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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 3
6<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 4<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 5<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 6<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 7<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 8<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 9<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12<author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
12<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 13<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
13 14
14<version>1.1.2</version> 15<version>1.1.4</version>
15<date>06 December 2002</date> 16<date>2 May 2003</date>
16 17
17<chapter> 18<chapter>
18 <title>Getting Started</title> 19 <title>Getting Started</title>
19 20
20 <section> 21 <section>
125 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 126 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
126 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use, 127 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
127 how can i add another user?</p> 128 how can i add another user?</p>
128 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give 129 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
129 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p> 130 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
131 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
132 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
133 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
134 </p>
130 </body> 135 </body>
131 </section> 136 </section>
132 <section> 137 <section>
133 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 138 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
134 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 139 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
207 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System 212 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
208 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p> 213 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
209 </body> 214 </body>
210 </section> 215 </section>
211 216
217 <section>
218 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
219 <body>
220 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
221 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
222 </body>
223 </section>
212</chapter> 224</chapter>
213 225
214<chapter> 226<chapter>
215 <title>Package Management</title> 227 <title>Package Management</title>
216 <section> 228 <section>
217 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 229 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
218 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 230 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
219 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 231 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
220 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 232 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
221 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO 233 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
222 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 234 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
223 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 235 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
224 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 236 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
225 </body> 237 </body>
226 </section> 238 </section>
245 </section> 257 </section>
246 258
247 <section> 259 <section>
248 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 260 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
249 <body> 261 <body>
250 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 262 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
251 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 263 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
252 </body> 264 </body>
253 </section> 265 </section>
254 266
255 <section> 267 <section>
330 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 342 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
331 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 343 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
332 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 344 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
333 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 345 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
334 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 346 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
335 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>. 347 which is now part of Portage.
336 </p></body> 348 </p></body>
337 </section> 349 </section>
338 350
339 <section> 351 <section>
340 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 352 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
356 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title> 368 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
357 <body><p> 369 <body><p>
358 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit 370 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
359 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily 371 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
360 /usr/portage snapshots from 372 /usr/portage snapshots from
361 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack 373 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack
362 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in 374 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
363 the <path>/usr</path> directory. 375 the <path>/usr</path> directory.
364 </p></body> 376 </p></body>
365 </section> 377 </section>
366 378
382 <section> 394 <section>
383 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and 395 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
384 add them to my system?</title> 396 add them to my system?</title>
385 <body><p> 397 <body><p>
386 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 398 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
399 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
400 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
387 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media 401 Download sources and bring them on any media
388 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run 402 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
389 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in! 403 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
390 </p></body> 404 </p></body>
391 </section> 405 </section>
392 406
402 again. 416 again.
403 </p></body> 417 </p></body>
404 </section> 418 </section>
405 419
406 <section> 420 <section>
407 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
408 <body>
409 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
410 maintain your local
411 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
412 <pre>
413# <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
414# <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
415# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
416# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
417# <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
418# <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
419# <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
420# <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
421# <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
422# <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
423# <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
424# <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
425 </pre>
426 </body>
427 </section>
428
429 <section>
430 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards 421 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
431 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre. 422 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
432 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title> 423 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
433 424
434 <body> 425 <body>
436 <pre caption = "Solution"> 427 <pre caption = "Solution">
437# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c> 428# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
438# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c> 429# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
439 </pre> 430 </pre>
440 431
432 </body>
433 </section>
434 <section>
435 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
436 <body>
437 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
441 </body> 438 </body>
442 </section> 439 </section>
443</chapter> 440</chapter>
444 441
445<chapter> 442<chapter>
488 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 485 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
489 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 486 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
490 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p> 487 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
491 </body> 488 </body>
492 </section> 489 </section>
490
491 <section>
492 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
493 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
494 </p>
495 </body>
496 </section>
493</chapter> 497</chapter>
494 498
495<chapter> 499<chapter>
496 <title>Maintenance</title> 500 <title>Maintenance</title>
497 <section> 501 <section>
514 <body> 518 <body>
515 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the 519 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
516 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p> 520 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
517 521
518<pre> 522<pre>
519# <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i> 523# <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
520</pre> 524</pre>
521 525
522<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p> 526<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
523 527
524<pre> 528<pre>
533 <title>Development</title> 537 <title>Development</title>
534 <section> 538 <section>
535 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 539 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
536 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 540 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
537 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 541 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
538 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network. 542 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
539 </p></body> 543 </p></body>
540 </section> 544 </section>
541 545
542 <section> 546 <section>
543 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 547 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
544 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri> 548 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
545 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 549 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
546 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 550 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
547 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 551 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
548 new modules get added.</p></body> 552 new modules get added.</p></body>
549 </section> 553 </section>
651 </section> 655 </section>
652 656
653 <section> 657 <section>
654 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 658 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
655 <body> 659 <body>
656 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>, 660 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
657 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 661 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
658 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 662 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
663 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
659 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 664 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
660 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 665 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
661 </p> 666 </p>
662 </body> 667 </body>
663 </section> 668 </section>

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