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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.53 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.52 2004/01/27 14:59:35 erwin Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
8     <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
9 swift 1.43 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->John P. Davis</author>
10 drobbins 1.1 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
11 zhware 1.16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
12 carl 1.20 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
13 peesh 1.26 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
14 swift 1.29 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
15 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
16     This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list
17     and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author
18     or a member of the documentation team.
19     </abstract>
20 drobbins 1.1
21 swift 1.42 <license/>
23 erwin 1.52 <version>1.1.12</version>
24     <date>January 27, 2004</date>
25 swift 1.36
26     <chapter>
27     <title>Featured Questions</title>
28     <section>
29     <title>Getting Started</title>
30     <body>
31     <ul>
32 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</uri></li>
33 swift 1.36 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li>
34     </ul>
35     </body>
36     </section>
37     <section>
38     <title>Installation</title>
39     <body>
40     <ul>
41     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li>
42     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li>
43 swift 1.38 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li>
44     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li>
45 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can I change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li>
46     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do I add a normal user?</uri></li>
47     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root?</uri></li>
48 swift 1.38 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
49     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
50 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</uri></li>
51 swift 1.38 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
52     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li>
53 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2/rc3/final without reinstalling?</uri></li>
54 swift 1.38 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li>
55 bennyc 1.40 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</uri></li>
56 swift 1.36 </ul>
57     </body>
58     </section>
59     <section>
60     <title>Package Management</title>
61     <body>
62     <ul>
63     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li>
64     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li>
65     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li>
66     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li>
67     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li>
68     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li>
69     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li>
70     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
71 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
72 swift 1.36 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li>
73     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li>
74     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li>
75 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li>
76     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li>
77     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice then refuses to emerge. What do I do?</uri></li>
78     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri></li>
79 swift 1.36 </ul>
80     </body>
81     </section>
82     <section>
83     <title>Usage</title>
84     <body>
85     <ul>
86     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li>
87 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only.</uri></li>
88 swift 1.36 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li>
89 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri></li>
90     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile?</uri></li>
91     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri></li>
92 swift 1.36 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li>
93 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</uri></li>
94 swift 1.36 </ul>
95     </body>
96     </section>
97     <section>
98     <title>Maintenance</title>
99     <body>
100     <ul>
101 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc...</uri></li>
102     <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system?</uri></li>
103 swift 1.41 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri></li>
104 swift 1.36 </ul>
105     </body>
106     </section>
107     <section>
108     <title>Development</title>
109     <body>
110     <ul>
111     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
112 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made?</uri></li>
113 swift 1.36 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li>
114     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li>
115 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors. What gives?</uri></li>
116     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri></li>
117 swift 1.36 </ul>
118     </body>
119     </section>
120     <section>
121     <title>Resources</title>
122     <body>
123     <ul>
124 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</uri></li>
125     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
126 swift 1.36 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
127     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li>
128 vapier 1.49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</uri></li>
129 swift 1.36 </ul>
130     </body>
131     </section>
132     </chapter>
134 drobbins 1.1
135     <chapter>
136     <title>Getting Started</title>
138     <section>
139     <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
140 vapier 1.49 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle").</p></body>
141 drobbins 1.1 </section>
143     <section>
144     <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
145     <body>
146 vapier 1.49 <p>
147     Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
148 drobbins 1.1 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
149     <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
150 vapier 1.49 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
151     <uri link="http://www.bsd.org/">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
152     distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
153 swift 1.51 meaning the packages are continually updated to the latest
154 vapier 1.49 versions.
155     </p>
156 zhen 1.5 </body>
157     </section>
158     </chapter>
159 drobbins 1.1
160     <chapter>
161     <title>Installation</title>
162 zhen 1.6
163 zhen 1.9 <section>
164 drobbins 1.1 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
165     <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
166     that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
167     Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
168     contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
169     necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
170     as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
171     Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
172     and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
173     the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
174     Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
175     Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
176     on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
177     untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
178     </body>
179     </section>
181     <section>
182     <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
183     <body><p>
184     The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
185     been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
186     changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
187     The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
188     hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
189     patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
190     stabilise anytime soon.
