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1 drobbins 1.1 <?xml version='1.0'?>
2     <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9     <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
10     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
11     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
12     <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
14     <version>1.1.2</version>
15     <date>08 October 2002</date>
17     <chapter>
18     <title>Getting Started</title>
20     <section>
21     <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
22     <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "jen-two".</p></body>
23     </section>
25     <section>
26     <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
27     <body>
28     <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
29     design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
30     <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
31     <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
32     <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
33     distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
34     meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
35     versions.
36     </p></body> </section> </chapter>
38     <chapter>
39     <title>Installation</title>
41     <section>
42     <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
43     <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
44     that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
45     Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
46     contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
47     necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
48     as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
49     Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
50     and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
51     the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
52     Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
53     Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
54     on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
55     untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
56     </body>
57     </section>
59     <section>
60     <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
61     <body><p>
62     The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
63     been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
64     changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
65     The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
66     hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
67     patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
68     stabilise anytime soon.
69     </p>
70     </body>
71     </section>
73     <section>
74     <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
75     finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
76     <body>
77     <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
78     attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
79     <pre>
80     boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
81     </pre>
82     <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
83     type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
84     </body>
86     </section>
87     <section>
88     <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
89     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
90     <body>
91     <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
92     having broken packages.
93     Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
94     to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
95     uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
96     -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
97     as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
98     ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
99     (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
100     to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
101     </body>
102     </section>
104     <section>
105     <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
106     <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
107     </section>
109     <section>
110     <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
111     <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
112     for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
113     </p></body>
114     </section>
115     <section>
116     <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
117     <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
118     how can i add another user?</p>
119     <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
120     this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
121     </body>
122     </section>
123     <section>
124     <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
125     <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
126     <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
127     command as root:</p>
128     <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
129     </body>
130     </section>
131     <section>
132     <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
133     <body>
134     <p>
135     If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
136     devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
137     kernel, didn't you?).
138     However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
139     <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
140     like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
141     <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
142     </p>
143     </body>
144     </section>
145     <section>
146     <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
147     <body>
148     <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
149     <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
150     </body>
151     </section>
152     <section>
153     <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
154     doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
155     <body>
156     <p>
157     If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
158     to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
159     it will be preserved between reboots.
160     </p>
161     <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
162     and add these lines:</p>
163     <pre>
164     REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
165     UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
166     </pre>
167     <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
168     adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
169     <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
170     to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
171     </body>
172     </section>
173     <section>
174     <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
175     <body><p>
176     During installation the grub boot files are copied
177     to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
178     earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
179     partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
180     <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
181     info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
182     partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
183     unpacking the build snapshot or running
184     <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
185     <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
186     You can get more information on grub, including how to
187     debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
188     <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
189     </p>
190     </body>
191     </section>
193     <section>
194     <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
195     detection. </title>
196     <body>
197     <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
198     function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
199     will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
200     </body>
201     </section>
203     </chapter>
205     <chapter>
206     <title>Package Management</title>
207     <section>
208     <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
209     <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
210     a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
211     special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
212     binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO
213     </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
214     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
215     compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
216     </body>
217     </section>
219     <section>
220     <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
221     <body>
222     <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
223     philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
224     install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
225     needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
226     package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
227     </body>
228     </section>
230     <section>
231     <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
232     <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
233     dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
234     Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
235     Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
236     </section>
238     <section>
239     <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
240     <body>
241     <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
242     and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
243     </body>
244     </section>
246     <section>
247     <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
248     <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
249     profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
250     are as follows:</p>
251     <table>
252     <tr>
253     <th>Flag</th>
254     <th>Description</th>
255     </tr>
256     <tr>
257     <ti>CHOST</ti>
258     <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
259     </tr>
260     <tr>
261     <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
262     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
263     </tr>
264     <tr>
265     <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
266     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
267     files)</ti>
268     </tr>
269     <tr>
270     <ti>USE</ti>
271     <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
272     available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
273     you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
274     also USE-aware.</ti>
275     </tr>
276     <tr>
277     <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
278     <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
279     will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
280     <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
281     </tr>
282     </table>
283     </body>
284     </section>
286     <section>
287     <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
288     <body>
289     <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
290     if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
291     This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
292     (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
293     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
294     which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
295     the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
296     <ol>
297     <li>Environment variables</li>
298     <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
299     <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
300     <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
301     any other place come from here)</li>
302     </ol></p></body>
303     </section>
305     <section>
306     <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
307     e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
308     <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
309     update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
310     <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
313     </p></body>
314     </section>
316     <section>
317     <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
318     clobbering my config files?</title>
319     <body><p>
320     Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
321     <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
322     a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
323     another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
324     instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
325     tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
326     currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>.
