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6<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide>
7<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Author">
9<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
13<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
16<author title="Editor">
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
12<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
34<author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
37<author title="Editor">
38 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13 40
42This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
43mailing list and from IRC.
46<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
47<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
14<version>1.1.2</version> 50<version>12</version>
15<date>06 December 2002</date> 51<date>2013-07-22</date>
60Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
61Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
62read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
63Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
64answered here.
16 70
17<chapter> 71<chapter>
18 <title>Getting Started</title> 72<title>Getting Started</title>
19 73
20 <section> 74<section id="pronunciation">
21 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 75<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
22 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body> 76<body>
79<e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
80"gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
81link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
82<e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
83by the inhabitants of the <uri
84link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
23 </section> 88</section>
24 89<section id="differences">
25 <section>
26 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 90<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
27 <body> 91<body>
28 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 92
29 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 93<p>
30 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 94Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
31 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 95link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
32 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 96that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
33 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 97Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
34 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest 98link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
35 versions. 99conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
36 </p> 100(through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
102file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
107With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
108optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
109installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
110to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
114Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
115development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
116mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
117added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
37 </body> 120</body>
38 </section> 121</section>
39</chapter> 122</chapter>
40 123
41<chapter> 124<chapter>
42 <title>Installation</title> 125<title>Installation</title>
43 126<section id="optimizations">
44 <section> 127<title>
128 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
129 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
45 132
46 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original) 133<p>
47 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary. 134Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
48 </warn> 135current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
49 136compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
50 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 137do the same thing anymore.
51 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 138</p>
52 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install 139
53 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that 140<p>
54 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules, 141Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
55 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support, 142reporting a bug.
56 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install 143</p>
57 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD, 144
58 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by 145</body>
59 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
60 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
61 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
62 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
63 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
64 </body>
65 </section> 146</section>
147<section id="password">
148<title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
66 150
67 <section> 151<p>
68 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title> 152You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
69 <body><p> 153into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
70 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have 154<c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
71 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
72 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
73 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
74 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
75 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
76 stabilise anytime soon.
77 </p> 155</p>
78 </body> 157</body>
79 </section> 158</section>
80 159<section id="useradd">
81 <section>
82 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
83 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
84 <body>
85 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
86 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
88boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
90<p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
91type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
95 <section>
96 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
97 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
98 <body>
99 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
100 having broken packages.
101 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
102 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
103 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
104 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
105 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
106 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
107 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
108 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
109 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
110 </body>
111 </section>
113 <section>
114 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
115 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
116 </section>
118 <section>
119 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
120 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
121 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
122 </p></body>
123 </section>
124 <section>
125 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 160<title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
126 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use, 161<body>
127 how can i add another user?</p> 162
128 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give 163<p>
129 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p> 164The command <c>useradd username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
165this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
166him, so the following command is preferred:
169<pre caption="Using useradd">
170# <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
174This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
175<c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
176<c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
177execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
178privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
130 </body> 181</body>
131 </section> 182</section>
132 <section> 183<section id="su">
133 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 184<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
134 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 188For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
135 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following 189wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
136 command as root:</p> 190as root:
137 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre> 191</p>
193<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
194# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
138 </body> 197</body>
139 </section> 198</section>
140 <section> 199<section id="upgrade">
141 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title> 200<title>
201 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
142 <body> 203<body>
143 <p> 205<p>
144 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get 206In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
145 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the 207been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> (or higher) based.
146 kernel, didn't you?). 208As such, running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
147 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add 209entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
148 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something 210individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
149 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the 211See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
150 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time. 212for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
151 </p> 213</p>
216Also note that the <c>emerge -uDN world</c> command updates the packages you
217have installed as well as its dependencies, but not the build-time dependencies
218(packages needed during builds but not when the software is installed). To
219update those as well, add the <c>--with-bdeps=y</c> option.
152 </body> 222</body>
153 </section> 223</section>
154 <section> 224<section id="bootrescue">
155 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title> 225<title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
156 <body> 226<body>
157 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the 227
158 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p> 228<p>
229You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
230kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
231on <path>/dev/sda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/sda3</path> (/) with
232<path>/dev/sda2</path> being the swap space:
235<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
236<comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
237<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
238# <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
239# <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
240# <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
241# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
242<comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
243# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
244# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
245# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
246# <i>make menuconfig</i>
247<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
248<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
249# <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
250<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
251# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
252<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
253# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
254<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
255# <i>exit</i>
256# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
257# <i>reboot</i>
261If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
262follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
263should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
159 </body> 266</body>
160 </section> 267</section>
161 <section> 268<section id="proxy">
162 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that 269<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
163 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
164 <body> 270<body>
165 <p> 272<p>
166 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c> 273To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
167 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and 274<path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>:
168 it will be preserved between reboots.
