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4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Author">
9<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12</author>
13<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
12<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="sven.vermeulen@siphos.be">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33</author>
34<author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36</author>
13 37
38<abstract>
39This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40mailing list and from IRC.
41</abstract>
42
43<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
45<license/>
46
14<version>1.1.2</version> 47<version>3.6</version>
15<date>06 December 2002</date> 48<date>2006-11-28</date>
16 49
17<chapter> 50<chapter>
51<title>Questions:</title>
52<section>
18 <title>Getting Started</title> 53<title>Getting Started</title>
54<body>
19 55
20 <section> 56<p>
21 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 57Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
22 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body> 58Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61answered here.
62</p>
63
64<ul>
65 <li>
66 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
67 mean?</uri>
68 </li>
69 <li>
70 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
71 </li>
72</ul>
73
74</body>
23 </section> 75</section>
24
25 <section> 76<section>
26 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 77<title>Installation</title>
27 <body> 78<body>
28 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 79
29 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 80<ul>
30 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 81 <li>
31 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 82 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
32 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 83 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
33 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 84 </li>
34 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest 85 <li>
35 versions. 86 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
36 </p> 87 password?</uri>
88 </li>
89 <li>
90 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
97 </li>
98 <li>
99 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
100 another without reinstalling?</uri>
101 </li>
102 <li>
103 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
104 I do now?</uri>
105 </li>
106 <li>
107 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
108 have to do?</uri>
109 </li>
110 <li>
111 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
112 </li>
113 <li>
114 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115 </li>
116 <li>
117 <uri link="#dhcp">I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</uri>
118 </li>
119 <li>
120 <uri link="#dualboot">I want to boot Windows from GRUB or LILO but it shows
121 only black screen. What should I do?</uri>
122 </li>
123 <li>
124 <uri link="#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2
125 Tarball?</uri>
126 </li>
127</ul>
128
37 </body> 129</body>
38 </section> 130</section>
131<section>
132<title>Package Management</title>
133<body>
134
135<ul>
136 <li>
137 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
138 </li>
139 <li>
140 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
141 Can I?</uri>
142 </li>
143 <li>
144 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
145 firewall?</uri>
146 </li>
147 <li>
148 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
149 </li>
150 <li>
151 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
152 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
153 </li>
154 <li>
155 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
156 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
157 </li>
158 <li>
159 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
160 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
161 </li>
162</ul>
163
164</body>
165</section>
166<section>
167<title>Usage</title>
168<body>
169
170<ul>
171 <li>
172 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
173 Layout?</uri>
174 </li>
175 <li>
176 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
177 </li>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
180 </li>
181 <li>
182 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
183 </li>
184 <li>
185 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
186 out?</uri>
187 </li>
188 <li>
189 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
190 su'ing</uri>
191 </li>
192</ul>
193
194</body>
195</section>
196<section>
197<title>Maintenance</title>
198<body>
199
200<ul>
201 <li>
202 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
203 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
204 </li>
205</ul>
206
207</body>
208</section>
209<section>
210<title>Development</title>
211<body>
212
213<ul>
214 <li>
215 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
216 </li>
217 <li>
218 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
219 </li>
220 <li>
221 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
222 beeps?</uri>
223 </li>
224</ul>
225
226</body>
227</section>
228<section>
229<title>Resources</title>
230<body>
231
232<ul>
233 <li>
234 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
235 Linux?</uri>
236 </li>
237 <li>
238 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
239 </li>
240 <li>
241 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
242 do now?</uri>
243 </li>
244</ul>
245
246</body>
247</section>
39</chapter> 248</chapter>
40 249
41<chapter> 250<chapter>
42 <title>Installation</title> 251<title>Getting Started</title>
43
44 <section>
45 252
46 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original) 253<section id="pronunciation">
47 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary. 254<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
48 </warn> 255<body>
49 256
50 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 257<p>
51 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 258A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
52 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install 259"g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
53 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that 260penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
54 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules, 261penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
55 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support, 262</p>
56 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install 263
57 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD, 264</body>
58 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
59 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
60 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
61 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
62 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
63 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
64 </body>
65 </section> 265</section>
266<section id="differences">
267<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
268<body>
66 269
67 <section> 270<p>
68 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title> 271Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
69 <body><p> 272link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
70 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have 273that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
71 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout 274Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
72 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare. 275link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
73 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has 276conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
74 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and 277(through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
75 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't 278link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
76 stabilise anytime soon. 279file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
280link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
77 </p> 281</p>
282
283<p>
284With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
285optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
286installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
287to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
288</p>
289
290<p>
291Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
292development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
293mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
294added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
295</p>
296
78 </body> 297</body>
79 </section> 298</section>
80
81 <section>
82 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
83 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
84 <body>
85 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
86 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
87<pre>
88boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
89</pre>
90<p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
91type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
92</body>
93
94</section>
95 <section>
96 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
97 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
98 <body>
99 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
100 having broken packages.
