It is an application at fault, foobar2)</li>
837 <li>Hardware Platform - All (This error could occur across architectures)</li>
838 <li>Operation System - All (It could occur on all types of systems)</li>
839 </ul>
841 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-comp.png" caption="Completed Basic Information"/>
843 <ul>
844 <li>
845 Build Identifier is basically the User Agent of the browser that is being
846 used to report the bugs (for logging purposes). You can just leave this as
847 is.
848 </li>
849 <li>
850 URL is optional and is used to point to errors on a site someplace
851 (pastebin, etc.). However, doing it inside the bug allows the developers be
852 able to reference to it at any time and is preferred.
853 </li>
854 <li>
855 In the Summary, you should put the package category, name, and number.
856 </li>
857 </ul>
859 <p>
860 Not including the category in the summary really isn't too bad, but it's
861 recommended. If you don't include the package name, however, we won't know what
862 you're filling a bug for, and will have to ask you about it later. The version
863 number is important for people searching for bugs. If 20 people filed bugs and
864 not one put a version number, how would people looking for similar bugs be able
865 to tell if one was there's? They'd have to look through every single bug, which
866 isn't too hard, but if there are say, 200 bugs.. it's not that easy. After all
867 the package information, you'll want to include a small description of the
868 incident. Here's an example:
869 </p>
871 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-summary.png" caption="Summary"/>
873 <p>
874 These simple rules can make handling bugs a lot easier. Next are the details.
875 Here we put in the information about the bug. We'll demonstrate with an example:
876 </p>
878 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-details.png" caption="Details"/>
880 <p>
881 Now the developer knows why we're filing the bug. They can then try to
882 reproduce it. Reproducibility tells us how often we were able to make the
883 problem recur. In this example, we can reproduce it any time simply by running
884 foobar2. Let's put that information in.
885 </p>
887 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reprod.png" caption="Reproduction"/>
889 <p>
890 We have explained how we found the bug. The next step is to explain what were
891 the results we got and what we think they should actually be.
892 </p>
894 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-results.png" caption="Results"/>
896 <p>
897 We could then provide additional information. This could be things such as
898 stack traces, <b>sections</b> (since the whole log is usually big and of not
899 much use) of strace logs, but most importantly, your <c>emerge --info</c>
900 output. Here's an example.
901 </p>
903 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-addl-info.png" caption="Additional Information"/>
905 <p>
906 Lastly we select the severity of the bug. Please look this over carefully. In
907 most cases it's OK to leave it as is and someone will raise/lower it for you.
908 However, if you raise the severity of the bug, please make sure you read it over
909 carefully and make sure you're not making a mistake. A run down of the various
910 levels is given below.
911 </p>
913 <ul>
914 <li>
915 Blocker - The program just plain doesn't want to emerge or is a major
916 hinderance to the system. For example a <c>baselayout</c> issue which
917 prevents a system from booting up would be a sure candidate to be labelled
918 blocker.
919 </li>
920 <li>
921 Critical - The program has loss of data or severe memory leaks during
922 runtime. Again, an important program like say <c>net-tools</c> failing to
923 compile could be labelled critical. It won't prevent the system from
924 starting up, but is quite essential for day to day stuff.
925 </li>
926 <li>
927 Major - The program crashes, but nothing that causes your system severe
928 damage or information loss.
929 </li>
930 <li>
931 Minor - Your program crashes here and there with apparent workarounds.
932 </li>
933 <li>
934 Normal - The default. If you're not sure leave it here unless it's a new
935 build or cosmetic change, then read below for more information.
936 </li>
937 <li>Trivial - Things such as a mispelled word or whitespace clean up. </li>
938 <li>
939 Enhancement - A request to enable a new feature in a program, or more
940 specifically <e>new ebuilds</e>.
941 </li>
942 </ul>
944 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-sev.png" caption="Severity"/>
946 <p>
947 Here, we'll set it to Normal.
948 </p>
950 <p>
951 Now we can submit the bug report by clicking on the Submit Bug Report box. You
952 will now see your new bug come up. See <uri
953 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=97265">Bug 97561</uri> for what
954 the result looks like. We've reported our bug! Now let's see how it's dealt
955 with.