169 </p> 275</p>
170 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> 276
171 and add these lines:</p> 277<pre caption = "/etc/portage/make.conf">
172<pre> 281</pre>
173REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse 282
174UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
176 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
177 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
178 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
179 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
180 </body> 283</body>
181 </section> 284</section>
182 <section> 285<section id="isoburning">
183 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title> 286<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
184 <body><p> 287<body>
185 During installation the grub boot files are copied 288
186 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and 289<p>
187 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot 290You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
188 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at 291just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
189 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
190 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
191 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
192 unpacking the build snapshot or running
193 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
194 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
195 You can get more information on grub, including how to
196 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
197 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
198 </p> 292</p>
199 </body> 293
295There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
296Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
300 <li>
301 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
302 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
303 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
304 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
305 </li>
306 <li>
307 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
308 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
309 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
310 your brand new CD being burnt.
311 </li>
312 <li>
313 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/sdc</c> (replace
314 <path>/dev/sdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
315 by the path to the ISO file :)
316 </li>
317 <li>
318 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
319 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
320 click <c>Start</c>.
321 </li>
322 <li>
323 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
324 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
325 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
326 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
327 </li>
328 <li>
329 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
330 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
331 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
332 </li>
200 </section> 337</section>
201 338<section id="cpus">
202 <section> 339<title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
203 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
204 detection. </title>
205 <body> 340<body>
206 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this 341
207 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System 342<p>
208 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p> 343First you need to find out what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
344need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
345need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
346link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
350If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
351generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
352will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
356Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
357binary stages. Please see the <uri
359guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
209 </body> 362</body>
210 </section> 363</section>
211 364<section id="dhcp">
365<title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
369First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
370kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
371certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
372for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
373sure that these kernel modules are listed in
378If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
379you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
383If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
384configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
385<c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
386install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
390Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
391link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
396<section id="dualboot">
398I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
399should I do?
404This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
405first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
406to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
407with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
408below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>sda</path> (first disk) and Windows
409on <path>sdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
412<pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
413title Windows XP
414 map (hd1) (hd0)
415 map (hd0) (hd1)
416 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
417 chainloader +1
420<pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
422 label=WindowsXP
423 table=/dev/sdb
424 map-drive = 0x80
425 to = 0x81
426 map-drive = 0x81
427 to = 0x80
431This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
432without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
433link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/">GRUB documentation</uri> and in <c>man
434lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader you're using.
439<section id="stage12">
440<title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
444The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
445However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
446development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
447to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
448well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
452Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
453your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
454system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
455<e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
456suit your needs and then run it:
459<pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
460# <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
461# <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
463# <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
467Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
468to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
471<pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
472# <i>emerge -e system</i>
476Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
477prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
212</chapter> 482</chapter>
213 483
214<chapter> 484<chapter>
215 <title>Package Management</title> 485<title>Package Management</title>
216 <section> 486<section id="ebuilds">
217 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 487<title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
218 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 488<body>
219 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 489
220 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 490<p>
221 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO 491Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
222 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 492which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
223 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 493package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
224 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 494releases and snapshots. The <uri
495link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
496HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
500For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
501<c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
502attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
503not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
507It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
508Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
509install packages.
225 </body> 512</body>
226 </section> 513</section>
227 514<section id="configure">
228 <section> 515<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
229 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
230 <body> 516<body>
231 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design 517
232 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to 518<p>
233 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your 519Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
234 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles, 520requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
235 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p> 521recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
522place it in a Portage overlay (that's why overlays exist). This is <e>much</e>
523better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
525HOWTO</uri> for more information.
236 </body> 528</body>
237 </section> 529</section>
530<section id="firewall">
531<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
238 533
239 <section> 534<p>
240 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title> 535See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
241 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full 536link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
242 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of 537files manually</uri>.
