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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 neysx 1.84 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.83 2005/06/04 17:05:39 neysx Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 swift 1.71 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 swift 1.54
35 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
36 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37     mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38     please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
40 drobbins 1.1
41 swift 1.42 <license/>
42    
43 neysx 1.84 <version>2.16</version>
44     <date>2005-06-05</date>
45 swift 1.36
46     <chapter>
47     <title>Featured Questions</title>
48     <section>
49     <title>Getting Started</title>
50     <body>
51 swift 1.54
52 swift 1.36 <ul>
53 swift 1.54 <li>
54 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
56 swift 1.54 </li>
57     <li>
58 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 swift 1.54 </li>
60 swift 1.36 </ul>
61 swift 1.54
62 swift 1.36 </body>
63     </section>
64     <section>
65     <title>Installation</title>
66     <body>
67 swift 1.54
68 swift 1.36 <ul>
69 swift 1.54 <li>
70 swift 1.61 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
71 swift 1.55 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
72 swift 1.54 gives?</uri>
73     </li>
74     <li>
75 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
77 swift 1.54 </li>
78     <li>
79 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 swift 1.54 </li>
81     <li>
82 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 swift 1.54 </li>
84     <li>
85 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 swift 1.54 </li>
87     <li>
88 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 swift 1.54 </li>
91     <li>
92 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
94 swift 1.54 </li>
95     <li>
96 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
98     </li>
99 swift 1.65 <li>
100     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101     </li>
102 swift 1.77 <li>
103     <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
104     </li>
105 swift 1.36 </ul>
106 swift 1.54
107 swift 1.36 </body>
108     </section>
109     <section>
110     <title>Package Management</title>
111     <body>
112 swift 1.54
113 swift 1.36 <ul>
114 swift 1.54 <li>
115 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
116 swift 1.54 </li>
117     <li>
118 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
119 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
120     </li>
121     <li>
122 swift 1.61 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
123 swift 1.54 </li>
124     <li>
125 swift 1.61 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
126 swift 1.54 firewall?</uri>
127     </li>
128     <li>
129 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
130 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
131 swift 1.54 </li>
132     <li>
133 swift 1.61 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
134 neysx 1.56 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
135 swift 1.55 delete there files?</uri>
136 swift 1.54 </li>
137     <li>
138 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
139 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
140     </li>
141 swift 1.36 </ul>
142 swift 1.54
143 swift 1.36 </body>
144     </section>
145     <section>
146     <title>Usage</title>
147     <body>
148 swift 1.54
149 swift 1.36 <ul>
150 swift 1.54 <li>
151 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
152 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
153     </li>
154     <li>
155 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
156 swift 1.54 </li>
157     <li>
158 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
159 swift 1.54 </li>
160     <li>
161 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
162 swift 1.54 </li>
163     <li>
164 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
165 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
166     </li>
167 swift 1.76 <li>
168     <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
169     su'ing</uri>
170     </li>
171 swift 1.36 </ul>
172 swift 1.54
173 swift 1.36 </body>
174     </section>
175     <section>
176     <title>Maintenance</title>
177     <body>
178 swift 1.54
179 swift 1.36 <ul>
180 swift 1.54 <li>
181 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
182 swift 1.55 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
183 swift 1.54 </li>
184 swift 1.36 </ul>
185 swift 1.54
186 swift 1.36 </body>
187     </section>
188     <section>
189     <title>Development</title>
190     <body>
191 swift 1.54
192 swift 1.36 <ul>
193 swift 1.54 <li>
194 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
195 swift 1.54 </li>
196     <li>
197 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
198 swift 1.54 </li>
199     <li>
200 swift 1.61 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
201 swift 1.55 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
202 swift 1.54 </li>
203 swift 1.36 </ul>
204 swift 1.54
205 swift 1.36 </body>
206     </section>
207     <section>
208     <title>Resources</title>
209     <body>
210 swift 1.54
211 swift 1.36 <ul>