101 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
102 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
103 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
104 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
105 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
106 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
107 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
108 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
109 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
110 </body>
111 </section>
112
113 <section>
114 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
115 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
116 </section>
117
118 <section>
119 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
120 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
121 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
122 </p></body>
123 </section>
124 <section>
125 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
126 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
127 how can i add another user?</p>
128 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
129 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
130 </body>
131 </section>
132 <section>
133 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
134 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
135 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
136 command as root:</p>
137 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
138 </body>
139 </section>
140 <section>
141 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
142 <body>
143 <p>
144 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
145 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
146 kernel, didn't you?).
147 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
148 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
149 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
150 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
151 </p>
152 </body>
153 </section>
154 <section>
155 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
156 <body>
157 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
158 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
159 </body>
160 </section>
161 <section>
162 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
163 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
164 <body>
165 <p>
166 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
167 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
168 it will be preserved between reboots.
169 </p>
170 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
171 and add these lines:</p>
172<pre>
173REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
174UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
175</pre>
176 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
177 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
178 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
179 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
180 </body>
181 </section>
182 <section>
183 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
184 <body><p>
185 During installation the grub boot files are copied
186 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
187 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
188 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
189 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
190 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
191 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
192 unpacking the build snapshot or running
193 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
194 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
195 You can get more information on grub, including how to
196 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
197 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
198 </p>
199 </body>
200 </section>
201
202 <section>
203 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
204 detection. </title>
205 <body>
206 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
207 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
208 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
209 </body>
210 </section>
211
212</chapter> 299</chapter>
213 300
214<chapter> 301<chapter>
215 <title>Package Management</title> 302<title>Installation</title>
216 <section> 303<section id="optimizations">
217 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 304<title>
218 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 305 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
219 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 306 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
220 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 307</title>
221 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO 308<body>
222 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 309
223 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 310<p>
224 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 311Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
312current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
313compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
314do the same thing anymore.
315</p>
316
317<p>
318Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
319reporting a bug.
320</p>
321
225 </body> 322</body>
226 </section> 323</section>
227 324<section id="password">
228 <section> 325<title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
229 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
230 <body> 326<body>
231 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design 327
232 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to 328<p>
233 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your 329You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
234 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles, 330into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
235 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p> 331<c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
332</p>
333
236 </body> 334</body>
237 </section> 335</section>
336<section id="useradd">
337<title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
338<body>
238 339
239 <section> 340<p>
240 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title> 341The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
241 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full 342this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
242 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of 343him, so the following command is preferred:
243 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a 344</p>
244 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body> 345
346<pre caption="Using useradd">
347# <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
348</pre>
349
350<p>
351This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
352<c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
353<c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
354execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
355privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
356</p>
357
358</body>
245 </section> 359</section>
360<section id="su">
361<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
362<body>
246 363
247 <section> 364<p>
248 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 365For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
249 <body> 366wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
250 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 367as root:
251 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 368</p>
252 </body> 369
370<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
371# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
372</pre>
373
374</body>
253 </section> 375</section>
376<section id="devfs">
377<title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
378<body>
254 379
255 <section> 380<p>
256 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title> 381Gentoo can work with devfs kernel support, udev userland support or static
257 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and 382<path>/dev</path>. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
258 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options 383archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
259 are as follows:</p> 384link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
260 <table> 385udev.
261 <tr> 386</p>
262 <th>Flag</th> 387
263 <th>Description</th> 388<p>
264 </tr> 389If you want to use the static <path>/dev</path>, please set
265 <tr> 390<c>RC_DEVICES="static"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>.