191     </p>
192     </body>
193     </section>
195     <section>
196     <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
197     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
198     <body>
199 klieber 1.35 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
200 peesh 1.34 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
201 swift 1.30 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
202     is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
203     -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
204 drobbins 1.1 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
205     ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
206     (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
207     to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
208 zhware 1.4 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
209 drobbins 1.1 </body>
210     </section>
212     <section>
213     <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
214     <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
215     </section>
217     <section>
218     <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
219     <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
220     for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
221     </p></body>
222     </section>
223     <section>
224     <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
225 swift 1.36 <body>
226 drobbins 1.1 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
227     this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
228 swift 1.36 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
229 zhware 1.15 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
230 zhware 1.16 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
231 zhware 1.15 </p>
232 vapier 1.49 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.</p>
233 drobbins 1.1 </body>
234     </section>
235     <section>
236     <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
237     <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
238     <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
239     command as root:</p>
240     <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
241     </body>
242     </section>
243     <section>
244     <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
245     <body>
246     <p>
247     If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
248     devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
249     kernel, didn't you?).
250     However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
251     <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
252     like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
253     <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
254     </p>
255     </body>
256     </section>
257     <section>
258     <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
259     <body>
260     <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
261     <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
262     </body>
263     </section>
264     <section>
265     <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
266     doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
267     <body>
268     <p>
269     If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
270     to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
271     it will be preserved between reboots.
272     </p>
273     <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
274     and add these lines:</p>
275     <pre>
276     REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
277     UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
278     </pre>
279     <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
280     adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
281     <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
282     to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
283     </body>
284     </section>
285     <section>
286     <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
287     <body><p>
288     During installation the grub boot files are copied
289     to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
290     earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
291     partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
292     <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
293     info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
294     partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
295     unpacking the build snapshot or running
296     <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
297     <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
298     You can get more information on grub, including how to
299     debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
300     <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
301     </p>
302 vapier 1.49 </body>
303 drobbins 1.1 </section>
305     <section>
306     <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
307     detection. </title>
308     <body>
309     <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
310     function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
311     will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
312     </body>
313     </section>
315 zhware 1.19 <section>
316     <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
317     <body>
318 swift 1.53 <p>
319 zhware 1.19 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
320 swift 1.31 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
321 swift 1.53 </p>
322 zhware 1.19 </body>
323     </section>
324 vapier 1.49
325     <section>
326     <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
327     <body>
328     <p>
329     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
330     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
331     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
332     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
333     </p>
334     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
335 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
336     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
337     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
338     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
339     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
340     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
341     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
342     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
343     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
344     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
345     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
346     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
347     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
348     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
349     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
350     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
351     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
352     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
353     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
354     # <i>exit</i>
355     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
356     # <i>reboot</i>
357     </pre>
358     <p>
359     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
360     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
361     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
362     </p>
363     </body>
364     </section>
365 swift 1.38 <section>
366 bennyc 1.40 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
367 swift 1.38 <body>
369     <p>
370     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
371     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
372     </p>
373 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
374 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
375     </pre>
376     <p>
377     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
378     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
379     </p>
380     <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
381     FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
382     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
383     </pre>
384     <p>
385     Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
386 bennyc 1.40 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
387 swift 1.38 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
388     handle this situation.