212 swift 1.54 <li>
213 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
214 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
215 swift 1.54 </li>
216     <li>
217 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
218 swift 1.54 </li>
219     <li>
220 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
221 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
222 swift 1.54 </li>
223 swift 1.36 </ul>
224 swift 1.54
225 swift 1.36 </body>
226     </section>
227     </chapter>
228    
229 swift 1.54 <chapter>
230     <title>Getting Started</title>
231    
232 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
233 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
234     <body>
235    
236     <p>
237 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
238 neysx 1.83 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
239 swift 1.55 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
240 neysx 1.78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
241 swift 1.54 </p>
242    
243     </body>
244     </section>
245 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
246 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
247     <body>
248 drobbins 1.1
249 swift 1.54 <p>
250 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
251     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
252     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
253     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
254 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
255 swift 1.55 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
256     sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
257 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
258 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
259 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
260 swift 1.54 </p>
261 drobbins 1.1
262 swift 1.54 <p>
263 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
264     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
265     installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install Gentoo
266     to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
267 swift 1.54 </p>
268    
269     <p>
270 neysx 1.83 Gentoo is actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
271 swift 1.55 package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
272     development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
273     mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
274 neysx 1.83 added frequently, and releases succeed each other quickly.
275 swift 1.54 </p>
276    
277     </body>
278     </section>
279 swift 1.55 </chapter>
280    
281     <chapter>
282     <title>Installation</title>
283 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
284 swift 1.54 <title>
285     I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
286     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
287     </title>
288     <body>
289    
290     <p>
291 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
292 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
293     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
294 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
295 swift 1.54 </p>
296    
297     <p>
298 neysx 1.83 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march=&lt;your_arch&gt; -O2</c> before
299     reporting a bug.
300 swift 1.54 </p>
301    
302     </body>
303     </section>
304 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
305 neysx 1.83 <title>How can I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
306 swift 1.54 <body>
307    
308     <p>
309     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
310 neysx 1.83 into. For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c> once you've
311 swift 1.54 completed the install.
312     </p>
313    
314     </body>
315     </section>
316 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
317 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
318 swift 1.54 <body>
319    
320     <p>
321 neysx 1.83 The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called "gentoo". The next
322     step is to give this user a password using <c>passwd gentoo</c>.
323 swift 1.54 </p>
324    
325     <p>
326     Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
327     </p>
328    
329     <pre caption="Using useradd">
330 swift 1.82 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash gentoo</i>
331 swift 1.54 </pre>
332    
333     <p>
334 vapier 1.70 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
335     devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
336 neysx 1.83 root (using <c>su</c>), and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
337 swift 1.54 </p>
338    
339     <p>
340 neysx 1.83 You can install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
341 swift 1.54 then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
342 neysx 1.83 the instructions which are then given.
343 swift 1.54 </p>
344    
345     </body>
346     </section>
347 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
348 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
349     <body>
350    
351     <p>
352     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
353 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
354     as root:
355 swift 1.54 </p>
356    
357     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
358 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
359 swift 1.54 </pre>
360    
361     </body>
362     </section>
363 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
364 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
365 swift 1.54 <body>
366    
367     <p>
368 swift 1.55 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
369     can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
370     other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
371     kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
372     to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
373     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
374 swift 1.54 </p>
375    
376     </body>
377     </section>
378 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
379 swift 1.54 <title>
380 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
381 swift 1.54 </title>
382     <body>
383    
384     <p>
385 swift 1.55 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
386     <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
387 cam 1.72 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
388 swift 1.55 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
389     The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
390 swift 1.54 </p>
391    
392 swift 1.62 <p>
393     More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
394     Upgrading Guide</uri>.
395     </p>
396    
397 swift 1.54 </body>
398     </section>
399 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
400 swift 1.54 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
401     <body>
402    
403     <p>
404     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
405     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
406     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
407     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
408     </p>
409    
410     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
411 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
412     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
413     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
414     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
415     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
416     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
417     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
418     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
419     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
420     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
421     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
422     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
423     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
424     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
425     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
426     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
427     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
428     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
429     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
430     # <i>exit</i>
431     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
432     # <i>reboot</i>
433 swift 1.54 </pre>
434    
435     <p>
436     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
437     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
438     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
439     </p>
440    
441     </body>
442     </section>
443 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
444 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
445     <body>
446    
447     <p>
448     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
449     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
450     </p>
451    
452 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
453 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
454     </pre>
455 swift 1.54
456     <p>
457     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
458     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
459     </p>
460    
461 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
462 swift 1.79 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
463     -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
464     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
465     -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
466 swift 1.38 </pre>
467 swift 1.54
468     <p>
469 swift 1.80 To have <c>rsync</c> use a proxy, set the RSYNC_PROXY environment variable as
470     so:
471 swift 1.54 </p>
472    
473 swift 1.80 <pre caption="/etc/make.conf's setting for RSYNC">
474     RSYNC_PROXY="<comment>username</comment>:<comment>password</comment>@<comment>proxy-server</comment>:<comment>port</comment>"
475     </pre>
476    
477 swift 1.54 </body>
478     </section>
479 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
480     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
481     <body>
482    
483     <p>
484 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
485     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
486 swift 1.65 </p>
487    
488     <p>
489     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
490 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
491 swift 1.65 </p>
492    
493     <ul>
494     <li>
495     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
496     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
497     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
498     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
499     </li>
500     <li>
501     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
502 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
503 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
504     your brand new CD being burnt.
505     </li>
506     <li>
507     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
508     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
509     by the path to the ISO file :)
510     </li>
511     <li>
512     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
513     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
514     <c>Start</c>.
515     </li>
516 swift 1.66 <li>
517     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
518     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
519     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
520     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
521     </li>
522     <li>
523     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
524     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
525     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
526     </li>
527 swift 1.65 </ul>
528    
529    
530     </body>
531     </section>
532 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
533     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
534     <body>
535    
536     <p>
537     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
538 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
539     need to consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri
540 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
541     </p>
542    
543     <p>
544     For the Pentium-M, you'll find out that it is a Pentium-3 with SSE instructions,
545     meaning it is instruction-compatible with the Pentium-4. So, for Pentium-M
546     systems, you can choose the Pentium-4 CD/stage files.
547     </p>
548    
549     <p>
550     If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
551     generic.
552     </p>
553    
554     </body>
555     </section>
556 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
557    
558     <chapter>
559 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
560 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
561 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
562 swift 1.54 <body>
563    
564 swift 1.45 <p>
565 swift 1.55 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
566 neysx 1.83 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c>
567     files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources.
568     We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri
569     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
570     HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary
571     ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
572     <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached
573     to the end of the file).
574 swift 1.45 </p>
575    
576 swift 1.54 </body>
577     </section>
578 swift 1.61 <section id="configure">
579 cam 1.58 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
580 swift 1.54 <body>
581    
582     <p>
583     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
584     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
585     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
586     </p>
587    
588     <p>
589     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
590     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
591     </p>
592    
593     <p>
594     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
595     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
596     perform to configure and compile the package.
597     </p>
598    
599     <p>
600     When finished, execute <c>touch
601     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
602     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
603     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
604     merge</c>.
605     </p>
606    
607     </body>
608     </section>
609 swift 1.64 <section id="norsync">
610 swift 1.54 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
611     <body>
612    
613     <p>
614     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
615     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
616     through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
617     proxy is fully supported.
618     </p>
619    
620     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
621     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
622     </pre>
623    
624     </body>
625     </section>
626 swift 1.61 <section id="firewall">
627 swift 1.54 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
628     <body>
629    
630     <p>
631     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
632     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
633     appropriately.
634     </p>
635    
636     </body>
637     </section>
638 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
639 swift 1.54 <title>
640     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
641     else and add them to my system?
642     </title>
643     <body>
644    
645     <p>
646     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
647     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
648     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
649     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
650     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
651     picking up the sources you just brought in!