956 </p>
958 </body>
959 </section>
960 </chapter>
962 <chapter>
963 <title>Working With Your Bug</title>
964 <section>
965 <body>
967 <p>
968 Looking at the bug, we see the information we provided earlier. You will notice
969 that the bug has been assigned to bug-wranglers@gentoo.org. This is the default
970 location for Application component bugs.
971 </p>
973 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-basic.png" caption="New Bug Basic Information"/>
975 <p>
976 The details we entered about the bug are available as well.
977 </p>
979 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-details.png" caption="New Bug Details"/>
981 <p>
982 However, bug-wranglers (usually) won't fix our bugs, so we'll reassign it to
983 someone that can (you can let bug-wranglers re-assign it for you as well). For
984 this we use the package's metadata.xml. You can normally find them in
985 <path>/usr/portage/category/package/metadata.xml</path>. Here's one I've made up
986 for foobar2.
987 </p>
989 <note>
990 You have to be the reporter of the bug or a member of certain Gentoo Bugzilla
991 groups (like Gentoo Developers) to be able to reassign bugs.
992 </note>
994 <pre caption="metadata.xml">
995 &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
996 &lt;!DOCTYPE pkgmetadata SYSTEM "http://www.gentoo.org/dtd/metadata.dtd"&gt;
997 &lt;pkgmetadata&gt;
998 &lt;herd&gt;chriswhite&lt;/herd&gt;
999 &lt;maintainer&gt;
1000 &lt;email&gt;chriswhite@gentoo.org&lt;/email&gt;
1001 &lt;name&gt;Chris White&lt;/name&gt;
1002 &lt;/maintainer&gt;
1003 &lt;longdescription lang="en"&gt;
1004 Foobar2 is a package that uses a configuration file to display a word.
1005 &lt;/longdescription&gt;
1006 &lt;/pkgmetadata&gt;
1007 </pre>
1009 <p>
1010 Notice the maintainer section. This lists the maintainer of the package, which
1011 in this case is myself, Chris White. The email listed is chriswhite@gentoo.org.
1012 We will use this to re-assign the bug to the proper person. To do this, click
1013 the bubble next to Reassign bug to, then fill in the email.
1014 </p>
1016 <note>
1017 A bug for a package without a metadata.xml file should be re-assigned to
1018 maintainer-needed@gentoo.org and a package that needs a Gentoo Developer to
1019 maintain should be assigned to maintainer-wanted@gentoo.org.
1020 </note>
1022 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reassign.png" caption="Bug Reassignment"/>
1024 <p>
1025 Then hit the Commit button for the changes to take place. The bug has been
1026 reassigned to me. Shortly afterward, you notice (by email usually) that I've
1027 responded to your bug. I've stated that I'd like to see an strace log to figure
1028 out how the program is trying to reach your configuration file. You follow the
1029 previous instructions on using strace and obtain an strace log. Now you need to
1030 attach it to the bug. In order to do this, click on "Create A New Attachment".
1031 </p>
1033 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach.png" caption="New Attachment"/>
1035 <p>
1036 Now we have to attach the log. Let's go throught it step wise.
1037 </p>
1039 <ul>
1040 <li>
1041 File - This is the location of the file in your machine. In this example,
1042 the location of <path>strace.log</path>. You can use the "Browse..." button
1043 to select the file, or enter the path directly in the text field.
1044 </li>
1045 <li>
1046 Description - A short one liner, or a few wors describing the attachment.
1047 We'll just enter strace.log here, since that's quite self-explanatory.
1048 </li>
1049 <li>
1050 Content Type - This is the type of the file we're attaching to the bug.
1051 </li>
1052 <li>
1053 Obsoletes - If there were attachements submitted to the bug before the
1054 current one, you have an option of declaring them obsoleted by yours. Since
1055 we have no prior attachments to this bug, we need not bother.
1056 </li>
1057 <li>
1058 Comment - Enter comments that will be visible along with the attachments.
1059 You could elaborate on the attachment here, if needed.
1060 </li>
1061 </ul>
1063 <p>
1064 With respect to Content Type, here are a few more details. You can check the
1065 "patch" checkbox if you're submitting a patch. Otherwise, you could ask
1066 Bugzilla to "auto-detect" the file type (not advisable). The other options are
1067 "select from list", which is most frequently used. Use plain text (text/plain)
1068 for <e>most</e> attachments except binary files like images (which can use
1069 image/gif, image/jpeg or image/png depending on type) or compressed files like
1070 .tar.bz2 which would use application/octet-stream as content type.
