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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 3
6<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 4<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 5<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 6<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 7<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 8<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 9<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12<author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
13<author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
12<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 14<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
13 15
14<version>1.1.2</version> 16<version>1.1.4</version>
15<date>06 December 2002</date> 17<date>23 June 2003</date>
16 18
17<chapter> 19<chapter>
18 <title>Getting Started</title> 20 <title>Getting Started</title>
19 21
20 <section> 22 <section>
94</section> 96</section>
95 <section> 97 <section>
96 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math 98 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
97 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title> 99 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
98 <body> 100 <body>
99 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of 101 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
100 having broken packages.
101 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code 102 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
102 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC) 103 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
103 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops 104 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
104 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about 105 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
105 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use 106 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
106 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%, 107 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
107 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package 108 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
108 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p> 109 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
109 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p> 110 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
125 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 126 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
126 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use, 127 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
127 how can i add another user?</p> 128 how can i add another user?</p>
128 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give 129 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
129 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p> 130 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
131 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
132 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
133 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
134 </p>
130 </body> 135 </body>
131 </section> 136 </section>
132 <section> 137 <section>
133 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 138 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
134 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 139 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
207 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System 212 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
208 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p> 213 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
209 </body> 214 </body>
210 </section> 215 </section>
211 216
217 <section>
218 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
219 <body>
220 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
221 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
222 </body>
223 </section>
212</chapter> 224</chapter>
213 225
214<chapter> 226<chapter>
215 <title>Package Management</title> 227 <title>Package Management</title>
216 <section> 228 <section>
217 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 229 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
218 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 230 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
219 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 231 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
220 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 232 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
221 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO 233 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
222 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 234 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
223 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 235 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
224 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 236 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
225 </body> 237 </body>
226 </section> 238 </section>
245 </section> 257 </section>
246 258
247 <section> 259 <section>
248 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 260 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
249 <body> 261 <body>
250 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 262 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
251 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 263 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
252 </body> 264 </body>
253 </section> 265 </section>
254 266
255 <section> 267 <section>
330 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 342 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
331 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 343 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
332 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 344 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
333 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 345 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
334 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 346 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
335 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>. 347 which is now part of Portage.
336 </p></body> 348 </p></body>
337 </section> 349 </section>
338 350
339 <section> 351 <section>
340 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 352 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
354 366
355 <section> 367 <section>
356 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title> 368 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
357 <body><p> 369 <body><p>
358 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit 370 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
359 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily 371 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
360 /usr/portage snapshots from 372 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
361 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack 373 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
362 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in 374 supported.
363 the <path>/usr</path> directory. 375 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
376~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
377 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
378 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
379 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
380 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
381 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
382 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
383 lose all your sourcecode.
384 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
385<codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
386~# <c>cd /usr</c>
387~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
388~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
389~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
390~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
364 </p></body> 391 </p></body>
365 </section> 392 </section>
366 393
367 <section> 394 <section>
368 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title> 395 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
382 <section> 409 <section>
383 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and 410 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
384 add them to my system?</title> 411 add them to my system?</title>
385 <body><p> 412 <body><p>
386 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 413 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
414 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
415 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
387 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media 416 Download sources and bring them on any media
388 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run 417 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
389 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in! 418 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
390 </p></body> 419 </p></body>
391 </section> 420 </section>
392 421
402 again. 431 again.
403 </p></body> 432 </p></body>
404 </section> 433 </section>
405 434
406 <section> 435 <section>
407 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
408 <body>
409 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
410 maintain your local
411 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
412 <pre>
413# <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
414# <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
415# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
416# <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
417# <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
418# <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
419# <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
420# <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
421# <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
422# <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
423# <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
424# <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
425 </pre>
426 </body>
427 </section>
428
429 <section>
430 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards 436 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
431 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre. 437 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
432 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title> 438 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
433 439
434 <body> 440 <body>
436 <pre caption = "Solution"> 442 <pre caption = "Solution">
437# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c> 443# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
438# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c> 444# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
439 </pre> 445 </pre>
440 446
447 </body>
448 </section>
449 <section>
450 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
451 <body>
452 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
441 </body> 453 </body>
442 </section> 454 </section>
443</chapter> 455</chapter>
444 456
445<chapter> 457<chapter>
488 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 500 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
489 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 501 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
490 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p> 502 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
491 </body> 503 </body>
492 </section> 504 </section>
505
506 <section>
507 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
508 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
509 </p>
510 </body>
511 </section>
512
513 <section>
514 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
515 <body>
516 <p>
517 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
518 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
519 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
520 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
521 <path>/etc/X11/xdm/Xsetup_0</path> (for any graphical login manager).
522 </p>
523 <p>
524 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
525 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
526 reboot.
527 </p>
528 </body>
529 </section>
530
493</chapter> 531</chapter>
494 532
495<chapter> 533<chapter>
496 <title>Maintenance</title> 534 <title>Maintenance</title>
497 <section> 535 <section>
514 <body> 552 <body>
515 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the 553 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
516 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p> 554 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
517 555
518<pre> 556<pre>
519# <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i> 557# <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
520</pre> 558</pre>
521 559
522<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p> 560<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
523 561
524<pre> 562<pre>
533 <title>Development</title> 571 <title>Development</title>
534 <section> 572 <section>
535 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 573 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
536 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 574 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
537 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 575 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
538 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network. 576 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
539 </p></body> 577 </p></body>
540 </section> 578 </section>
541 579
542 <section> 580 <section>
543 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 581 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
544 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri> 582 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
545 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 583 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
546 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 584 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
547 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 585 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
548 new modules get added.</p></body> 586 new modules get added.</p></body>
549 </section> 587 </section>
555 </section> 593 </section>
556 594
557 <section> 595 <section>
558 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title> 596 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
559 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 597 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
560 "Docs-user" product.</p></body> 598 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
561 </section> 599 </section>
562 600
563 <section> 601 <section>
564 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title> 602 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
565 <body><p> 603 <body><p>
651 </section> 689 </section>
652 690
653 <section> 691 <section>
654 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 692 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
655 <body> 693 <body>
656 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>, 694 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
657 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 695 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
658 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 696 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
697 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
659 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 698 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
660 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 699 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
661 </p> 700 </p>
662 </body> 701 </body>
663 </section> 702 </section>

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