266 <ti>CHOST</ti> 391</p>
267 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti> 392
268 </tr>
269 <tr>
270 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
271 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
272 </tr>
273 <tr>
274 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
275 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
276 files)</ti>
277 </tr>
278 <tr>
279 <ti>USE</ti>
280 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
281 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
282 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
283 also USE-aware.</ti>
284 </tr>
285 <tr>
286 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
287 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
288 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
289 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
290 </tr>
291 </table>
292 </body> 393</body>
293 </section> 394</section>
294 395<section id="upgrade">
295 <section> 396<title>
296 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title> 397 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
398</title>
297 <body> 399<body>
298 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated; 400
299 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it. 401<p>
300 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> 402In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
301 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to, 403been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
302 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>), 404running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
303 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of 405entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
304 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first): 406individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
305 <ol> 407See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
306 <li>Environment variables</li> 408for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
307 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li> 409</p>
308 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li> 410
309 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in 411</body>
310 any other place come from here)</li>
311 </ol></p></body>
312 </section> 412</section>
313 413<section id="bootrescue">
314 <section> 414<title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
315 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages 415<body>
316 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
317 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
318 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
319 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
320 416
417<p>
418You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
419kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422</p>
321 423
322 </p></body> 424<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425<comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
431<comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
432# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
433# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435# <i>make menuconfig</i>
436<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438# <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
439<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
441<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
444# <i>exit</i>
445# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446# <i>reboot</i>
447</pre>
448
449<p>
450If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
451follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
452should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453</p>
454
455</body>
323 </section> 456</section>
457<section id="proxy">
458<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459<body>
324 460
325 <section> 461<p>
326 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid 462To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
327 clobbering my config files?</title> 463<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
328 <body><p> 464</p>
329 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type 465
330 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 466<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
331 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 467HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
332 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 468FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
333 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 469RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
334 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 470</pre>
335 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>. 471
336 </p></body> 472</body>
337 </section> 473</section>
474<section id="isoburning">
475<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
476<body>
338 477
339 <section> 478<p>
340 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 479You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
341 <body><p> 480just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
342 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by 481</p>
343 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to 482
344 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform 483<p>
345 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do 484There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
346 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To 485Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
347 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later, 486</p>
348 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible 487
349 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c> 488<ul>
350 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has 489 <li>
351 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>. 490 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
352 </p></body> 491 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
492 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
493 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
494 </li>
495 <li>
496 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
497 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
498 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
499 your brand new CD being burnt.
500 </li>
501 <li>
502 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
503 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
504 by the path to the ISO file :)
505 </li>
506 <li>
507 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
508 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
509 click <c>Start</c>.
510 </li>
511 <li>
512 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
513 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
514 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
515 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
516 </li>
517 <li>
518 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
519 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
520 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
521 </li>
522</ul>
523
524
525</body>
353 </section> 526</section>
527<section id="cpus">
528<title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
529<body>
354 530
355 <section> 531<p>
356 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title> 532First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
357 <body><p> 533need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
358 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit 534need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
359 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily 535link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
360 /usr/portage snapshots from 536</p>
361 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack 537
362 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in 538<p>
363 the <path>/usr</path> directory. 539If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
364 </p></body> 540generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
541will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
542</p>
543
544<p>
545Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
546binary stages. Please see the <uri
547link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
548guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
549</p>
550
551</body>
365 </section> 552</section>
553<section id="dhcp">
554<title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
555<body>
366 556
367 <section> 557<p>
368 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title> 558First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
369 <body><p> 559kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
370 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work, 560certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
371 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy 561for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
372 appropriately. 562sure that these kernel modules are listed in
373 </p></body> 563<path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
564you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
565</p>
566
567<p>
568If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
569you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
570</p>
571
572<p>
573If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
574configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
575<c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
576install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
577</p>
578
579<p>
580Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
581link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
582</p>
583
584</body>
374 </section> 585</section>
586<section id="dualboot">
587<title>
588I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
589should I do?
590</title>
591<body>
375 592
376 <section> 593<p>
377 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title> 594This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
378 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from 595first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
379 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body> 596to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
597with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
598below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
599on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
600</p>
601
602<pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
603title Windows XP
604 map (hd1) (hd0)
605 map (hd0) (hd1)
606 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
607 chainloader +1
608</pre>
609
610<pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
611other=/dev/hdb1
612 label=WindowsXP
613 table=/dev/hdb
614 map-drive = 0x80
615 to = 0x81
616 map-drive = 0x81
617 to = 0x80
618</pre>
619
620<p>
621This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
622without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
623link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
624documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
625you're using.