1071 </p>
1074 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach-comp.png" caption="New Attachment Completed"/>
1076 <p>
1077 We submit <path>strace.log</path> and it is reflected on the bug report.
1078 </p>
1080 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-strace.png" caption="Attached strace log"/>
1082 <p>
1083 We've mentioned before that sometimes ebuilds will tell you to attach a file in
1084 the emerge error. An example can be seen below.
1085 </p>
1087 <pre caption="Example File Attachment Request">
1088 configure: error: PNG support requires ZLIB. Use --with-zlib-dir=&lt;DIR&gt;
1090 !!! Please attach the config.log to your bug report:
1091 !!! /var/tmp/portage/php-5.0.3-r1/work/php-5.0.3/config.log
1093 !!! ERROR: dev-php/php-5.0.3-r1 failed.
1094 !!! Function econf, Line 485, Exitcode 0
1095 !!! econf failed
1096 !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message.
1097 </pre>
1099 <p>
1100 Please attach any file mentioned like this to your bug report.
1101 </p>
1103 <p>
1104 Sometimes a developer might ask you to attach a diff or patch for a file.
1105 Standard diff files can be obtained through:
1106 </p>
1108 <pre caption="Standard Diff Creation">
1109 $ <i>cp file file.old</i>
1110 $ <i>nano file</i>
1111 $ <i>diff -u file.old file</i>
1112 </pre>
1114 <p>
1115 For C/C++ source files, the <b>-p</b> flag is added to show what function calls
1116 the diff applies to:
1117 </p>
1119 <pre caption="Diff-ing C/C++ source">
1120 $ <i>cp file.c file.c.old</i>
1121 $ <i>nano file.c</i>
1122 $ <i>diff -up file.c.old file.c</i>
1123 </pre>
1125 <p>
1126 The documentation team will require the flag combination <b>-Nt</b> as well as
1127 <b>-u</b>. This mainly has to do with tab expansion. You can create such a diff
1128 with:
1129 </p>
1131 <pre caption="Documentation diffs">
1132 $<i> cp file.xml file.xml.old</i>
1133 $<i> nano file.xml</i>
1134 $<i> diff -Nut file.xml.old file.xml</i>
1135 </pre>
1137 <p>
1138 And your diff is created. While we're doing all this, suppose another person
1139 finds your bug by searching through bugzilla and is curious to keep track of
1140 the bug, they may do so by putting their email in the Add CC field of the bug
1141 as shown below. You could also keep track of other bugs by following the same
1142 method.
1143 </p>
1145 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-add-email.png" caption="Adding Email To CC:"/>
1147 <note>
1148 Email addresses must be registered with Gentoo Bugzilla. In order to CC multiple
1149 addresses, simply separate them with commas or spaces.
1150 </note>
1152 <p>
1153 After all this work, the bug can undergo various status markings. This is
1154 usually done by the Gentoo Developers and sometimes by the reporter. The
1155 following are the various possible states a bug may go through during its
1156 lifetime.
1157 </p>
1159 <ul>
1160 <li>
1161 UNCONFIRMED - You're generally not going to see this too often. This means
1162 that a bug reporter has opened a bug using the advanced method and is
1163 uncertain his or her bug is an actual bug.
1164 </li>
1165 <li>NEW - Bugs that are first opened are considered new.</li>
1166 <li>
1167 ASSIGNED - When the person you've assigned the bug too validates your bug,
1168 it will often receive ASSIGNED status while they figure out the issue.
1169 This lets you know that they've accepted your bug as a real bug.
1170 </li>
1171 <li>
1172 REOPENED - Someone has resolved a bug and you think the solution is not
1173 feasible or the problem still persists. At this point, you may re-open the
1174 bug. Please <b>do not abuse this</b>. If a developer closes the bug a
1175 second or third time, chances are that your bug is closed.