243 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a 538</p>
244 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body> 539
245 </section> 541</section>
246 542<section id="norsync">
247 <section>
248 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
249 <body>
250 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
251 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
252 </body>
253 </section>
255 <section>
256 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
257 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
258 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
259 are as follows:</p>
260 <table>
261 <tr>
262 <th>Flag</th>
263 <th>Description</th>
264 </tr>
265 <tr>
266 <ti>CHOST</ti>
267 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
268 </tr>
269 <tr>
270 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
271 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
272 </tr>
273 <tr>
274 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
275 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
276 files)</ti>
277 </tr>
278 <tr>
279 <ti>USE</ti>
280 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
281 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
282 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
283 also USE-aware.</ti>
284 </tr>
285 <tr>
286 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
287 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
288 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
289 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
290 </tr>
291 </table>
292 </body>
293 </section>
295 <section>
296 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
297 <body>
298 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
299 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
300 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
301 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
302 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
303 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
304 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
305 <ol>
306 <li>Environment variables</li>
307 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
308 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
309 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
310 any other place come from here)</li>
311 </ol></p></body>
312 </section>
314 <section>
315 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
316 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
317 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
318 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
319 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
322 </p></body>
323 </section>
325 <section>
326 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
327 clobbering my config files?</title>
328 <body><p>
329 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
330 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
331 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
332 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
333 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
334 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
335 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>.
336 </p></body>
337 </section>
339 <section>
340 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
341 <body><p>
342 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
343 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
344 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
345 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
346 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
347 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
348 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
349 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
350 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
351 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
352 </p></body>
353 </section>
355 <section>
356 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title> 543<title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
357 <body><p> 544<body>
358 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit 545
359 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily 546<p>
360 /usr/portage snapshots from 547If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
361 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack 548<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
362 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in 549through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
363 the <path>/usr</path> directory. 550document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
364 </p></body> 551a proxy.
365 </section> 555</section>
366 556<section id="manualdownload">
367 <section> 557<title>
368 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
369 <body><p>
370 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
371 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
372 appropriately.
373 </p></body>
374 </section>
376 <section>
377 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
378 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
379 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
380 </section>
382 <section>
383 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and 558 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
384 add them to my system?</title> 559 else and add them to my system?
385 <body><p> 560</title>
386 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 564Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
387 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media 565are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
388 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run 566to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
389 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in! 567sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
390 </p></body> 568<path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
569Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
391 </section> 573</section>
574<section id="distfiles">
576 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
577 delete these files?
392 580
393 <section> 581<p>
394 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using 582Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
395 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title> 583However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
396 <body><p> 584several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
397 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow 585software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
398 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if 586be necessary to download them from the internet again.
399 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of 587</p>
400 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you 588
401 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet 589<p>
402 again. 590You can use the <c>eclean</c> script from <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> to
403 </p></body> 591manage the contents of <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and a few other
592locations. Please read <c>man eclean</c> to learn more about its usage, as well
593as the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">Gentoolkit Guide</uri>.
404 </section> 597</section>
405 598<section id="tmpportage">
406 <section> 599<title>
407 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title> 600 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
601 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
408 <body> 603<body>
409 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and 604
410 maintain your local 605<p>
411 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p> 606During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
412 <pre> 607<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
413# <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment> 608a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
414# <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i> 609contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
415# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment> 610always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
416# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i> 611</p>
417# <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i> 612
418# <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
419# <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
420# <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
421# <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
422# <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
423# <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
424# <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
425 </pre>
426 </body> 613</body>
427 </section> 614</section>
429 <section>
430 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
431 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
432 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
434 <body>
435 <p>Solution: </p>
436 <pre caption = "Solution">
437# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
438# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
439 </pre>
441 </body>
442 </section>
443</chapter> 615</chapter>
444 616
445<chapter> 617<chapter>
446 <title>Usage</title> 618<title>Usage</title>
447 <section> 619<section id="intkeyboard">
448 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
449 account doesn't work. </title>
450 <body>
451 <p>
452 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
453 for your user entry in
454 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
455 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
456 </p>
457 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
458 </body>
459 </section>
461 <section>
462 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
463 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
464 set). Type the following as root:</p>
465 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
466 </body>
467 </section>
469 <section>
470 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 620<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
471 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 624Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
625console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
626also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
627in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
628localising your environment, refer to <uri
629link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">our localisation guide</uri>).
