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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9     <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
10     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
11     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
12 zhware 1.16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
13 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
15     <version>1.1.2</version>
16 zhen 1.13 <date>30 December 2002</date>
17 drobbins 1.1
18     <chapter>
19     <title>Getting Started</title>
21     <section>
22     <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
23 drobbins 1.11 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
24 drobbins 1.1 </section>
26     <section>
27     <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
28     <body>
29     <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
30     design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
31     <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
32     <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
33     <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
34     distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
35     meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
36     versions.
37 zhen 1.5 </p>
38     </body>
39     </section>
40     </chapter>
41 drobbins 1.1
42     <chapter>
43     <title>Installation</title>
44 zhen 1.6
45 zhen 1.9 <section>
46 drobbins 1.1
47 zhen 1.10 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
48 zhen 1.9 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
49 zhen 1.10 </warn>
50 zhen 1.9
51 drobbins 1.1 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
52     <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
53     that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
54     Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
55     contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
56     necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
57     as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
58     Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
59     and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
60     the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
61     Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
62     Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
63     on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
64     untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
65     </body>
66     </section>
68     <section>
69     <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
70     <body><p>
71     The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
72     been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
73     changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
74     The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
75     hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
76     patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
77     stabilise anytime soon.
78     </p>
79     </body>
80     </section>
82     <section>
83     <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
84     finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
85     <body>
86     <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
87     attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
88     <pre>
89     boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
90     </pre>
91     <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
92     type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
93     </body>
95     </section>
96     <section>
97     <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
98     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
99     <body>
100     <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
101     having broken packages.
102     Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
103     to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
104     uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
105     -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
106     as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
107     ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
108     (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
109     to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
110 zhware 1.4 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
111 drobbins 1.1 </body>
112     </section>
114     <section>
115     <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
116     <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
117     </section>
119     <section>
120     <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
121     <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
122     for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
123     </p></body>
124     </section>
125     <section>
126     <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
127     <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
128     how can i add another user?</p>
129     <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
130     this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
131 zhware 1.15 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
132     <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
133 zhware 1.16 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
134 zhware 1.15 </p>
135 drobbins 1.1 </body>
136     </section>
137     <section>
138     <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
139     <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
140     <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
141     command as root:</p>
142     <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
143     </body>
144     </section>
145     <section>
146     <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
147     <body>
148     <p>
149     If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
150     devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
151     kernel, didn't you?).
152     However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
153     <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
154     like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
155     <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
156     </p>
157     </body>
158     </section>
159     <section>
160     <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
161     <body>
162     <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
163     <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
164     </body>
165     </section>
166     <section>
167     <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
168     doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
169     <body>
170     <p>
171     If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
172     to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
173     it will be preserved between reboots.
174     </p>
175     <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
176     and add these lines:</p>
177     <pre>
178     REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
179     UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
180     </pre>
181     <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
182     adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
183     <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
184     to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
185     </body>
186     </section>
187     <section>
188     <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
189     <body><p>
190     During installation the grub boot files are copied
191     to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
192     earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
193     partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
194     <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
195     info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
196     partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
197     unpacking the build snapshot or running
198     <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
199     <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
200     You can get more information on grub, including how to
201     debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
202     <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
203     </p>
204     </body>
205     </section>
207     <section>
208     <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
209     detection. </title>
210     <body>
211     <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
212     function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
213     will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
214     </body>
215     </section>
217     </chapter>
219     <chapter>
220     <title>Package Management</title>
221     <section>
222     <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
223     <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
224     a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
225     special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
226     binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO
227     </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
228     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
229     compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
230     </body>
231     </section>
233     <section>
234     <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
235     <body>
236     <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
237     philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
238     install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
239     needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
240     package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
241     </body>
242     </section>
244     <section>
245     <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
246     <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
247     dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
248     Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
249     Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
250     </section>
252     <section>
253     <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
254     <body>
255     <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
256     and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
257     </body>
258     </section>
260     <section>
261     <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
262     <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
263     profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
264     are as follows:</p>
265     <table>
266     <tr>
267     <th>Flag</th>
268     <th>Description</th>
269     </tr>
270     <tr>
271     <ti>CHOST</ti>
272     <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
273     </tr>
274     <tr>
275     <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
276     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
277     </tr>
278     <tr>
279     <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
280     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
281     files)</ti>
282     </tr>
283     <tr>
284     <ti>USE</ti>
285     <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
286     available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
287     you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
288     also USE-aware.</ti>
289     </tr>
290     <tr>
291     <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
292     <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
293     will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
294     <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
295     </tr>
296     </table>
297     </body>
298     </section>
300     <section>
301     <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
302     <body>
303     <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
304     if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
305     This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
306     (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
307     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
308     which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
309     the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
310     <ol>
311     <li>Environment variables</li>
312     <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
313     <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
314     <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
315     any other place come from here)</li>
316     </ol></p></body>
317     </section>
319     <section>
320     <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
321     e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
322     <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
323     update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
324     <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
327     </p></body>
328     </section>
330     <section>
331     <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
332     clobbering my config files?</title>
333     <body><p>
334     Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
335     <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
336     a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
337     another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
338     instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
339     tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
340     currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>.