1176 </li>
1177 <li>
1178 RESOLVED - A firm decision has been taken on the bug. Usually goes onto
1179 FIXED to indicate the bug is solved and the matter closed although various
1180 other resolutions are possible. We'll look into those a little later.
1181 </li>
1182 <li>
1183 VERIFIED - The steps take to work the bug are correct. This is usually a QA
1184 thing.
1185 </li>
1186 <li>
1187 CLOSED - Basically means RIP for the bug and it's buried under the never
1188 ending flow of new bugs.
1189 </li>
1190 </ul>
1192 <p>
1193 Now shortly afterward, we find the error in the strace log and fix the bug and
1194 mark it as RESOLVED FIXED and mention that there was a change in the location
1195 of configuration files, and that I will update the ebuild with a warning about
1196 it. The bug now becomes resolved, and you are shown the following.
1197 </p>
1199 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reso.png" caption="Resolved Bug"/>
1201 <p>
1202 A little below, you'll see the following:
1203 </p>
1205 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-options.png" caption="Bug Options"/>
1207 <p>
1208 This gives you the option of Reopening the bug if you wish to (i.e. the
1209 developer thinks it's resolved but it's really not to your standards). Now our
1210 bug is fixed! However, different resolutions can occur. Here's a small list:
1211 </p>
1213 <ul>
1214 <li>
1215 FIXED - The bug is fixed, follow the instructions to resolve your issue.
1216 </li>
1217 <li>
1218 INVALID - You did not do something specifically documented, causing the
1219 bug.
1220 </li>
1221 <li>DUPLICATE - You didn't use this guide and reported a duplicate bug.</li>
1222 <li>
1223 WORKSFORME - Developer/person assigned the bug cannot reproduce your error.
1224 </li>
1225 <li>
1226 CANTFIX - Somehow the bug cannot be solved because of certain
1227 circumstances. These circumstances will be noted by the person taking the
1228 bug.
1229 </li>
1230 <li>
1231 WONTFIX - This is usually applied to new ebuilds or feature requests.
1232 Basically the developer does not want to add a certain feature because it
1233 is not needed, a better alternative exists, or it's just plain broken.
1234 Sometimes you may be given a solution to get said issue resolved.
1235 </li>
1236 <li>
1237 UPSTREAM - The bug cannot be fixed by the Gentoo development team, and have
1238 requested you take the problem upstream (the people that actually made the
1239 program) for review. Upstream has a few ways of handling bugs. These
1240 include mailing lists, irc channels, and even bug reporting systems. If
1241 you're not sure how to contact them, ask in the bug and someone will point
1242 you to the right direction.
1243 </li>
1244 </ul>
1246 <p>
1247 Sometimes, before the bug can be resolved, a developer may request that you
1248 test an updated ebulid. In the next chapter we'll take a look at testing
1249 ebuilds.
1250 </p>
1252 </body>
1253 </section>
1254 </chapter>
1256 <chapter>
1257 <title>Testing Ebuilds</title>
1258 <section>
1259 <title>Getting The Files</title>
1260 <body>
1262 <p>
1263 Let's say that you reported a bug for the foobar2 compile fix from earlier. Now
1264 developers might find out what the problem is and might need you to test the
1265 ebuild for them to be sure it works for you as well:
1266 </p>
1268 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-ebuild-request.png" caption="Ebuild Test Request"/>
1270 <p>
1271 Some rather confusing vocabulary is used here. First off, let's see what an
1272 overlay is. An overlay is a special directory like <path>/usr/portage</path>,
1273 the difference being that when you <c>emerge sync</c>, files contained within it
1274 will not be deleted. Luckily, a special <path>/usr/local/portage</path>
1275 directory is created for that purpose. Let's go ahead and set our portage
1276 overlay in<path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Open make.conf up in your favorite editor
1277 and add this towards the end.
