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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7     <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 zhware 1.16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 carl 1.20 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12 peesh 1.26 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
13 swift 1.29 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
14 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
16 swift 1.38 <version>1.1.5</version>
17     <date>August 20th, 2003</date>
18 swift 1.36
19     <chapter>
20     <title>Featured Questions</title>
21     <section>
22     <title>Getting Started</title>
23     <body>
24     <ul>
25     <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean? </uri></li>
26     <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li>
27     </ul>
28     </body>
29     </section>
30     <section>
31     <title>Installation</title>
32     <body>
33     <ul>
34     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li>
35     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li>
36 swift 1.38 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li>
37     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li>
38     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li>
39     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do i add a normal user?</uri></li>
40     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root? </uri></li>
41     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
42     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
43     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)? </uri></li>
44     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
45     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li>
46     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</uri></li>
47     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li>
48     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentification, what do I have to do?</uri></li>
49 swift 1.36 </ul>
50     </body>
51     </section>
52     <section>
53     <title>Package Management</title>
54     <body>
55     <ul>
56     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li>
57     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li>
58     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li>
59     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li>
60     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li>
61     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li>
62     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li>
63     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
64     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
65     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li>
66     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li>
67     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li>
68     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li>
69     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li>
70     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </uri></li>
71     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage? </uri></li>
72     </ul>
73     </body>
74     </section>
75     <section>
76     <title>Usage</title>
77     <body>
78     <ul>
79     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li>
80     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only. </uri></li>
81     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li>
82     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only. </uri></li>
83     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile? </uri></li>
84     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab? </uri></li>
85     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li>
86 swift 1.37 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when
87     I log out?</uri></li>
88 swift 1.36 </ul>
89     </body>
90     </section>
91     <section>
92     <title>Maintenance</title>
93     <body>
94     <ul>
95     <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</uri></li>
96     <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system? </uri></li>
97     </ul>
98     </body>
99     </section>
100     <section>
101     <title>Development</title>
102     <body>
103     <ul>
104     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
105     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made? </uri></li>
106     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li>
107     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li>
108     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors </uri></li>
109     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps? </uri></li>
110     </ul>
111     </body>
112     </section>
113     <section>
114     <title>Resources</title>
115     <body>
116     <ul>
117     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier? </uri></li>
118     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux? </uri></li>
119     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
120     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li>
121     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now? </uri></li>
122     </ul>
123     </body>
124     </section>
125     </chapter>
127 drobbins 1.1
128     <chapter>
129     <title>Getting Started</title>
131     <section>
132     <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
133 drobbins 1.11 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
134 drobbins 1.1 </section>
136     <section>
137     <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
138     <body>
139     <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
140     design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
141     <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
142     <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
143     <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
144     distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
145     meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
146     versions.
147 zhen 1.5 </p>
148     </body>
149     </section>
150     </chapter>
151 drobbins 1.1
152     <chapter>
153     <title>Installation</title>
154 zhen 1.6
155 zhen 1.9 <section>
156 drobbins 1.1
157 zhen 1.10 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
158 zhen 1.9 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
159 zhen 1.10 </warn>
160 zhen 1.9
161 drobbins 1.1 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
162     <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
163     that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
164     Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
165     contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
166     necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
167     as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
168     Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
169     and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
170     the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
171     Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
172     Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
173     on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
174     untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
175     </body>
176     </section>
178     <section>
179     <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
180     <body><p>
181     The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
182     been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
183     changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
184     The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
185     hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
186     patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
187     stabilise anytime soon.
188     </p>
189     </body>
190     </section>
192     <section>
193     <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
194     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
195     <body>
196 klieber 1.35 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
197 peesh 1.34 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
198 swift 1.30 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
199     is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
200     -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
201 drobbins 1.1 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
202     ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
203     (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
204     to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
205 zhware 1.4 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
206 drobbins 1.1 </body>
207     </section>
209     <section>
210     <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
211     <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
212     </section>
214     <section>
215     <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
216     <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
217     for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
218     </p></body>
219     </section>
220     <section>
221     <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
222 swift 1.36 <body>
223 drobbins 1.1 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
224     this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
225 swift 1.36 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
226 zhware 1.15 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
227 zhware 1.16 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
228 zhware 1.15 </p>
229 swift 1.36 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
230     </p>
231 drobbins 1.1 </body>
232     </section>
233     <section>
234     <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
235     <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
236     <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
237     command as root:</p>
238     <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
239     </body>
240     </section>
241     <section>
242     <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
243     <body>
244     <p>
245     If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
246     devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
247     kernel, didn't you?).