472 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 630Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
633<pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
473 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p> 634# <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
635# <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
474 </body> 638</body>
475 </section> 639</section>
476 640<section id="rootdns">
477 <section>
478 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 641<title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
479 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows: 645<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
480 </p> 647</p>
649<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
481 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre> 650# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
482 </body> 653</body>
483 </section> 654</section>
655<section id="crontab">
656<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
484 658
485 <section> 659<p>
486 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title> 660You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
487 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde 661</p>
488 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 662
489 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
490 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
491 </body> 663</body>
492 </section> 664</section>
665<section id="numlock">
666<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
670If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
671numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
675Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
676section or online manuals for assistance.
681<section id="clear">
682<title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
686To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
687<path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
690<pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
691$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
695If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
696user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
699<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
700# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
493</chapter> 704</chapter>
494 705
495<chapter> 706<chapter>
496 <title>Maintenance</title> 707<title>Maintenance</title>
497 <section> 708<section id="filecorruption">
498 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 709<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
499 <body> 710<body>
500 <p> 712<p>
501 If your
502 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 713If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
503 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 714run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
504 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 715make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
505 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due 716directories due to the corruption.
506 to the corruption.
507 </p> 717</p>
508 </body> 719</body>
509 </section> 720</section>
510<!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
511 <section>
512 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
513 system?</title>
514 <body>
515 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
516 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
519# <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i>
522<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
525# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
529 </section>
530</chapter> 721</chapter>
531 722
532<chapter> 723<chapter>
533 <title>Development</title> 724<title>Development</title>
534 <section> 725<section id="reportbugs">
535 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 726<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
536 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 727<body>
537 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 728
538 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network. 729<p>
539 </p></body> 730Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
731your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <uri
732link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri> on IRC.
540 </section> 736</section>
541 737<section id="releases">
542 <section>
543 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 738<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
544 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri> 739<body>
545 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 740
546 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 741<p>
547 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 742Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
548 new modules get added.</p></body> 743new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
744our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
745releases are announced on the <uri
746link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
747on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
549 </section> 751</section>
752<section id="beeping">
754 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
550 757
551 <section> 758<p>
552 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title> 759Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
553 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type 760</p>
554 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body> 761
762<pre caption="Using setterm">
763# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
767If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
768command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
769beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
770command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
772<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
773# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
777You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
778console beeps for.
555 </section> 782</section>
557 <section>
558 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
559 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
560 "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
561 </section>
563 <section>
564 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
565 <body><p>
566 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
567 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
568 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
569 </p></body>
570 </section>
573 <section>
574 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
575 </title>
576 <body>
577 <p>
578 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
580 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
582 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
583 you need to put this command in
584 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
585 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
586 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
587 target terminal, like this ;
589 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
591 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
592 you would like to disable console beeps for.
593 </p>
594 </body>
595 </section>
596</chapter> 783</chapter>
597 784
598<chapter> 785<chapter>
599<title>Resources</title> 786<title>Resources</title>
600 <section> 787<section id="resources">
601 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
602 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
603 </section>
605 <section>
606 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 788<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
607 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body> 789<body>
792The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
608 </section> 797</section>
609 798<section id="buycd">
610 <section>
611 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 799<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
612 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from 800<body>
613 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>. 801
803If you are not able to download and burn an installation CD yourself, you might
804find one through one of our licensed stores. However, most stores have
805dropped offering CDs and DVDs as these installation media quickly become
614 </p> 807</p>
615 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42"> 808
616 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits 809<p>
617 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p> 810You can find the licensed stores on our <uri link="/main/en/where.xml">Get
811Gentoo!</uri> page.
618 </body> 814</body>
619 </section> 815</section>
620 816<section id="help">
621 <section>
622 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
623 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
624 <body>
625 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
626 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
627 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
628 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
629 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
631 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
632 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
633 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
634 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
635 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
636 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
638 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
639 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
640 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
641 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
642 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
643 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
644 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
645 reasons, many of these covered
646 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
648 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
649 administrators have seen them.) </p>
650 </body>
651 </section>
653 <section>
654 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 817<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
655 <body> 818<body>
656 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>, 819
657 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 820<p>
658 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 821A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
659 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 822link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
660 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 823Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
824To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "site:lists.gentoo.org
825foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
826Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <uri
661 </p> 828</p>
662 </body> 830</body>
663 </section> 831</section>
664</chapter> 832</chapter>
665</guide> 833</guide>

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