389     </p>
391     </body>
392     </section>
394 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
396     <chapter>
397     <title>Package Management</title>
398     <section>
399     <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
400     <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
401     a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
402     special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
403 swift 1.22 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
404 drobbins 1.1 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
405     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
406     compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
407     </body>
408     </section>
410     <section>
411     <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
412     <body>
413     <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
414     philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
415     install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
416     needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
417     package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
418     </body>
419     </section>
421     <section>
422     <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
423     <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
424     dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
425     Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
426     Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
427     </section>
429     <section>
430     <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
431     <body>
432 swift 1.22 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
433 drobbins 1.1 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
434     </body>
435     </section>
437     <section>
438     <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
439     <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
440     profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
441     are as follows:</p>
442     <table>
443     <tr>
444     <th>Flag</th>
445     <th>Description</th>
446     </tr>
447     <tr>
448     <ti>CHOST</ti>
449     <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
450     </tr>
451     <tr>
452     <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
453     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
454     </tr>
455     <tr>
456     <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
457     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
458     files)</ti>
459     </tr>
460     <tr>
461     <ti>USE</ti>
462     <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
463     available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
464     you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
465     also USE-aware.</ti>
466     </tr>
467     <tr>
468     <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
469     <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
470     will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
471     <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
472     </tr>
473     </table>
474     </body>
475     </section>
477     <section>
478     <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
479     <body>
480     <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
481     if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
482     This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
483     (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
484     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
485     which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
486     the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
487     <ol>
488     <li>Environment variables</li>
489     <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
490     <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
491     <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
492     any other place come from here)</li>
493     </ol></p></body>
494     </section>
496     <section>
497     <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
498     e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
499     <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
500     update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
501     <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
504     </p></body>
505     </section>
507     <section>
508     <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
509     clobbering my config files?</title>
510     <body><p>
511     Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
512     <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
513     a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
514     another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
515     instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
516     tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
517 swift 1.27 which is now part of Portage.
518 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
519     </section>
521     <section>
522     <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
523 swift 1.45 <body>
524     <p>
525     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
526     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
527     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
528     </p>
530     <p>
531     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
532     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
533     </p>
535     <p>
536     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
537     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
538     perform to configure and compile the package.
539     </p>
541     <p>
542     When finished, execute <c>touch
543     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
544     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
545     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
546     merge</c>.
547     </p>
549     </body>
550 drobbins 1.1 </section>
552     <section>
553     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
554     <body><p>
555     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
556 swift 1.29 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
557     and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
558     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
559     supported.
560     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
561     ~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
562     If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
563     from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
564     In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
565     your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
566     stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
567     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
568     lose all your sourcecode.
569     <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
570     <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
571     ~# <c>cd /usr</c>
572     ~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
573     ~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
574     ~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
575     ~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
576 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
577     </section>
579     <section>
580     <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
581     <body><p>
582     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
583     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
584     appropriately.
585     </p></body>
586     </section>
588     <section>
589     <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
590     <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
591     <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
592     </section>
594     <section>
595     <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
596     add them to my system?</title>
597     <body><p>
598     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
599 peesh 1.24 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
600     download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
601     Download sources and bring them on any media
602 drobbins 1.1 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
603     <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
604     </p></body>
605     </section>
607     <section>
608     <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
609     valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
610     <body><p>
611     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
612     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
613     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
614     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
615     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
616     again.
617     </p></body>
618 zhen 1.5 </section>
620     <section>
621     <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
622     <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
623     Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
625     <body>
626     <p>Solution: </p>
627     <pre caption = "Solution">
628     # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
629     # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
630     </pre>
632 drobbins 1.1 </body>
633     </section>
634 zhware 1.18 <section>
635     <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
636     <body>
637 swift 1.53 <p>
638 zhware 1.18 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
639 swift 1.53 </p>
640 zhware 1.18 </body>
641     </section>
642 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
644     <chapter>
645     <title>Usage</title>
646     <section>
647     <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
648     account doesn't work. </title>
649     <body>
650     <p>
651     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
652     for your user entry in
653     <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
654     you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
655     </p>
656     <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
657     </body>
658     </section>
660     <section>
661     <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
662     <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
663     set). Type the following as root:</p>
664     <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
665     </body>
666     </section>
668     <section>
669     <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
670     <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
671     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
672     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
673     </body>
674     </section>
676     <section>
677     <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
678     <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
679     </p>
680     <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
681     </body>
682     </section>
684     <section>
685     <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
686     <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
687     </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
688     <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
689     <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
690 zhen 1.17 </body>
691     </section>
693     <section>
694     <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
695     <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
696     </p>
697 drobbins 1.1 </body>
698     </section>
699 swift 1.32
700     <section>
701     <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
702     <body>
703     <p>
704     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
705 swift 1.33 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
706 swift 1.32 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
707     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
708 swift 1.39 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
709     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
710 swift 1.32 </p>
711     <p>
712     If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
713     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
714     reboot.