327     </p></body>
328     </section>
330     <section>
331     <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
332     <body><p>
333     Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
334     <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
335     <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
336     the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
337     both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
338     have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
339     should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
340     dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
341     (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
342     completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
343     </p></body>
344     </section>
346     <section>
347     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
348     <body><p>
349     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
350     rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
351     /usr/portage snapshot from
352     <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots</uri>. Just unpack
353     the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
354     the <path>/usr</path> directory.
355     </p></body>
356     </section>
358     <section>
359     <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
360     <body><p>
361     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
362     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
363     appropriately.
364     </p></body>
365     </section>
367     <section>
368     <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
369     <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
370     <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
371     </section>
373     <section>
374     <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
375     add them to my system?</title>
376     <body><p>
377     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
378     are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
379     home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
380     <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
381     </p></body>
382     </section>
384     <section>
385     <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
386     valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
387     <body><p>
388     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
389     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
390     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
391     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
392     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
393     again.
394     </p></body>
395     </section>
397     <section>
398     <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
399     <body>
400     <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
401     maintain your local
402     ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
403     <pre>
404     # <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
405     # <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
406     # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
407     # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
408     # <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
409     # <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
410     # <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
411     # <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
412     # <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
413     # <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
414     # <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
415     # <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
416     </pre>
417     </body>
418     </section>
419     </chapter>
421     <chapter>
422     <title>Usage</title>
423     <section>
424     <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
425     account doesn't work. </title>
426     <body>
427     <p>
428     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
429     for your user entry in
430     <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
431     you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
432     </p>
433     <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
434     </body>
435     </section>
437     <section>
438     <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
439     <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
440     set). Type the following as root:</p>
441     <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
442     </body>
443     </section>
445     <section>
446     <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
447     <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
448     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
449     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
450     </body>
451     </section>
453     <section>
454     <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
455     <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
456     </p>
457     <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
458     </body>
459     </section>
461     <section>
462     <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
463     <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
464     </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
465     <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
466     <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
467     </body>
468     </section>
469     </chapter>
471     <chapter>
472     <title>Maintenance</title>
473     <section>
474     <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
475     <body>
476     <p>
477     If your
478     ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
479     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
480     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
481     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
482     to the corruption.
483     </p>
484     </body>
485     </section>
486     <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
487     <section>
488     <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
489     system?</title>
490     <body>
491     <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
492     current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
494     <pre>
495     # <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i>
496     </pre>
498     <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
500     <pre>
501     # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
502     </pre>
504     </body>
505     </section>
506     </chapter>
508     <chapter>
509     <title>Development</title>
510     <section>
511     <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
512     <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
513     Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
514     <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network.
515     </p></body>
516     </section>
518     <section>
519     <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
520     <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri>
521     mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
522     are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
523     are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
524     new modules get added.</p></body>
525     </section>
527     <section>
528     <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
529     <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
530     "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
531     </section>
533     <section>
534     <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
535     <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
536     "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
537     </section>
539     <section>
540     <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
541     <body><p>
542     Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
543     <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
544     and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
545     </p></body>
546     </section>
549     <section>
550     <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
551     </title>
552     <body>
553     <p>
554     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
556     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
558     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
559     you need to put this command in
560     <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
561     disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
562     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
563     target terminal, like this ;
565     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
567     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
568     you would like to disable console beeps for.
569     </p>
570     </body>
571     </section>
572     </chapter>
574     <chapter>
575     <title>Resources</title>
576     <section>
577     <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
578     <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
579     </section>
581     <section>
582     <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
583     <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
584     </section>
586     <section>
587     <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
588     <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
589     <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
590     </p>
591     <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
592     tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
593     to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
594     </body>
595     </section>
597     <section>
598     <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
599     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
600     <body>
601     <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
602     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
603     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
604     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
605     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
607     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
608     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
609     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
610     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
611     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
612     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
614     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
615     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
616     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
617     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
618     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
619     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
620     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
621     reasons, many of these covered
622     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
624     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
625     administrators have seen them.) </p>
626     </body>
627     </section>
629     <section>
630     <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
631     <body>
632     <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>,
633     failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
634     lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
635     to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
636     on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
637     </p>
638     </body>
639     </section>
640     </chapter>
641     </guide>

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