626</p>
627
628</body>
380 </section> 629</section>
630<section id="stage12">
631<title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
632<body>
381 633
382 <section> 634<p>
383 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and 635The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
384 add them to my system?</title> 636However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
385 <body><p> 637development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
386 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 638to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
387 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media 639well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
388 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run 640</p>
389 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in! 641
390 </p></body> 642<p>
643Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
644your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
645system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
646<e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
647suit your needs and then run it:
648</p>
649
650<pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
651# <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
652# <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
653
654# <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
655</pre>
656
657<p>
658Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
659to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
660</p>
661
662<pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
663# <i>emerge -e system</i>
664</pre>
665
666<p>
667Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
668prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
669</p>
670
671</body>
391 </section> 672</section>
392
393 <section>
394 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
395 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
396 <body><p>
397 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
398 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
399 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
400 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
401 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
402 again.
403 </p></body>
404 </section>
405
406 <section>
407 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
408 <body>
409 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
410 maintain your local
411 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
412 <pre>
413# <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
414# <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
415# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
416# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
417# <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
418# <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
419# <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
420# <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
421# <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
422# <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
423# <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
424# <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
425 </pre>
426 </body>
427 </section>
428
429 <section>
430 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
431 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
432 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
433
434 <body>
435 <p>Solution: </p>
436 <pre caption = "Solution">
437# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
438# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
439 </pre>
440
441 </body>
442 </section>
443</chapter> 673</chapter>
444 674
445<chapter> 675<chapter>
446 <title>Usage</title> 676<title>Package Management</title>
447 <section> 677<section id="ebuilds">
448 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user 678<title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
449 account doesn't work. </title> 679<body>
450 <body> 680
451 <p> 681<p>
452 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check 682Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
453 for your user entry in 683which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
454 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, 684package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
455 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ; 685releases and snapshots. The <uri
686link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
687HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
456 </p> 688</p>
457 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre> 689
690<p>
691For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
692<c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
693attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
694not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
695</p>
696
697<p>
698It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
699Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
700install packages.
701</p>
702
458 </body> 703</body>
459 </section> 704</section>
460 705<section id="configure">
461 <section> 706<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
462 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title> 707<body>
463 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit 708
464 set). Type the following as root:</p> 709<p>
465 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre> 710Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
711requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
712recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
713place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
714better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
715link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
716HOWTO</uri> for more information.
717</p>
718
466 </body> 719</body>
467 </section> 720</section>
721<section id="firewall">
722<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
723<body>
468 724
469 <section> 725<p>
470 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 726See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
471 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 727link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
472 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 728files manually</uri>.
473 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p> 729</p>
730
474 </body> 731</body>
475 </section> 732</section>
733<section id="norsync">
734<title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
735<body>
476 736
477 <section> 737<p>
478 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 738If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
479 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows: 739<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
740through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
741document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
742a proxy.
480 </p> 743</p>
481 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre> 744
482 </body> 745</body>
483 </section> 746</section>
747<section id="manualdownload">
748<title>
749 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
750 else and add them to my system?
751</title>
752<body>
484 753
485 <section> 754<p>
486 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title> 755Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
487 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde 756are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
488 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 757to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
489 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 758sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
490 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p> 759<path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
760Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
761</p>
762
491 </body> 763</body>
492 </section> 764</section>
765<section id="distfiles">
766<title>
767 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
768 delete these files?
769</title>
770<body>
771
772<p>
773Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
774However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
775several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
776software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
777be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
778<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
779developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
780Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
781at your own risk.
782</p>
783
784</body>
785</section>
786<section id="tmpportage">
787<title>
788 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
789 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
790</title>
791<body>
792
793<p>
794During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
795<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
796a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
797contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
798always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
799</p>
800
801</body>
802</section>
493</chapter> 803</chapter>
494 804
495<chapter> 805<chapter>
496 <title>Maintenance</title> 806<title>Usage</title>
497 <section> 807<section id="intkeyboard">
498 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 808<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
499 <body> 809<body>
810
500 <p> 811<p>
501 If your 812Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
502 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 813console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
503 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 814also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
504 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 815in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
505 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due 816localising your environment, refer to <uri
506 to the corruption. 817link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
818Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
507 </p> 819</p>
820
821<pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
822# <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
823# <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
824</pre>
825
508 </body> 826</body>
509 </section> 827</section>
510<!-- is this still relevant? -cpm --> 828<section id="rootdns">
511 <section> 829<title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
512 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
513 system?</title>
514 <body>
515 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
516 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
517
518<pre>
519# <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i>
520</pre>
521
522<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
523
524<pre>
525# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
526</pre>
527
528</body> 830<body>
831
832<p>
833<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
834follows:
835</p>
836
837<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
838# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
839</pre>
840
841</body>
529 </section> 842</section>
843<section id="crontab">
844<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
845<body>
846
847<p>
848You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
849</p>
850
851</body>
852</section>
853<section id="numlock">
854<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
855<body>
856
857<p>
858If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
859numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
860</p>
861
862<p>
863Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
864section or online manuals for assistance.