1278 </p>
1280 <pre caption="Setting Up PORTDIR_OVERLAY">
1281 PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage"
1282 </pre>
1284 <p>
1285 Now we'll want to create the appropriate directories to put our test ebuild
1286 files in. In this case, we're supposed to put them in sys-apps/foobar2. You'll
1287 notice that the second comment asks for a files directory for the patch. The
1288 files directory holds the digests (md5sums of files for a particular version of
1289 a package) and any other required files that aren't included with the standard
1290 source archive (patches, init.d scripts, etc). This is a subdir in the package
1291 directory called files. Go ahead and create these directories:
1292 </p>
1294 <pre caption="Setting Up The Category And Package Directories">
1295 # <i>mkdir -p /usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2/files</i>
1296 </pre>
1298 <note>
1299 The -p in mkdir creates not only the directory you want but also any missing
1300 parent directories as well (sys-apps and foobar2 in this case).
1301 </note>
1303 <p>
1304 Ok now, we can go ahead and download the files. First, download the ebuild
1305 into <path>/usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2</path>, and then add the patch
1306 to <path>/usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2/files</path>. Now that we have the
1307 files, we can begin working on testing the ebuild.
1308 </p>
1310 </body>
1311 </section>
1312 <section>
1313 <title>Testing The ebuild</title>
1314 <body>
1316 <p>
1317 The process to create an ebuild that can be used by emerge is fairly simple. You
1318 must create a Manifest and a digest file for the ebuild. This can be done with
1319 the ebuild command. Run it as shown.
1320 </p>
1322 <pre caption="Creating the Manifest and digest files">
1323 # <i>ebuild foobar2-1.0.ebuild digest</i>
1324 &gt;&gt;&gt; Generating digest file...
1325 &lt;&lt;&lt; foobar2-1.0.tar.bz2
1326 &gt;&gt;&gt; Generating manifest file...
1327 &lt;&lt;&lt; foobar2-1.0.ebuild
1328 &lt;&lt;&lt; files/digest-foobar2-1.0
1329 &lt;&lt;&lt; files/foobar2-1.0-Makefile.patch
1330 &gt;&gt;&gt; Computed message digests.
1331 </pre>
1333 <p>
1334 Now let's test to see if it works as it should.
1335 </p>
1337 <pre caption="Testing With emerge -pv">
1338 # <i>emerge -pv foobar2</i>
1340 These are the packages that I would merge, in order:
1342 Calculating dependencies ...done!
1343 [ebuild N ] sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 0 kB [1]
1345 Total size of downloads: 0 kB
1346 Portage overlays:
1347 [1] /usr/local/portage
1348 </pre>
1350 <p>
1351 It does seem to have worked! You'll notice the [1] next to the [ebuild] line.
1352 That points to <path>/usr/local/portage</path>, which is the overlay we created
1353 earlier. Now we go ahead and emerge the package.
1354 </p>
1356 <pre caption="Emerge Result">
1357 # <i>emerge foobar2</i>
1358 Calculating dependencies ...done!
1359 <comment>(compile info snipped)</comment>
1360 >>> Unpacking foobar2-1.0.tar.bz2 to /var/tmp/portage/foobar2-1.0/work
1361 * Applying foobar2-1.0-Makefile.patch ... [ ok ]
1362 <comment>(compile info snipped)</comment>
1363 >>> Merging sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 to /
1364 >>> chris +sandbox(preinst)
1365 --- /usr/
1366 --- /usr/bin/
1367 >>> /usr/bin/foobar2
1368 </pre>
1370 <p>
1371 In the first section we see that the emerge started off as it should. The second
1372 section shows our patch being applied successfully by the "[ ok ]" status
1373 message to the right. The last section tells us the program compiled ok. The
1374 patch works! Now we can go and let the developer know that their patch works
1375 fine, and that they can commit the fix to portage.
1376 </p>
1378 </body>
1379 </section>
1380 <section>
1381 <title>Conclusion</title>
1382 <body>
1384 <p>
1385 This concludes the howto on working with Bugzilla. I hope you find this useful.
1386 If you have any questions, comments, or ideas regarding this document, please
1387 send them to me at <mail>chriswhite@gentoo.org</mail>. Special thanks go to
1388 moreon for his notes on -g flags and compile errors, the people at #gentoo-bugs
1389 for helping out with bug-wrangling, Griffon26 for his notes on
1390 maintainer-needed, robbat2 for general suggestions and fox2mike for fixing up
1391 the doc and adding stuff as needed.
1392 </p>
1394 </body>
1395 </section>
1396 </chapter>
1397 </guide>

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