341     </p></body>
342     </section>
344     <section>
345     <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
346     <body><p>
347     Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
348     <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
349     <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
350     the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
351     both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
352     have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
353     should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
354     dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
355     (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
356     completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
357     </p></body>
358     </section>
360     <section>
361     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
362     <body><p>
363     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
364     rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
365 seo 1.12 /usr/portage snapshots from
366     <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack
367 drobbins 1.1 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
368     the <path>/usr</path> directory.
369     </p></body>
370     </section>
372     <section>
373     <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
374     <body><p>
375     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
376     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
377     appropriately.
378     </p></body>
379     </section>
381     <section>
382     <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
383     <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
384     <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
385     </section>
387     <section>
388     <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
389     add them to my system?</title>
390     <body><p>
391     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
392     are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
393     home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
394     <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
395     </p></body>
396     </section>
398     <section>
399     <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
400     valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
401     <body><p>
402     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
403     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
404     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
405     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
406     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
407     again.
408     </p></body>
409     </section>
411     <section>
412     <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
413     <body>
414     <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
415     maintain your local
416     ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
417     <pre>
418     # <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
419     # <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
420     # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
421     # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
422     # <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
423     # <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
424     # <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
425     # <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
426     # <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
427     # <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
428     # <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
429     # <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
430     </pre>
431 zhen 1.5 </body>
432     </section>
434     <section>
435     <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
436     <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
437     Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
439     <body>
440     <p>Solution: </p>
441     <pre caption = "Solution">
442     # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
443     # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
444     </pre>
446 drobbins 1.1 </body>
447     </section>
448     </chapter>
450     <chapter>
451     <title>Usage</title>
452     <section>
453     <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
454     account doesn't work. </title>
455     <body>
456     <p>
457     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
458     for your user entry in
459     <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
460     you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
461     </p>
462     <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
463     </body>
464     </section>
466     <section>
467     <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
468     <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
469     set). Type the following as root:</p>
470     <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
471     </body>
472     </section>
474     <section>
475     <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
476     <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
477     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
478     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
479     </body>
480     </section>
482     <section>
483     <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
484     <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
485     </p>
486     <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
487     </body>
488     </section>
490     <section>
491     <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
492     <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
493     </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
494     <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
495     <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
496     </body>
497     </section>
498     </chapter>
500     <chapter>
501     <title>Maintenance</title>
502     <section>
503     <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
504     <body>
505     <p>
506     If your
507     ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
508     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
509     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
510     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
511     to the corruption.
512     </p>
513     </body>
514     </section>
515     <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
516     <section>
517     <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
518     system?</title>
519     <body>
520     <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
521     current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
523     <pre>
524 seo 1.14 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
525 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
527     <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
529     <pre>
530     # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
531     </pre>
533     </body>
534     </section>
535     </chapter>
537     <chapter>
538     <title>Development</title>
539     <section>
540     <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
541     <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
542     Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
543     <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network.
544     </p></body>
545     </section>
547     <section>
548     <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
549 zhen 1.13 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
550 drobbins 1.1 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
551     are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
552     are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
553     new modules get added.</p></body>
554     </section>
556     <section>
557     <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
558     <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
559     "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
560     </section>
562     <section>
563     <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
564     <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
565     "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
566     </section>
568     <section>
569     <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
570     <body><p>
571     Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
572     <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
573     and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
574     </p></body>
575     </section>
578     <section>
579     <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
580     </title>
581     <body>
582     <p>
583     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
585     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
587     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
588     you need to put this command in
589     <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
590     disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
591     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
592     target terminal, like this ;
594     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
596     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
597     you would like to disable console beeps for.
598     </p>
599     </body>
600     </section>
601     </chapter>
603     <chapter>
604     <title>Resources</title>
605     <section>
606     <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
607     <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
608     </section>
610     <section>
611     <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
612     <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
613     </section>
615     <section>
616     <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
617     <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
618     <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
619     </p>
620     <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
621     tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
622     to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
623     </body>
624     </section>
626     <section>
627     <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
628     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
629     <body>
630     <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
631     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
632     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
633     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
634     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
636     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
637     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
638     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
639     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
640     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
641     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
643     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
644     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
645     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
646     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
647     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
648     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
649     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
650     reasons, many of these covered
651     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
653     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
654     administrators have seen them.) </p>
655     </body>
656     </section>
658     <section>
659     <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
660     <body>
661     <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>,
662     failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
663     lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
664     to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
665     on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
666     </p>
667     </body>
668     </section>
669     </chapter>
670     </guide>

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