248     However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
249     <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
250     like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
251     <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
252     </p>
253     </body>
254     </section>
255     <section>
256     <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
257     <body>
258     <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
259     <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
260     </body>
261     </section>
262     <section>
263     <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
264     doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
265     <body>
266     <p>
267     If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
268     to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
269     it will be preserved between reboots.
270     </p>
271     <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
272     and add these lines:</p>
273     <pre>
274     REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
275     UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
276     </pre>
277     <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
278     adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
279     <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
280     to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
281     </body>
282     </section>
283     <section>
284     <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
285     <body><p>
286     During installation the grub boot files are copied
287     to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
288     earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
289     partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
290     <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
291     info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
292     partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
293     unpacking the build snapshot or running
294     <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
295     <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
296     You can get more information on grub, including how to
297     debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
298     <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
299     </p>
300     </body>
301     </section>
303     <section>
304     <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
305     detection. </title>
306     <body>
307     <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
308     function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
309     will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
310     </body>
311     </section>
313 zhware 1.19 <section>
314     <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
315     <body>
316     In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
317 swift 1.31 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
318 zhware 1.19 </body>
319     </section>
320 swift 1.37 <section>
321     <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
322     <body>
323     <p>
324     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
325     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
326     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
327     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
328     </p>
329     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
330     <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
331     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
332     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
333     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
334     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
335     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
336     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
337     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
338     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
339     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
340     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
341     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
342     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
343     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
344     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
345     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
346     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
347     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
348     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
349     # <i>exit</i>
350     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
351     # <i>reboot</i>
352     </pre>
353     <p>
354     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
355     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
356     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
357     </p>
358     </body>
359     </section>
360 swift 1.38 <section>
361     <title>My proxy requires authentification, what do I have to do?</title>
362     <body>
364     <p>
365     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
366     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
367     </p>
368     <pre caption = "Proxy-authentification using wget">
369     # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
370     </pre>
371     <p>
372     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
373     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
374     </p>
375     <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
376     FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
377     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
378     </pre>
379     <p>
380     Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
381     authentification for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
382     if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
383     handle this situation.
384     </p>
386     </body>
387     </section>
389 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
391     <chapter>
392     <title>Package Management</title>
393     <section>
394     <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
395     <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
396     a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
397     special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
398 swift 1.22 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
399 drobbins 1.1 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
400     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
401     compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
402     </body>
403     </section>
405     <section>
406     <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
407     <body>
408     <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
409     philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
410     install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
411     needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
412     package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
413     </body>
414     </section>
416     <section>
417     <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
418     <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
419     dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
420     Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
421     Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
422     </section>
424     <section>
425     <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
426     <body>
427 swift 1.22 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
428 drobbins 1.1 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
429     </body>
430     </section>
432     <section>
433     <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
434     <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
435     profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
436     are as follows:</p>
437     <table>
438     <tr>
439     <th>Flag</th>
440     <th>Description</th>
441     </tr>
442     <tr>
443     <ti>CHOST</ti>
444     <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
445     </tr>
446     <tr>
447     <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
448     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
449     </tr>
450     <tr>
451     <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
452     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
453     files)</ti>
454     </tr>
455     <tr>
456     <ti>USE</ti>
457     <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
458     available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
459     you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
460     also USE-aware.</ti>
461     </tr>
462     <tr>
463     <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
464     <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
465     will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
466     <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
467     </tr>
468     </table>
469     </body>
470     </section>
472     <section>
473     <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
474     <body>
475     <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
476     if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
477     This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
478     (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
479     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
480     which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
481     the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
482     <ol>
483     <li>Environment variables</li>
484     <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
485     <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
486     <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
487     any other place come from here)</li>
488     </ol></p></body>
489     </section>
491     <section>
492     <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
493     e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
494     <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
495     update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
496     <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
499     </p></body>
500     </section>
502     <section>
503     <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
504     clobbering my config files?</title>
505     <body><p>
506     Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
507     <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
508     a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
509     another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
510     instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
511     tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
512 swift 1.27 which is now part of Portage.
513 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
514     </section>
516     <section>
517     <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
518     <body><p>
519     Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
520     <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
521     <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
522     the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
523     both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
524     have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
525     should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
526     dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
527     (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
528     completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
529     </p></body>
530     </section>
532     <section>
533     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
534     <body><p>
535     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
536 swift 1.29 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
537     and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
538     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
539     supported.
540     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
541     ~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
542     If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
543     from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
544     In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
545     your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
546     stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
547     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
548     lose all your sourcecode.
549     <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
550     <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
551     ~# <c>cd /usr</c>
552     ~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
553     ~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
554     ~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
555     ~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
556 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
557     </section>
559     <section>
560     <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
561     <body><p>
562     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
563     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
564     appropriately.