715     </p>
716     </body>
717     </section>
718 swift 1.37 <section>
719     <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
720     <body>
721     <p>
722     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
723     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
724     </p>
725     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
726     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre>
727     <p>
728     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
729     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
730     </p>
731     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
732     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
733     </body>
734     </section>
735 swift 1.38
736 swift 1.32
737 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
739     <chapter>
740     <title>Maintenance</title>
741     <section>
742     <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
743     <body>
744     <p>
745     If your
746     ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
747     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
748     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
749     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
750     to the corruption.
751     </p>
752     </body>
753     </section>
754     <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
755     <section>
756     <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
757     system?</title>
758     <body>
759     <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
760     current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
762     <pre>
763 seo 1.14 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
764 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
766     <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
768     <pre>
769     # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
770     </pre>
772     </body>
773     </section>
774 swift 1.41 <section>
775     <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
776     <body>
778     <p>
779     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
780     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
781     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
782     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
783     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
784     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
785     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
786     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
787     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
788     </p>
790     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
791     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
792     # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
793     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
794     # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
795     </pre>
797     </body>
798     </section>
799 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
801     <chapter>
802     <title>Development</title>
803     <section>
804     <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
805     <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
806     Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
807 swift 1.27 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
808 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
809     </section>
811     <section>
812     <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
813 zhen 1.13 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
814 drobbins 1.1 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
815     are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
816     are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
817     new modules get added.</p></body>
818     </section>
820     <section>
821     <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
822     <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
823     "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
824     </section>
826     <section>
827     <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
828     <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
829 swift 1.28 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
830 drobbins 1.1 </section>
832     <section>
833     <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
834     <body><p>
835     Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
836     <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
837     and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
838     </p></body>
839     </section>
842     <section>
843     <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
844     </title>
845     <body>
846     <p>
847     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
849     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
851     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
852     you need to put this command in
853     <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
854     disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
855     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
856     target terminal, like this ;
858     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
860     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
861     you would like to disable console beeps for.
862     </p>
863     </body>
864     </section>
865     </chapter>
867     <chapter>
868     <title>Resources</title>
869     <section>
870     <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
871     <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
872     </section>
874     <section>
875     <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
876 erwin 1.44 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.</p></body>
877 drobbins 1.1 </section>
879 erwin 1.52 <section>
880     <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
881     <body>
883     <p>Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
884     our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
885     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
886     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
887     </p>
889     <p>
890     You can also find fresh CDs from
891     <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010933">Cheapbytes
892     </uri> and <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
893     tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
894     portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
895     </p>
897     </body>
898     </section>
899 drobbins 1.1
900     <section>
901     <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
902     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
903     <body>
904     <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
905     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
906     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
907     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
908     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
910     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
911     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
912     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
913     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
914     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
915     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
917     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
918     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
919     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
920     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
921     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
922     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
923     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
924     reasons, many of these covered
925     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
927     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
928     administrators have seen them.) </p>
929     </body>
930     </section>
932     <section>
933     <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
934     <body>
935 vapier 1.49 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>,
936 drobbins 1.1 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
937 zhen 1.23 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
938     just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
939 drobbins 1.1 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
940     on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
941     </p>
942     </body>
943     </section>
944     </chapter>
945     </guide>

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