865</p>
866
867</body>
868</section>
869<section id="clear">
870<title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
871<body>
872
873<p>
874To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
875<path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
876</p>
877
878<pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
879$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
880</pre>
881
882<p>
883If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
884user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
885</p>
886
887<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
888# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
889</body>
890
891</section>
892<section id="suinx">
893<title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
894<body>
895
896<p>
897This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
898don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
899link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
900the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
901<path>/etc/profile</path>.
902</p>
903
904<pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
905export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
906</pre>
907
908</body>
909</section>
530</chapter> 910</chapter>
531 911
532<chapter> 912<chapter>
913<title>Maintenance</title>
914<section id="filecorruption">
915<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
916<body>
917
918<p>
919If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
920run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
921make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
922directories due to the corruption.
923</p>
924
925</body>
926</section>
927</chapter>
928
929<chapter>
533 <title>Development</title> 930<title>Development</title>
534 <section> 931<section id="reportbugs">
535 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 932<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
536 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 933<body>
537 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 934
538 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network. 935<p>
539 </p></body> 936Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
937your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
938link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
939</p>
940
941</body>
540 </section> 942</section>
541 943<section id="releases">
542 <section>
543 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 944<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
544 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri> 945<body>
545 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 946
546 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 947<p>
547 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 948Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
548 new modules get added.</p></body> 949new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
950our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
951releases are announced on the <uri
952link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
953on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
954</p>
955
956</body>
549 </section> 957</section>
958<section id="beeping">
959<title>
960 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
961</title>
962<body>
550 963
551 <section> 964<p>
552 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title> 965Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
553 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type 966</p>
554 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body> 967
968<pre caption="Using setterm">
969# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
970</pre>
971
972<p>
973If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
974command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
975beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
976command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
977
978<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
979# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
980</pre>
981
982<p>
983You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
984console beeps for.
985</p>
986
987</body>
555 </section> 988</section>
556
557 <section>
558 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
559 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
560 "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
561 </section>
562
563 <section>
564 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
565 <body><p>
566 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
567 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
568 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
569 </p></body>
570 </section>
571
572
573 <section>
574 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
575 </title>
576 <body>
577 <p>
578 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
579
580 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
581
582 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
583 you need to put this command in
584 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
585 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
586 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
587 target terminal, like this ;
588
589 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
590
591 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
592 you would like to disable console beeps for.
593 </p>
594 </body>
595 </section>
596</chapter> 989</chapter>
597 990
598<chapter> 991<chapter>
599<title>Resources</title> 992<title>Resources</title>
600 <section> 993<section id="resources">
601 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
602 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
603 </section>
604
605 <section>
606 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 994<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
607 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body> 995<body>
996
997<p>
998The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
999<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
1000</p>
1001
1002</body>
608 </section> 1003</section>
609 1004<section id="buycd">
610 <section>
611 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 1005<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
612 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from 1006<body>
613 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>. 1007
1008<p>
1009Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
1010link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1011purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
1012please consider buying from our store if possible.
614 </p> 1013</p>
615 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42"> 1014
616 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits 1015<p>
617 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p> 1016You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
1017link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
1018</p>
1019
618 </body> 1020</body>
619 </section> 1021</section>
620 1022<section id="help">
621 <section>
622 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
623 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
624 <body>
625 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
626 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
627 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
628 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
629 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
630
631 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
632 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
633 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
634 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
635 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
636 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
637
638 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
639 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
640 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
641 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
642 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
643 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
644 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
645 reasons, many of these covered
646 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
647
648 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
649 administrators have seen them.) </p>
650 </body>
651 </section>
652
653 <section>
654 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 1023<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
655 <body> 1024<body>
656 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>, 1025
657 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 1026<p>
658 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 1027A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
659 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 1028link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
660 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 1029Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
1030To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
1031to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
1032Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
661 </p> 1033</p>
1034
662 </body> 1035</body>
663 </section> 1036</section>
664</chapter> 1037</chapter>
1038
665</guide> 1039</guide>

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