565     </p></body>
566     </section>
568     <section>
569     <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
570     <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
571     <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
572     </section>
574     <section>
575     <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
576     add them to my system?</title>
577     <body><p>
578     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
579 peesh 1.24 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
580     download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
581     Download sources and bring them on any media
582 drobbins 1.1 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
583     <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
584     </p></body>
585     </section>
587     <section>
588     <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
589     valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
590     <body><p>
591     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
592     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
593     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
594     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
595     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
596     again.
597     </p></body>
598 zhen 1.5 </section>
600     <section>
601     <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
602     <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
603     Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
605     <body>
606     <p>Solution: </p>
607     <pre caption = "Solution">
608     # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
609     # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
610     </pre>
612 drobbins 1.1 </body>
613     </section>
614 zhware 1.18 <section>
615     <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
616     <body>
617     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
618     </body>
619     </section>
620 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
622     <chapter>
623     <title>Usage</title>
624     <section>
625     <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
626     account doesn't work. </title>
627     <body>
628     <p>
629     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
630     for your user entry in
631     <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
632     you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
633     </p>
634     <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
635     </body>
636     </section>
638     <section>
639     <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
640     <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
641     set). Type the following as root:</p>
642     <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
643     </body>
644     </section>
646     <section>
647     <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
648     <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
649     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
650     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
651     </body>
652     </section>
654     <section>
655     <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
656     <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
657     </p>
658     <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
659     </body>
660     </section>
662     <section>
663     <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
664     <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
665     </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
666     <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
667     <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
668 zhen 1.17 </body>
669     </section>
671     <section>
672     <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
673     <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
674     </p>
675 drobbins 1.1 </body>
676     </section>
677 swift 1.32
678     <section>
679     <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
680     <body>
681     <p>
682     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
683 swift 1.33 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
684 swift 1.32 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
685     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
686     <path>/etc/X11/xdm/Xsetup_0</path> (for any graphical login manager).
687     </p>
688     <p>
689     If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
690     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
691     reboot.
692     </p>
693     </body>
694     </section>
695 swift 1.37 <section>
696     <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
697     <body>
698     <p>
699     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
700     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
701     </p>
702     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
703     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre>
704     <p>
705     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
706     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
707     </p>
708     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
709     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
710     </body>
711     </section>
712 swift 1.38
713 swift 1.32
714 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
716     <chapter>
717     <title>Maintenance</title>
718     <section>
719     <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
720     <body>
721     <p>
722     If your
723     ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
724     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
725     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
726     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
727     to the corruption.
728     </p>
729     </body>
730     </section>
731     <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
732     <section>
733     <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
734     system?</title>
735     <body>
736     <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
737     current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
739     <pre>
740 seo 1.14 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
741 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
743     <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
745     <pre>
746     # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
747     </pre>
749     </body>
750     </section>
751     </chapter>
753     <chapter>
754     <title>Development</title>
755     <section>
756     <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
757     <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
758     Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
759 swift 1.27 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
760 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
761     </section>
763     <section>
764     <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
765 zhen 1.13 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
766 drobbins 1.1 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
767     are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
768     are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
769     new modules get added.</p></body>
770     </section>
772     <section>
773     <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
774     <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
775     "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
776     </section>
778     <section>
779     <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
780     <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
781 swift 1.28 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
782 drobbins 1.1 </section>
784     <section>
785     <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
786     <body><p>
787     Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
788     <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
789     and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
790     </p></body>
791     </section>
794     <section>
795     <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
796     </title>
797     <body>
798     <p>
799     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
801     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
803     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
804     you need to put this command in
805     <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
806     disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
807     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
808     target terminal, like this ;
810     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
812     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
813     you would like to disable console beeps for.
814     </p>
815     </body>
816     </section>
817     </chapter>
819     <chapter>
820     <title>Resources</title>
821     <section>
822     <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
823     <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
824     </section>
826     <section>
827     <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
828     <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
829     </section>
831     <section>
832     <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
833     <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
834     <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
835     </p>
836     <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
837     tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
838     to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
839     </body>
840     </section>
842     <section>
843     <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
844     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
845     <body>
846     <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
847     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
848     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
849     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
850     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
852     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
853     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
854     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
855     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
856     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
857     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
859     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
860     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
861     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
862     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
863     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
864     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
865     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
866     reasons, many of these covered
867     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
869     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
870     administrators have seen them.) </p>
871     </body>
872     </section>
874     <section>
875     <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
876     <body>
877 zhen 1.23 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
878 drobbins 1.1 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
879 zhen 1.23 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
880     just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
881 drobbins 1.1 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
882     on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
883     </p>
884     </body>
885     </section>
886     </chapter>
887     </guide>

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