652     </p>
653    
654     </body>
655     </section>
656 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
657 swift 1.54 <title>
658     .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
659     /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
660     files?
661     </title>
662     <body>
663    
664     <p>
665     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
666     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
667     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
668     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
669     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
670     again.
671     </p>
672    
673     </body>
674     </section>
675 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
676 swift 1.54 <title>
677 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
678     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
679 swift 1.54 </title>
680     <body>
681    
682     <p>
683     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
684     <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
685     directory.
686     </p>
687    
688     </body>
689     </section>
690     </chapter>
691    
692     <chapter>
693     <title>Usage</title>
694 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
695 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
696     <body>
697    
698     <p>
699     Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
700     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
701     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
702     </p>
703    
704     </body>
705     </section>
706 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
707 swift 1.54 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
708     <body>
709    
710     <p>
711     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
712     follows:
713     </p>
714    
715     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
716     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
717     </pre>
718    
719     </body>
720     </section>
721 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
722 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
723     <body>
724    
725     <p>
726     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
727     </p>
728    
729     </body>
730     </section>
731 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
732 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
733     <body>
734    
735     <p>
736     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
737     you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
738     add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
739     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
740     <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
741     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
742     </p>
743    
744     <p>
745 swift 1.67 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
746     need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
747 neysx 1.68 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
748 swift 1.67 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
749     <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
750     </p>
751    
752     <p>
753 swift 1.54 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
754     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
755     reboot.
756     </p>
757    
758     </body>
759     </section>
760 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
761 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
762     <body>
763    
764     <p>
765     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
766     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
767     </p>
768    
769     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
770     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
771     </pre>
772    
773     <p>
774     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
775     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
776     </p>
777    
778     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
779     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
780     </body>
781    
782     </section>
783 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
784     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
785     <body>
786    
787     <p>
788     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
789     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
790     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
791     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
792     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
793     </p>
794    
795     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
796     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
797     </pre>
798    
799     </body>
800     </section>
801    
802 swift 1.54 </chapter>
803    
804     <chapter>
805     <title>Maintenance</title>
806 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
807 swift 1.54 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
808     <body>
809    
810     <p>
811     If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
812     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
813     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
814     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
815     to the corruption.
816     </p>
817    
818     </body>
819     </section>
820 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
821     <chapter>
822 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
823 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
824 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
825     <body>
826    
827     <p>
828     For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
829     use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
830     also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
831     link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
832     </p>
833    
834     </body>
835     </section>
836 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
837 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
838     <body>
839    
840     <p>
841     New releases are announced on the <uri
842     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
843 neysx 1.83 mailing list. The packages themselves are usually updated shortly after the
844 swift 1.55 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
845     <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
846 swift 1.54 </p>
847    
848     </body>
849     </section>
850 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
851 swift 1.54 <title>
852     My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
853     beeps?
854     </title>
855     <body>
856    
857     <p>
858     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
859     </p>
860    
861     <pre caption="Using setterm">
862     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
863     </pre>
864    
865     <p>
866     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
867     you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
868     this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
869     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
870     target terminal, like this:
871     </p>
872    
873     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
874     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
875     </pre>
876    
877     <p>
878     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
879     console beeps for.
880     </p>
881    
882     </body>
883     </section>
884 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
885    
886     <chapter>
887     <title>Resources</title>
888 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
889 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
890     <body>
891    
892     <p>
893     The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
894     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
895     <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
896     </p>
897    
898     </body>
899     </section>
900 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
901 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
902     <body>
903    
904 swift 1.54 <p>
905     Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
906 erwin 1.52 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
907     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
908     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
909     </p>
910    
911     <p>
912 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
913     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
914 erwin 1.52 </p>
915    
916     </body>
917     </section>
918 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
919 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
920     <body>
921    
922     <p>
923     A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
924     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
925     the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
926     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
927     mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
928     else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
929     <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
930     </p>
931    
932     </body>
933     </section>
934 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
935 swift 1.54
936 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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